A survey was carried out to study the socio-personal characteristics and attitude of farmers among 360 respondents of Jamtara and Dumka districts of Jharkhand state using a pre-structured interview schedule. Multi stage random sampling was used which covered Jamtara, Narayanpur, Dumka and Jama blocks. In each of these blocks, five villages were randomly selected. Among these village 18 farmers were selected on the basis of their land holdings as landless, marginal, small, medium and semi medium household. Analysis of data showed that majority of the farmers, engaged with agricultural occupation, were in the age group between 31 and 45 years. They owned one or two hectares of land and belonged to Schedule Tribes and educated just ‘can read only’ group and lived in nuclear type of family system. Status of the majority of the farmers may be described as medium in ‘farm experience’ and ‘market orientation’ but low in source of information utilized and scientific orientation. The study revealed that the variables viz., age, farm experience, land holding size and sources of information utilized had positive and significant association with the attitude of farmers towards improved practices of cultivation. Hence, attempts were needed to be made by the Government, Agricultural Universities, ICAR and other extension agencies for providing information on improved farming practices so that it could bring positive changes in their living and help in improving the socio-economic status of Jamtara and Dumka farmers.
Tribes are indigenous with a distinctive culture, geographically isolated and are low in socio-economic indicators like literacy rate, per capita income, infant mortality rate etc. For centuries, the tribal groups have remained outside the realm of the general development process due to their habitation in forests and hilly tracts. This lead to poor infrastructure and development facilities in tribal areas for education, roads, healthcare, communication, drinking water, sanitation etc. and has resulted in further widening the gaps of development between the tribals and the general population for a long time. The natural resources are being exploited in a way, which leads to gradual displacement and denying the basic right of livelihood to the tribes. This paper intends to analyse the factors behind this displacement of tribes from their forest settings. Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu was selected for the study with 100 migrant tribes as respondents by following Proportionate random sampling technique. Ex post facto research design was adopted with multinomial logistic regression for analysis. Totally, ten m-logit equations were derived from analysis and the results are interpreted. The chance of being a permanent migrant was 4.23 and 3.11 times lesser for married and large family migrants respectively. The encouragement to stay in the workplace by the family members of migrants was 0.59, 0.94 and 0.80 times lesser for migrants in the order of higher educational status, joint families and greater achievement motivation in life. Migrants with better educational status were likely to remigrate 0.91 times longer than 10 years. Also, the old aged migrants, migrants with higher occupational status, higher risk orientation and greater comfort expectancies possibly remigrate 2.50, 1.59, 1.24 and 1.43 times earlier than 10 years respectively. These identified facts are crucial for developing policies related to tribal development and hence can be considered as an input for Tribal policy formulation.
The study assessed the factors influencing participation of cocoa farmers in the government spraying programme in Ghana using cross-sectional data obtained by interviewing respondents with the aid of a questionnaire. A probit model was employed to analyse the determinants of farmer participation in the programme. The study revealed that participation in the spraying programme was higher for the following: male farmers, producers with more years of farming experience, farmers with more extension contacts, and respondents with smaller families. Furthermore, the interaction term for gender and farming experience showed that being an experienced male farmer decreased the probability of participation in the programme relative to an experienced female farmer. The study recommends the expansion of the government cocoa spraying programme to cover farmers who were unable to participate. In particular, addressing the factors inhibiting the participation of female farmers as well as improving extension service delivery to producers will enhance the effectiveness of the programme.
Aims: This study aimed at examining and comparing the impact of the governmental policies; pre-liberalization (1970 - 1992) and post-liberalization (1992 - 2012), on the growth of the main crops grown in the New Halfa Agricultural Scheme (NHAS) Sudan: sorghum, wheat, cotton and groundnuts.
Place and Duration of Study: New Halfa Agricultural Scheme, 1970 - 2012.
Methodology: The study depended mainly on secondary data which were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture, Central Bureau of Statistics and New Halfa Agricultural Scheme. The compound growth rate and the seven steps decomposition model were used to achieve the stated objectives.
Results: Results revealed that the growth rate of sorghum area (5.73) and productivity (9.44) pre-liberalization policy were far better than the post-liberalization period (0.91) and (0.34), respectively. Likewise, the growth rate for the wheat area (-4.1), productivity (2.87) and production (2.77) pre-liberalization were substantially more than post liberalization (area=-11.44. productivity=2.33 and production=1.28). In the same vein the growth rate of cotton area (3.57), productivity (5.85) and production (5.98) pre-liberalization were better than post-liberalization period (area=-2.66, productivity=-1.49 and production=-9.16). For groundnuts, the growth rate pre-liberalization of productivity (0.3) and production (1.59) was greater than pre-liberalization (productivity=-3.88 and production=-3.84), even though, the growth rate of an area before the liberalization (-1.89) was lesser than the post-liberalization (-0.72).
Conclusion: The adopted agricultural liberalization policy was failed to achieve its goals of improving the growth rate of the main crops grown in NHAS. The study recommends that the government should intervene in the scheme management and farmers support.
Indigenous technical knowledge has been traditionally owned wisdom from time to time, as the days gone it is likely to be forgotten by the society, due to an invasion of modern technologies. Due to ecological imbalance and onslaught of land, water and other natural resources, their ecology is disturbed. Taking this into consideration, this study focused on the ITK practices relating to the farming enterprises, undertaken at Idukki district of the Western Ghats in Kerala state, India. Sixty-one percent of the respondents belonged to the young age category (18-35 years. (Fig. 1 & Table1). Even though 61.00% of the respondents belong to young category there is strong adherence to ITK practices this shows their strong bondage of culture in following the similar ITK practices of their ancestors. Majority (64.00%) of the respondents had high value orientation (Fig. 2 & Table 1), (86.00%) possessed high level of norms, mores and taboos (Fig. 3 & Table 1). More than half of the respondents (51.00%) had a medium level of adherence to cultural characteristics (Fig. 4 & Table 1).
The sample size consisted of 100 tribals and was interviewed personally for ITK documentation through open-ended questions and discussions. Two settlements (villages) in Devikulam taluk of Idukki district was taken for the study. The indigenous technology spread over the study area in paddy, ragi and beans, were collected besides, traditional wisdom in allied activities like dairy rearing was obtained from the majority of tribal men and few tribal women. Nearly 41 indigenous practices in paddy, ragi, beans were collected. Also, 8 indigenous traditions related to dairy were also collected.