Open Access Case study

Knowledge Level of Farmers on Recommended Cultivation Practices of Off-season Vegetable Crops under Low Cost Polyhouse Technology in Assam

Musliha Nasrin, S. Borua, R. Borua, B. Deka

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/36912

Low cost polyhouse technology enables farmers to cultivate vegetables during Off-season and also fetch higher price to the farmers. Off-season cultivation of vegetable refers to the production of the vegetable before or after of its normal productive season. As the Off-season vegetable cultivation under polyhouse technology need some skills or knowledge, which is not similar to that of normal productive seasons. Therefore, this study is conducted to assess the knowledge level of the farmers on the recommended cultivation practices of some selected Off-season vegetable crops under the low cost polyhouse technology in Assam. The study was carried out in 4 different districts of Assam which was selected depending upon the presence of RKVY (Rashtria Krishi Vikash Yojana) beneficiaries. Amongst them 80 beneficiaries gave their positive respond to the work and hence considered to be the sample for this particular case. Statistical analyses with the collected data were done which includes frequency distribution, percentage calculation, mean and standard deviation along with knowledge test. The major finding of the study shows about (62.50%) of population had medium level of knowledge regarding the polyhouse technology skill. Implementation of this newer skill will enrich the farmers to develop much more off season crops, rather agricultural sector will contribute to the economy of the nation. This particular case study will help to maintain the flow of the “Off season” crops & meet up the needs of general population.

Open Access Short Research Article

Pre-extension Demonstration and Evaluation of Hip Pump in Western Oromia, Ethiopia

Aliyi Abdulah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/36663

The method of lifting water to the field for irrigation in Oromia, Ethiopia is mostly traditional. The water is transported to the field with the help of bucket. The ground and river water are at the deeper position and are required to be lifted to the area to be irrigated. Therefore, this research was aimed at pre-extension demonstration of the hip pump. The demonstration was conducted in the West Wollega and Qellem Wollega zones. Totally four farmers’ groups were established consisting of sixty farmers. Theoretical and practical training was provided to all farmers’ groups’ members, subject matter specialists, and development agents. Totally eight hip pumps were distributed for all the four groups. Data were collected through focus group discussions and a semi-structured interview. The collected data were analyzed qualitatively. The study recommends that training should be given for extension staffs who work directly with irrigation farmers on the hip pump. Sources of technology should be as close as possible to the farmers. District Irrigation Development Authority should facilitate field demonstrations with farmers who need these technologies by providing these pumps from the sources.

Open Access Short Research Article

Assessment of Rural Farmers’ Access to Credit in Jigawa State, Nigeria

Iliyasu, Yusuf, Orifah, O. Martins, Ahungwa, T. Gabriel

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/32309

Attaining self-sufficiency in terms of food production has been a major policy goal of the Nigerian government and credit is one of the necessary ingredients required to ensure that this comes to fruition. The study assessed farmers’ access to credit in Jigawa State. A multistage sampling procedure was used to sample 360 respondents from the four agricultural zones in the state. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data on respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics, sources of credit available, access to credit and constraints to credit; these were analysed using descriptive (frequencies, percentages, means, and ranks) and inferential (Binomial Logit and ANOVA) statistics. The mean age was 46.18years and 61.3% had Quranic education. Majority were males (89.44%), married (96.4%) with a mean household size of 16 members. Mean years of farming experience was 22.51 years and majority (77.8%) do not belong to any cooperative association. Majority (84.72%) did not recognised the presence of any source of credit and majority had no access to credit (84.72%). Lack of credit providing institution (Capture45.JPG = 2.70), lack of awareness of credit acquisition source (Capture46.JPG = 2.68), lack of collateral (Capture47.JPG = 2.51), high interest rate (Capture48.JPG = 2.44) and late approval (Capture49.JPG = 2.01) were the major constraints impeding respondents’ access to credit. Age, marital status, membership of cooperative society, household size and years of farming experience were significantly related to access to credit. However, there was no significant difference (F= 1.622) in respondents’ access to credit across agricultural zones in the state. Efforts should be geared towards ensuring the establishment of credit institutions in the study area both by the government and private bodies. The Policy framework for farmers’ access to credit should be revisited and necessary adjustment that will favour farmers’ access to credit should be considered. Efforts should also be directed at encouraging farmers to constitute themselves into formal cooperative groups to make for easy access to credit, and Information on credit access and the modalities for accessing credit should be made available to farmers where possible and timely.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Awareness Level of Farmers about Crop Insurance: A Case Study of Haryana

