Open Access Case study

Artisanal Fishing in Kerala Backwaters: A Socioeconomic Assessment of Indian Coracles

M. Ramees Rahman, Solly Solomon, N. R. Athira, S. Manomi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/38148

While considering pollution and economic losses caused by modern fishing systems/fleet to natural environment, traditional fishing techniques have its own relevance as a sustainable way of harvesting systems with least negative impact to the fishing environment. The study focuses on an economic analysis of one of the major time-tested methods of sustainable fishing, ‘Indian coracles’, operated in the Vembanad backwaters of Kerala. An exploratory study was conducted among the migrated coracle fishers operating in the ‘’Kochi Kaayal’’ area of Vembanad estuary, Ernakulam district, Kerala during February – May, 2017. Primary data was collected from 15 coracle fishers selected randomly, which cover around 75 per cent of total migrant coracle fishers operating in the area. Fishers were personally interviewed by using a well-structured interview schedule. Major parameters considered include personal as well as family details, education status, income details, asset particulars, savings, indebtedness, expenditure pattern, details of migration, reasons for migration, problems during migration, and major socio-economic achievements through migration. The Garrette ranking method and other major econometric tools were used to analyze the problems of, and reasons for, their migration, as well as fishing operation. It was observed that disguised unemployment and competition prevailing in their native place are the major reasons for migration to Kerala coast decades ago. Fishers achieved betterment in socioeconomic conditions with their migration to the Kerala coast. Also, the fishing technique is found to be eco-friendly and hence relevant as a sustainable fishing technique. Immense scope of tourism as well as the significance of spreading awareness among the local fishermen about coracle fishing as a sustainable fishing technique, is highlighted in the study. Present study is relevant as the first of its kind done in the area and in the technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability Gap Analysis of Sweetpotato Production in Ghana: Evidence from Sweetpotato Farmers and Traders

Natson Eyram Amengor, Kwadwo Adofo, Benedicta Nsiah Frimpong, Patricia Pinamang Acheampong, Regina Sagoe, Jonas Osei-Adu, Alexander Adu-Appiah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/38110

Aims: To assess the profitability gap between farmers and traders in sweetpotato production.

Study Design: Purposive Sampling of Sweetpotato producers and traders.

Place and Duration of Study: Four major sweetpotato growing regions (Volta, Upper East, Central and Eastern) in Ghana for the 2012/2013 planting season.

Methodology: One district was purposively selected from each region (Akatsi, Bawku, Twifo, Kwahu East) based on output levels. 3 communities were randomly selected from a pool of sweetpotato growing districts in each of the districts. 10 farmers were purposively selected from each of the 3 communities hence for every region 30 farmers were selected. For the traders, 5 traders were selected from each community hence 15 traders were selected from every region. In sum, 120 farmers and 60 traders were sampled across the study areas. Gross Margin Analysis was employed in the determination of profitability and formed the bases for the profitability gap discussion.

Results: With a total production cost per hectare of  2,452 Ghana cedis ($580.36), labour accounted for about 39% of the operational cost for farmer’s and farmer’s net returns on investment stood at 1,647 Ghana cedis ($389.82). The trader’s total cost was 4,429 Ghana cedis ($1,048.29) and with a net return of 4,841 Ghana cedis ($1145.80). Farmers had a “net return per cedi” of 1.67 Ghana cedis ($0.40) whereas the trader had 2.09 Ghana cedis ($0.49). 

Conclusion: Sweetpotato production and trade is profitable. A significant gap exist between traders profit and that of the farmers in favour of the traders. It is recommended farmers form cooperatives and be functional on Innovation Platforms to have bargaining power for better prices and access to inputs at affordable cost; be trained on standardizing produce and processing to add value; extension information access should be modernized using modern telecommunication tools and tailored to the local and unique needs of the smallholder farmer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Involvement of Farm Households in Bush Buck (Gongronema latifolium) Production in Anambra State, Nigeria

