The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of the market structures and methods of measuring the concentration which are the most important issues of economics in recent period. Knowing the market structure and setting the level of competition is important for the policy to be followed for decision makers. In determining market structures, there are many concentration criteria such as concentration ratios, HHI, Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, Rosenbluth index, entropy index, Linda index, Horwath index, Lerner index. The most widely used are the Company Concentration Rate (CRn) and the Herfindahl - Hirschman Index (HII). While presenting concentration criteria theoretically, it has benefited from various sources related to the subject. Concentration rate is the most common and widely used method because of its simplicity and ease of calculation. Concentration is the control of several indicators (production, sales, etc.) in a sector by few companies. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index takes into account all firms in the sector and shows sensitivity to firm size. With concentration measurement techniques, it can be determined which of the competitive markets are in the scope of perfect competition. So, the results that are obtained can be a guide as the aspect of using the source efficiently and create the competition.
Evaluating the impact of training is important to ensure its effectiveness in the adoption of technologies and the income of smallholder farmers. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of dairy husbandry training on milk income. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two districts of the West Shewa zone of Ethiopia. A total of 180 smallholder dairy households were selected as participants, based on stratified purposive and random sampling methods. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis. Our findings show that milk incomes were higher for trained households than non-trained ones. The milk yield and the processed milk volume at the household level were significantly higher for trained dairy households. Based on the regression analysis, factors such as experience in dairying, training received, the area of land allocated to forage production, the number of lactating dairy cows owned, family size, and location all showed a positive and significant impact on milk income. In general, this study confirms that training is a key factor that brings change in the attitude of dairy farmers toward efficient utilization of inputs and services for improving dairy productivity and income. Therefore, in order to bring change in technology adoption, huge attention should be given in improving dairy farmers’ perception and level of understanding through training.
The present study was conducted in mid altitude areas comprising of villages viz-Chek-Sadipora, Sadipora and Narvav of district Shopian of Jammu and Kashmir with sample size of 60 apple growers. The district Shopian was purposively selected, because of the potentiality for the development of horticulture, mainly because 90 per cent area of the district was under apple plantation. Most of the apple growers use traditional methods for their apple cultivation, so different skills and competencies, where apple growers need special trainings were studied and it has also been observed that the skills and competencies of the fruit growers regarding expert guidance planning, layout planning, weed management, pest and disease management, intercultural operations, soil testing etc. were low and as such fruit growers need trainings mostly in soil and water testing, pest and disease management, physiological disorder management among others.
The study was carried out in schools teaching organic farming technologies in Zimbabwe. The research sought to find out effective implementation strategies of farming innovations through schools community integration. The selected schools consisted of 5 primary schools and 3 secondary schools. Structured questionnaires were administered to 55 primary school pupils and teachers, 34 secondary school pupils and teachers and 40 small holder farmers within the school environs. People who participated in the study had been trained in organic soil amendment techniques. It was found out that schools and surrounding farmers were trying out new organic soil amendment techniques, with the primary school sector practicing more of the new technologies than the secondary schools and the communal farming sector. It was also found out that schools had similar constraints that inhibited the uptake of organic farming technologies. The study recommended that introduction of innovations into the farming communities should be done through young people of primary school going age.
The study examines consumer brand preference and acceptance of spice powder in Sadar upazila of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh based on the primary data of 120 respondents. Correspondence analysis was drawn to analyze the factors influencing brand preference of spice powder. It was found that there was a strong association between spice users’ income level, academic qualification, income source and preference of spice which mean that with the variation among the factors the choice for branded or non-branded spices also varied. The study found that 42% consumers preferred only branded spice powder, 22% were loose users of spice powder, 20% prefer breaking (loose/self-made) spice powder and 17% use homemade paste spice. More than 98% of them used powder form and rest used paste or mashed form of brands found in market. Near about 92% consumer preferred polly pack for spice, 2% prefer paper box, 6% preferred plastic jar mainly for using and storing spice powder. Most of the consumer thought that those brands were exported really well brand and they have popular brand image not only in domestic country but also in abroad. The study revealed that RADHUNI spice powder compared to PRAN, ARKU, PURE, BD foods and other brands drew more attention of modern housewives those who had a latent demand for convenience and time saving cooking.