Anju Duhan, Satbir Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/37966

Dependency of Indian agriculture is still continuing on monsoon. The unpredictable and irregular distribution of monsoon rains increases risk and uncertainty farmers. Spreading the risk is an important aspect of decision making to farmers. For the improvement in the handling of perilous outcomes across individuals, there is a need for contingent plans. So, to be aware and to understand the importance of crop insurance and the related policies has become necessary for the farmers of Haryana. We have tried to know the stage of their awareness about crop insurance through this study.  The main objective of the study is to trace out the awareness level of farmers about crop insurance in Haryana and which are the main factor that affect their awareness level. The present study finds that there are so many socio-economic factors which affect the knowledge of farmers about crop insurance like age, education, sources of major income, category of farming, income level and experience of farming. Education plays major role in understanding policies and importance of insurance for the farmers. Both the government and the implementing agency in the area should initiate awareness campaign in order to increase the level of farmers. Awareness campaign should be conducted by the government from time to time at the village level to enhance the awareness level of farmers. The study suggests that the knowledge level of farmers about crop insurance and its schemes can be increased by using different platforms of spreading awareness through various educational efforts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of Organic Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Cultivation in Kandhamal District of Odisha

Prangya Paramita Sahoo, Khitish K. Sarangi, Upasana Mohapatra, Shruti Mohapatra, M. Sangeetha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/38332

Kandhamal is the major turmeric growing district of the state. It is the main cash crop for their economic development. Kandhamal Turmeric is an important product and now become popular in the organic food market of Europe and North America. It has gained a good market share in International and Local market. The local variety grown from time immemorial is having 2-3 per cent cur cumin, 12-15 per cent of oleoresin and 5.3 per cent of volatile oil. The current study was carried out in three blocks of the district to analyze the profitability in organic Turmeric cultivation and to document various constraints faced by the turmeric growers in the study area. The data pertained to the agricultural year 2016-17. The yield per ha of fresh Turmeric was 100 quintals where as dry was 20 q. The average price received by the sample farmers per quintal of dry Turmeric was Rs 4800. The total cost of cultivation was Rs.52,200, whereas for dry turmeric production it was Rs. 55,800. The net returns per hectare of Turmeric cultivation was found to be Rs 40,200 leading to a benefit to cost ratio of 1.72. The sample respondents ranked high cost of labour as the greatest constraint in organic turmeric cultivation with a Garrett score of 76.40. The problems ranked as second, third and fourth  fifth , sixth and seventh place were personal obligation with traders, financial weakness, lack of technical knowledge, lack of storage facilities , low productivity and non-availability of quality seed respectively. Efforts should be made to introduce labour saving techniques in the study area. To address this problem, mechanization of various operations such as ploughing, sowing, harvesting and drying should be done.

Open Access Original Research Article

Local Governance of a Dairy Sector in Benin Republic: Actors, Roles, Power Relationships and Perception of Interdependency

Florent Okry, Sylvain Kpenavoun Chogou, Nadia Fanou-Fogny, Ismail Moumouni, Joseph Hounhouigan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/38050

This study is an organizational analysis of the dairy sector in Benin republic. It focuses on the actors, their roles and relationships in order to reveal areas of conflicts and identify areas of interdependency to strengthen for a more competitive and inclusive dairy sector. The study used the case study approach along the segments of the dairy sector. Data were collected from July 2013 to April 2014 in two municipalities of Benin Nikki (North) and Dassa (Centre). Data were collected during group discussions (13) and individual interviews (67) using questionnaire. We found that actors of the dairy sector knew each other but the roles and the context of operation of each actor were poorly known to actors of other segments. The Dairy Unit built to modernize and improve (sanitary) milk processing set institutional arrangements that hardly fit in the socio-cultural prescriptions that govern the local milk transactions. Walagashi collectors/vendors recently emerged (20 years ago) and link directly the processors to the consumers. They shorten the market channels and reduce transaction costs. The study concludes that actors of the dairy sector need more dialogue and information flow to strengthen synergy and interdependency. Any attempt of modernization of milk processing and formalization of relationships between actors should take into account local governance system in place.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitudinal Disposition of Trained Beekeepers towards Use of Modern Beekeeping Technologies in Oyo State, Nigeria