A. I. Emodi, C. C. Akwue, E. O. Ehebha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/38123

The study assessed the involvement of farm households’ in bush buck (utazi) production in Agricultural zones of Anambra State, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, a total of 100 household heads were purposively selected from the four Agricultural zones (Aguata, Awka, Onitsha and Anambra) in the State. Primary data was collected with structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistic such as mean, frequency count and percentage. It was found that the mean age of the farmers was 42 years. Greater proportions (72.5%) of the respondents were males, 73.5% married, with mean farming experience of 12years. The mean household size was 5 persons, with annual mean income of ₦50.000. Many of them (58.8%) had a mean farm size of 0.06-0.13 hectares. While 63.8%of them used both family + hired labour in production of bush buck, 75.2% of the farmers produced bush buck commercially. The agronomic activity most perceived by farmers as important in bush buck production was harvesting (Capture38.JPG=3.79). Their major constraints in the production of bush buck were pests and diseases (Capture39.JPG= 3.10), and weed infestation (Capture40.JPG=3.01), while their major extension need was provision of information on control of pests and diseases (Capture44.JPG= 3.24). It was recommended that extension agents should disseminate information to the farmers and enlighten them on management of pests and diseases in bush bucks production.

Open Access Review Article

An Empirical Assessment of Seafood Export Performance and Competitiveness in Gujarat, India

Mahida Navghan, Nalini Ranjan Kumar, Swadesh Prakash, Rama Sharma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/37967

Gujarat with 11 maritime districts owns the longest coastline (1640 Km) and has the widest shelf area. The coastline of about 1640 km consists of 173 landing centers. The shelf area covers about 1, 64,000, of which 64,800 falls in the depth range 0-60 m, which can be exploited by traditional as well as mechanized craft. Marine fish export stands Multibillion dollar industry where fisheries sector supporting 1 per cent in nation’s GDP. The present study analyses the growth, performance, trends, competitiveness of marine fish and fish product from Gujarat and India during 2001- 2014 using the parameters Viz., Exponential Growth Function, Export Competitiveness Index (XCI), Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Revealed Trade Advantage (RTA). XCI expresses the changes in market share of different products for seafood export in Gujarat which was indicating improvement in XCI (>1) over the years, hence it founds competitive in the export of seafood from Gujarat. An Indian seafood export depicts XCI greater than one throughout the study period. RCA was estimated for the confining efficiency, performance and competitive ability for the Gujarat seafood export and India’s seafood export. RCA value of India and Gujarat seafood export showed a fluctuating trend which may be due to the high dependency on wild capture rather than culture for the export. India reflects the strong competitive power in the export of seafood as it was greater than 1 to a large extent. RTA has estimated for Indian export experienced the value >1 during 2001-2015-16, which become possible due to the high RXA and fewer IMA from India made its trade advantage and growth positive and faster. With respect to current development trend of export from Gujarat and India, there is urgent need to focuses decline in marine catches and over- exploitation, conservation, diversity, and policy framing. There has still needed for further improvement which may encourage more trade, rural development and foreign exchange in near future.

Open Access Review Article

Reviewing the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture and Farm Households Through Gender Lens

Kankabati Kalai, Loukham Devarani, Bai Koyu, Nivetina Laitonjam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/37591

Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges of our time. Impact of climate change can be felt in many areas including agriculture. Agriculture is primary occupation of a human being. Among all the human activities, agriculture being the mostly weather dependent is physically and economically more vulnerable to climate change. With climate change looming in the scene, agriculture and livelihoods of the farm-households are also affected. Vulnerability to climate change is determined by many factors of which gender and poverty are important ones. The contribution and significance of women in agriculture and livelihood cannot be undermined. What impact climate change has, how much vulnerable people are and what adaptation and mitigation strategies they adopt varies with gender. The present paper is based on reviews from different journals, papers and secondary data. It reviews the relationship between climate change, agriculture and gender roles & relations. Climate change is found to have negative impact on Brazilian crop. Mortality rate of men during cyclone was found to be more in developed countries while more women in developing countries. In Amhara, women and women headed households were found to be more vulnerable to food insecurity during flood. Women and children were the one who were more affected by rainfall and drought. To cope up with drought most men farmer commit suicide or migrate to cities on the other hand women had to take up odd job like prostitution. During flood women of Bangladesh use sugar to reduce soil salinity, raise cultivable land to save it from water inundation during floods and spring surges as coping strategy. The various cases reviewed in this paper indicates that gender mainstreaming of climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions is the need of the time.