Climate change may influence the survival and distribution of field crop weeds. Few investigations are available about the negative effect of noxious weeds on crop quality. Several studies were conducted to evaluate weed distribution of alfalfa fields. For eight years case studies through surveys, extension program, and questionnaires were carried out in two regions of Wadi Dlayl and Kherbeh Sides in the Zarqa River Basin of Jordan to study the distribution of weeds in alfalfa fields. Results indicated and reported that species of white top and dodder were the most common occurring species in Wadi Dlayl. However, amaranthus and common mallow were predominant in Kherbeh Sides region. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the most effective extension approaches to identification of weeds observed in alfalfa. Training will equip farmers with necessary competencies to become pioneers of knowledge about weed ecology, and growing habits to choose the most appropriate chemical management strategy with lower costs and time saving.
This paper has examined changes in cropping pattern in the state of Andhra Pradesh at the aggregate and regional levels for the period 1969-71 to 2004-05. A zero-order correlation coefficients for the change in the area under different crops were estimated. The results indicate that the Andhra Pradesh state has witnessed shifts in cropping pattern during the past three decades, and these shifts are towards cultivation of total pulses except (horse gram), fruits and vegetables, spices, drugs and narcotics and sugarcane. The fixed effect regression model was used to recognize the fundamental factors of shifts in the cropping pattern. The magnitude of these change, however, vary across the regions and also across districts within a region. These changes have been driven by sub-division of landholdings, mechanization, irrigation, technological change and farmers’ improved access to institutional credit and infrastructure.
The study determines the factors influencing adoption of cocoa resuscitation programme in South West, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from 240 cocoa farmers through the use of interview schedule and focus group discussion. Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting respondents. Data were analysed using multiple regression. The results showed that age, sources of information, cocoa farm size and number of contact with extension workers were positively significant and influence the adoption of improved cocoa technologies, while number of people living in the household and age of cocoa plantation were negatively significant and influence the adoption of improved cocoa technologies. The standardized coefficients Beta, further revealed that, source of information has much more influence on adoption of improved cocoa technologies than other variables like age, cocoa farm size among others. This implies that, the more the agricultural information sources farmers are exposed to, the more likely the adoption of improved cocoa technologies. Since adequate information is seen one of the major prerequisites for wide spread acceptance of agricultural innovations, extension services has a great role to play in information dissemination to improve farmers’ livelihood.
The study assessed the perceived constraints and improvement strategies of development interventions on rural women in Imo State of Nigeria. The study identified socio-economic characteristics of rural women; their perceived extent of interventions by development agencies; also examined the constraints militating against rural women from benefiting in the interventions and area of improvements in development interventions. Data for the study were collected using structured questionnaire from 402 rural women in the three agricultural zones of Imo state and were selected through multi-stage random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as mean, frequency distribution and multiple regression technique. The result showed that majority of the rural women (34.3%) had primary education and had spent more than 17 years in their major occupation. Majority (50.2%) have household size of 5 to 8 members. The average monthly income of the rural women was N15, 752. Majority of the women (64.2%) had savings while majority (64.9%) did not have access to credit facility. The grand mean of constraints limiting women from benefiting from development interventions was high (mean = 3.07), some of the constraints women perceived were lack of continuity in the program (mean = 3.60) and embezzlement of fund meant for development (mean = 3.43) among others. The multiple regression analysis result shows that the socio economic characteristics of age, marital status, years of experience, savings, access to credit facility were significantly related with the rural women’s level of perception of constraints militating against rural women from benefiting in the development interventions. Therefore, the study recommended among others that government should ensure that the development intervention agencies should be functional and effective in the rural areas since the rural women could not feel the impacts of these interventions.
The common worldwide practice for agricultural land valuation is based on average market prices of the similar plots, close to the land being evaluated. However, the land valuation based on average market prices requires the functioning of a well-developed market for land sale/purchase transactions. Several reasons have limited the number of transactions which could serve as a base for setting a price for agricultural, pasture and forest land in many parts of Albania. In the absence of a land market, during a period of time (between 1990 and 2012), it was advisable to apply indirect land evaluation methodologies in the country. The principle of this method is net profit capitalization for which some parameters need to be calculated. The profit was calculated based on the yield, the cost of production and income of the unit surface. The direct land valuation method which is more commonly used in Albania since 2012, is based on the market value – a method used in developed countries where the high number of transactions and relative transparency of price are considered the most important. This study is focused in finding the differences and gaps between the direct and indirect methods of land valuation taking into account the numerous variables of climate and land, including the land use, agronomic potential expressed in the categories of land, commodity agricultural prices, rent, yield, crop structures, social issues and economic policies.
To find the gaps and the advantages of different methods of land price in Albania this survey analyzed and compared the prices based on three well known international methods: directly-based on market price method, indirectly-based on ground rent and net profit capitalization.
Comparing the values between regions the three methods showed many differences; the value of agricultural land prices were higher in Fier and Korça while it was lower in Berat according to net profit and rent capitalization methods. Farmland prices were the highest when market price method was applied, followed by rent capitalization method and lower for net profit method. The values according to three methods were higher than average land prices in the EU countries. The land values in Albania varied between 20,000 and 37,000 Euros ha-1.