Favour Eforuoku, Micah Etukudo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/26931

Beekeeping is a lucrative livelihood activity of the rural dwellers because it offers a great potential for income generation, poverty alleviation, sustainable use of forest resources and diversifying the export base. This paper examined the attitude of trained beekeepers to use of modern beekeeping technologies in Oyo state, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling was used to select 131 trained beekeepers. The data collected were analysed with the aid of descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage and mean), and inferential statistics tools such as Chi-square, Pearson product moment correlation. The results revealed that there was favourable attitude to use of modern beekeeping technologies. Beekeepers had high (54.2%) participation in training activities and are highly knowledgeable (61.8%) on the use of modern beekeeping technologies. Age (r= 0.373, P=0.000); educational status (χ=5.189, df=1, P=0.013); membership of beekeepers association (χ2 =6.155, df=1, P=0.013) and knowledge of modern beekeeping technologies (r=0.491, P=0.000) of beekeepers determined attitude towards use of modern beekeeping technologies. Similar training in other states will enhance use of modern beekeeping and in turn productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Sustainability of Contract Goat Farming in Odisha

Chinmaya Kumar Sahoo, Rupasi Tiwari, Rakesh Roy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/38258

Contract farming is gaining popularity among the resource poor farmers in Odisha nowadays. But, Sustainability of a farming practice is always a major concern for any new types of venture. Therefore, the present study has been done with the objective to assess the perceived sustainability of contract goat farming (CGF) in Odisha. Data were collected through personal interview from randomly selected 60 contract goat farmers and 30 contractors associated with these contract farmers. The perceived sustainability of the contract goat farming was calculated in terms of productivity, economic viability, risk involved, trustworthiness, equity and equality, autonomy and social and cultural adoptability. The study revealed that the mean score obtained for productivity, economic viability, risk involved, trustworthiness, equity and equality, autonomy, social and cultural adoptability was between 75-100 percent of the maximum score both in case of contract goat farmers and contractors. It implies that CGF have higher sustainability in terms of productivity, economic viability, risk involved, trustworthiness, equity and equality, autonomy, social and cultural adaptability and therefore it can be also recommended to landless and marginal farmers of other region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution of Integrated Farming System for Livelihood Security of Tribal’s in Pachamalai Hill of Tiruchirappalli District

V. Dhanushkodi, K. Padmadevi, G. Amuthaselvi, M. Ravi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/38241

Out of 115 million operational holdings in India, about 80 per cent of Indian farmers are marginal and small farmers. To achieve sustainable development in income and employment to fulfill the basic needs of the farmers in plains and also in hilly areas, an integrated faming system plays a vital role in India. The present study was undertaken to recognize the contribution of integrated farming system on livelihood security and sustainable development of Tribal people. Primary data was collected from the Tribal people of Pachamalai hill situated in Tiruchirappalli district of Tamil Nadu. Most of the respondents were involved in the adoption of integrated farming system, but the components are based on size of land holding, economic conditions, knowledge, experience and interest of the respondent etc. Eight different components of Integrated farming system were considered in the study. Among them agriculture with backyard poultry, livestock and piggery which are adopted by most of the respondents. Farmers responses that integrated farming system has increased the economic yield per unit area by providing income to the farmers round the year, providing food, nutritional security and increasing input usage by the result of expected output. Hence it is essential to create awareness to improve knowledge, skill and attitude regarding the adoption of more components of integrated farming system. Therefore it was concluded from the study that integrated farming system is a multidimentional farming approach, which is very effective in solving many problems of achieving farmers’ livelihood security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption Level of Scientific Goat Farming Practices among Goat Farmers

