Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Aversion Behaviour of Dry Land Farmers in Tamil Nadu

K. Thomas Felix, R. Divya Bharathi, D. David Rajasekar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/32737

This study investigated the risk aversion behaviour of dry land farmers in Manaparai taluk of Tiruchirappalli district in Tamil Nadu State, using multiple linear production function. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 120 respondents randomly selected from designated locations in the project area. The findings revealed that, the risk assuming ability of small farmers was improving with the increase in the size of the farm, years of farming experience and also with the social status (upper caste) the risk assuming ability of medium farmers improved with an increase in non-farm assets and farming experience of the farmer. Risk aversion increased with an increase in the number of dependents in the family, and the risk assuming capacity of large farmers improved with years of farming experience, years of education, extension agency contact and mass media exposure and also with the social status (upper caste). These results suggest that provision of timely and adequate co-operative credit and subsidised inputs were the most felt needs of all the size groups of farmers and this study also reveals that, dry land farming can be improved by solving the important measures as expressed by the farmers were writing off loans in drought years, creation of drought relief fund, non-farm employment opportunities, livestock loans, crop insurance and long term loan for well digging.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acreage Response of Principal Agricultural Crops in Andhra Pradesh, India

Geetha Mohan, N. P. Singh, Per Stromberg, Hirotaka Matsuda, Srikantha Herath

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/36986

This study examines the scope of this mechanism by estimating the supply response for major principal crops in the Andhra Pradesh state from 1970 to 2005 using Nerlovian adjustment adaptive expectation model. The acreage response functions are estimated and supply response elasticities were derived. The results reveal that the coefficients of time trend, acreage and yield response performed to be substantial, whereas, the supply elasticity with respect to sowing season rainfall found to be highly significant and relative price is inelastic for rice crop. As we expected, the elasticity of acreage response and relative price were found crucial factors for the commercial crops like groundnut, tobacco, chillies, cotton and sugarcane validate that the farmers respond to price incentives similarly to non-price factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints under Contract Farming in Sugarcane Cultivation: A Case of Odisha

S. K. Samantaray, M. P. Nayak, P. K. Panda

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/31412

Contract farming requires a long term commitment between both the agri-business firms and contracted growers. It seems to offer solutions to many problems agriculture in India face, more so the agriculture in Odisha. Contract farming is supposed to help agriculture through strengthening the backward linkages. This paper evaluated various constraints faced by the sugarcane growers under contract farming system. 180 sugarcane growers were randomly selected under contract farming in two districts of Odisha state in India. Data were collected through structured interview schedule. The results showed that the contracted growers had major constraints in planning, procurement and payment followed by credit and finance, infrastructure, fertilizers and chemicals as well as technological support. It was discovered that the farmers did not have much constraint in supply of seed cane and other management practices. No written agreement, produce not lifted in time, no attempt for farm mechanization and irrigation facilities, harassment in payment, no community organization and cluster approach, no transparency in measurement, inadequate training, no subsidy facilities and insurance coverage were the major constraints of the growers which should be considered by the contracting firms for the sustainability of contract farming in sugarcane cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Ginger Farming to Smallholder Farmers’ Income in Tanzania – Case of Same District

Joel Johnson Mmasa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/34873

The study aimed to assess the contribution of ginger farming to smallholder farmers’ income in Same District Tanzania. A cross sectional research design was adopted; sample sizes of 244 respondents were obtained through purposive and non-purposive sampling techniques. The study has used both quantitative and qualitative methods approaches. Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel (Ms Excel) were used to analyze data. The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods for data analysis. The data revealed that ginger production is profitable, with the gross margin of TZS 7,050,000 per acre/per annum. Returns to labour for ginger production revealed to be TZS 33,894.23.The data further, revealed that majority of respondents (71.3%) reported that their income accrued from ginger business were between TZS 1,000,001 to TZS 5,000,000 per annum whilst others few (1.7%) reported that their income were above TZS 10,000,000 per annum. Finally, the study found that the major problems affecting ginger farming in the district included; Low price fetched (54.5%) and inadequate capital to run the business (27%). Other factors included poor transportation, drought and unavailability of laborers. The higher returns to labour observed in ginger farming enterprise could have been contributed to adoption and use of labour saving technologies such as oxen-plough and use of improved seeds. The profit from ginger contributes significantly to the household income. Hence, it is important to create public awareness on the potential for the sector. The study also recommends for farmers to increase land under cultivation, define a more constructive role for the farmers union and discourage farm gate prices by establishing selling points which also offer value addition and storage facilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Media Usage and Its Addiction Level among Generation Y Agricultural Scholars in Meghalaya, India

Bai Koyu, Rajkumar Josmee Singh, Kankabati Kalai, Talom Dabi, Tanmoy Das

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/37024

This study examined Generation Y’s psychological addiction to social media with specific regard to Research Gate, Facebook, YouTube, WhatsApp and Twitter. The addiction was deduced using Griffiths’ five components that govern behavioral addiction: tolerance, salience, withdrawal, conflict and relapse. The tenacity of this study was to clinch if Generation Y agricultural scholars’ was in fact addicted to social media because of their necessity to sustain their connections with peers. The study reveals that Research Gate was the most widely used social media (95.00 per cent). About ninety four per cent (93.75 per cent) of the respondents primarily used social media for downloading study materials. Eighty eight per cent of the respondents had more than five social media account. 76.25 per cent of the respondents spend more than 3 hour on social media. About seventy three per cent (72.50 per cent) of the respondents spend two hour on social media for agriculturally related issues. The major advantages of using social media is “exposure to latest knowledge, skills and technology in research endeavors” followed by “gaining more visibility in research areas” as reported by 95.00 per cent and 93.75 per cent of the respondents respectively. 68.75 per cent and 7.50 per cent of the respondents reported high addiction and low addiction on social media, respectively. The results indicated that Generation-Y agricultural scholars faced constraints towards tolerance, salience, withdrawal and relapse. However, they face intrapsychic conflict, but not interpersonal conflict. Major problem associated with social media in dissemination of information is “costly data charge for high speed internet connectivity” (91.25 percent) being followed by “erratic internet connectivity in the campus” (90.00 per cent).