A landslide is a downslope movement of rock or soil, or both, occurring on the surface of rupture. Landslides are just a hazard in an uninhabited place. But, they turn into disasters when they occur in areas of human habitation. Due to increase in population and rapid urbanization, construction activities in hilly terrains have led to rapid expansion. This has led to the frequent landslide hazards in the hilly terrains, mostly in the Himalayan region which experiences bewildering varieties of landslides. The intensity and severity of impacts of the hazards can be minimized if the problem is recognized before the development activity. The tools available for measuring mitigation are risk assessment and economic appraisal methods like cost benefit analysis. The objective of this study was to assess the economic viability of the landslide protection measures. Thus in this study the cost economic benefits of engineering structures were assessed for the benefits as landslide protection measures. It was found that constructing the mitigation structures mitigates the landslides but maintaining the structures prolongs the benefits of the structures for a longer time.
Maize is the most important cereal and it is mostly used as grain, feed, fodder, starch and industrial products. In the present study, an attempt was made to calculate the cost of cultivation, find out resource use efficiency, price spread and market efficiency of maize in different marketing channels and to find out constraints in production and marketing of hybrid maize in the study area. The study area selected was Chinthakani mandal of Khammam (dist.). A multi-stage sampling method involving a combination of purposive and random sampling procedures was employed in drawing up the sample block, villages and farmers for collecting primary data. Sixty farmers (23 marginal, 20 small and 17 large) were selected at random by proportional probability sampling technique. In the study Maximum likelihood Estimation (MLE) technique was used in stochastic frontier production for finding out the technical efficiency. The coefficients of stochastic regression model were used to calculate the Marginal Value Product of Variable Inputs (MVP) and its ratio R with Marginal Factor Cost (MFC) used to determine resource use efficiency (RUE). The price spread was applied to measure the degree of pricing efficiency, marketing costs; market margins to calculate Index of the marketing efficiency (MEI). Total fixed cost for marginal, small and medium farmer are Rs.7337.43, Rs.7281.84 and Rs.7261.11 respectively .The benefit cost ratio is Maximum in case of medium farmers with at 2.7:1, followed by small farm (2.5:1) and marginal farmers (1.5:1). The gross returns from a hectare land are highest in case of medium farm with Rs 89364.63, followed by small (75396.54) and marginal (64845.89). A significant difference indicates sub-optimal allocation of resource. Labour, fertilizer and machine are under-utilized in the study area. The study suggested that a well-built strong infrastructure provision with efficient use of inputs and without marketing malpractices would show the way to an economically well-built maize economy.
India is mostly an agricultural country in which the power of rural unskilled labour is very high and the most people of the rural poor depend mostly on the wages they earn through unskilled, informal, and manual labour. The main effect of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is to improve the livelihood conditions of the rural poor by providing employment. The Act provides an opportunity to work in the lean season, which helps rural poor to keep the consumption level and strengthen the livelihood resource base during this critical period. Only the growth of the economy cannot create social justice and balanced development unless it is attached with poverty improvement and employment generating opportunity for a poor and marginalised section of the society. It was perhaps the largest and most ambitious social security and public works programme in the world. Thus, a study on the impact of MGNREGA in generating employment and increase in income of the selected respondents in selected blocks of the district Pauri Garhwal and linear regression has been used as the statistical tool to measure such impact. The results revealed that there is a significant impact of MGNREGA in generating employment and increase in income of the respondents in the selected village of the district.
The study examined temporal and spatial price integration of cowpea markets in Kiyawa Local Government Area of Jigawa State. Four periodic cowpea markets (Duhuwa, Kazuba, Kiyawa and Shuwarin) were purposively selected. Recurring survey was used to collect cowpea retail prices from 260 selling agents, 208 were for temporal market integration, while 52 respondents were selected for spatial price integration analysis. Shuwarin market was selected as the base market in the spatial survey and cowpea retail prices were collected weekly for 3 month. Similarly the month of September was selected as the base month for the temporal price integration and weekly prices of the commodity were collected for 12 month. Data were analyzed using correlation matrix t-statistics. Result of the t-statistics revealed a positive relationship between the base month and the month of October, November and February with t- values of 0.5, 0.35 and 0.35 respectively. However, no price connection was realized against June and July with t- value of 0.00. Correlation matrix showed a strong price integration (p>0.01) between Shuwarin and Kazuba cowpea markets. Similarly Shuwarin prices significantly (p>0.01) influences prices of cowpea at Duhuwa market. However lower level (P>0.05) of price connection was found between Shuwarin and Kiyawa cowpea markets. Therefore it was concluded that, cowpea markets in this area have shown strong evidence of price responsiveness even though, the degree of responsiveness varied across the markets. It was recommended that, market and price policy instruments should capture plans at local, state and national level that would eventually lead to stability in prices, creation of an efficient marketing environment that would subsequently increase production and enhances food security and marketing.
Agriculture is the mainstay of our economy as about 70% of the population directly or indirectly is associated with agriculture and allied activities. However, agriculture in Kashmir is continuously facing tremendous constraints in the form of poor institutional arrangements, inefficient extension services, geographical constraints and also the vagaries of the nature. However, in the present era wherein the economy of the farmer is the prime concern, it is the moral duty of all respected parties who are engaged in research, extension and development activities to come forward and work for increasing the net returns of the farmers on sustainable basis. Under prevailing situation, it is quite difficult for the extension workers to cover most of the farmers in face to face mechanism for information of technological interventions and thereby adoption of these technologies. Hence, there seems to be no immediate solution but to go for ICT. This paper focusses on various issues, constraints and prospects of ICT with respect to agriculture and allied sectors particularly in the context of J&K state.