Sandeep Kumar Singh, R. Singh, P. Kushram, R. Viswkarma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/38176

The study was conducted to study the adoption level of goat farmers in scientific goat farming practices. The data was collected through personal interview method with the help of pretested well structured interview schedule from 80 goat farmers in 5 adopted village of Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh. The recommended practices were categorized in five i.e. breeding, feeding, health care, management and marketing. The study data shows that majority of farmers adopt practices like allow mating of doe at 18 hours after heat, feed colostrums to kids within one hour, follow sanitary practices for your shelter/standing place, ligate, disinfect the naval cord after birth, perform culling at the farm and market male kids at 6-8 months of age and were found first rank. The practice wise adoption index was calculated and found that marketing practices related to goat farming obtained more adoption index (53.5) followed by feeding practices (46.96), breeding practices (42.6), health care practices (30.72) and management practices (27.25). The overall adoption index of goat rearing was 40.43. The adoption is low in important scientific practices due to lack of exposure. Thus to improve the adoption of goat rearing practices in study area, extension agencies have to arrange training and demonstration programs of improved practices to goat keepers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Communication Patterns of Home Science and Non Home Science Supervisors of Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) Project and Their Contributions to the Rural Women

Pratibha A. Havanur, Prabhavathi Kurbett, Chhaya Badiger

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/34867

The study was undertaken during with the objective to study was the communication patterns of Supervisors of ICDS. The sample for the study comprised of 60 Supervisors in that 30 from Home Science and 30 from Non- Home Science Supervisors selected from four districts of Karnataka State namely Belgaum, Dharwad, Gadag and Haveri. Data collected through the questionnaire and interpreted using suitable statistical parameters. Important findings were most of the Home Science and Non-Home Science Supervisors used Individual contact methods. Because of face to face communication exchanged their ideas, directly with each other and most of the Supervisors used group methods with their Anganawadi workers, it saved energy and time of the supervisors and it was one of the effective way to convey the message to their Anganawadi workers. Mobile phone as expected has been most used method while contacting colleagues, Anganawadi workers and beneficiaries, as it was easy and affordable. Supervisors have used individual methods more commonly than group and mass method, in the present study. Majority of the Home Science and Non Home Science Supervisors conducted meetings with the rural women. The programmes in the television helped the supervisors to know and understand various programmes helpful for the rural women. In turn they diffused the useful information to the concerned beneficiaries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Behavior of Agrochemicals and Pesticides and Their Impacts on Human Health: A Perception Based Rural Study in Bangladesh

M. Muhibbullah, M. I. Sarwar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/37465

The main theme of the present study has been taken to know the using behaviour of agrochemicals and pesticides and their impacts on human health at Rangasree union of Barisal district in Bangladesh. Both the primary and secondary sources of data are integrated to achieve the findings of the study. Primary data were collected through direct field observation survey, questionnaire survey, focus group discussion (FGD) and expert’s opinion survey. There are 400 questionnaires were selected randomly and conducted during the months of April 2015 to December 2015. Secondary data were collected from various official records and related researchers’ publications through their paper and articles and also internet sources. It is observed from the study that a significant number of farmers (31%) were used to apply white nitrogen fertilizer mainly Urea in their field.  They used to familiar some other agrochemicals namely; triple super phosphate (TSP), murate of potash (MP), zinc and single super phosphate (SSP) by 26%, 21%, 8%, and 7% respectively found in the study area. It is known from the study that maximum (95%) farmers are habituated to use urea fertilizer. It is observed that (82.5%) farmers were used to apply Basudin ranging from 2.50 kg to 7.50 kg per acre on the cropping land. It is also observed from the study that only 21% users are used to apply spray machine and about 39% farmers are habituated to use free hand as a tools for pesticides use in their filed. It is identified from the present study that 75.75% farmers’ healths are affected by the use of agrochemicals and pesticides. The findings of the study also suggested for building awareness about safe agrochemicals and pesticides use with management and undesirable practice in rural Bangladesh.