Open Access Original Research Article

Training Needs of the State Officials of Agriculture and Allied Departments of Western India

Mahesh R. Patel, Arun Patel, P. C. Patel, Shri Jaydip D. Desai

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/36915

The need for professional training of agricultural sectors is increasing day by day. Advanced methodologies of farming needed to adopt all the native workers of the dedicated zones which are still in trial. Perhaps some of the training institutes take some initiatives to make a healthy community of farmers so that the betterment of agricultural sector would dominate the economic structure at every possible perspective of states like Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Goa and Union territories of Dadra Nagarhaveli, Div and Daman. These states have education institutes which organize some training programs by involving several state officials of agriculture to enhance the knowledge of different types of farming by incorporating various on campus, off campus and collaborative methods for the sectors where. These skill  developing programs cover the following soft skill: Communication Skill for effective Extension (rank I), Soft skills for Personality Development (rank II),  Time and Stress Management for Better  Performance of Extension Personnel (rank III), PRA Tools and Techniques for SREP    Development (rank IV) and Leadership  Development and Team Building Skills for Extension  Functionary (rank V).

Open Access Original Research Article

Are Farmers Using Agricultural Conservation Practices for Sustainable Food Production? Insights from Land Degraded Regions in Rural Areas of Anambra State, Nigeria

Ifeoma Q. Anugwa, Audrey R. Ezeh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39151

Aims: This study assessed farmers’ use of soil and water conservation practices and implications for agricultural extension agents in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting eighty respondents from four town communities in Anambra state where intensive crop farming is carried out in the state. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used to analyze the data.

Results: Findings indicated that the major soil conservation practices used by the farmers were; returning crop residues to the soil to decay as manure (95.0%), use of herbicides for weed control (90.0%) and establishment of cut-off drains due to flooding (88.8%), among others. With respect to water conservation practices used by the respondents, the majority of the respondents practice regeneration of useful trees, crops and shrubs (85.0%) and the establishment and protection of watersheds (68.8%). The multiple regression results showed that number of years spent acquiring formal education (t = 0.01), household size (t = 0.04), ownership of livestock (t = 0.00) and membership in social organization (t = 0.05) significantly influenced farmers’ use of soil conservation practices, while sex (t = 0.03) significantly influenced their use of water conservation practices. The more serious constraints to the use of soil and water conservation practices as perceived by the respondents include: inadequate government support    (M = 2.79), increase in price(s) of input (M = 2.74) and the high cost of recommended technologies (M = 2.74), among others.

Conclusion: The respondents were generally medium and low users of soil and water conservation practices, respectively thereby implying that farmers may either not have adequate knowledge or the right behaviour/attitude to the use of these conservation practices. Hence, extension agents have a big role to play in improving the knowledge/skills of farmers and modify their behaviour/attitude towards the use of conservation practices. Also, extension agents should improve the dissemination of unambiguous, easily understood and accurate information about land improvement options and strategies among farmers so as to enable them conserve soil and water resources for improved and sustained food production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints and Factors Association with Food Processing Training as Perceived by Scheduled Caste Women

Nisha ., Seema Rani

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/36046

The food processing world is highly fragmented as it widely comprises of the sub segment like fruit and vegetables preservation, pickling of seasonal vegetables, milk and milk products, baking. The present study was an attempt to find out the extent of adoption of food processing and preservation techniques were being followed by the rural women. The present study was conducted in seven villages of Haryana State on 104 women respondents who already received training on food processing covered under the project were selected purposively. The overall findings of the study indicated that the respondents were under social constraints and had no time for attending village functions. In technical constraints, lack of difficult technique (1.35 MS) was perceived as main constraint. Under social and personal constraints, storage of time (1.85 MS) was observed as main constraint of the respondents. Under economic constraint, lack of finance (1.88 MS) for the purchase of raw material was observed as main constraint faced by the respondents. In case of psychological variables, majority of the respondents were in the medium level of change proneness (56.73%) and risk orientation (44.23%). While in case of entrepreneurial motivation, majority of the respondents were in high level of entrepreneurial motivation (48.08) followed by medium and low levels. In communication variables, majority of the respondents (51.92%) had utilized medium level of localite sources followed by low level of cosmopolite source (51.92%) and mass media source (45.19%). It can be inferred from the results that personal variables like family type and family size, economic variable including income of the family had significant association with knowledge, attitude and skill acquisition of the respondents for training on food processing. Among psychological variables entrepreneurial motivation and risk orientation had significant association with knowledge of the respondents. Locality sources were found to have significant impact with knowledge, attitude and skill acquisition on food processing training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decision-making Behaviour of Medicinal Plant Growers in Salem and Dindigul Districts

N. Suganthi, P. Balasubramaniam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/37943

Farm household today is constrained by shrinking net income, increased the cost of cultivation and uncertainty in prices. Hence this forced the farmers to switch over to Horticulture, Agroforestry and Sericulture. Consequently, in this backdrop, cultivation of medicinal plants is a new venture and has advantages when comparing between other crops. At this juncture, the decision-making behaviour of the farmers were studied in order to highlight their preference in decision making viz., making self-decision or by consulting with family members, relatives, progressive farmers, extension workers, traders in the field of crop shift, selection of variety, adoption of new practices, buy/sell land, post-harvest measures change in cropping pattern., to buy/sell land, for borrowing credit, marketing, to purchase equipment, for hiring labour and to start new enterprises.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of the Entrepreneurial Behavior of Farmers: An Asian-African Perspective

Mudiwa Benjamin

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39224

This paper is a literature review on the subject of entrepreneurship. Specifically, the review focusses on the components of the entrepreneurial behavior of farmers. The desk study is based on over 50 publications on entrepreneurship or related subject matter, the majority of which are journals and scholarly articles. The paper revealed the following components of entrepreneurial behavior possessed by farmers: innovativeness, achievement motivation, decision making ability, risk orientation, coordinating ability, information seeking behavior, self-confidence, planning ability and cosmopoliteness. Research findings further revealed that farmers possess low, medium and high levels of these components but the majority of farmers fall under the medium level category. This has been attributed to varying levels of education, household income, age, marital status, land and livestock holding, farming experience, training exposure, and participation in various social and extension activities. However, research on entrepreneurial behavior has been limited to dairy, vegetable and floriculture farmers in Asia with a few examples from Africa. Future research outside Asia needs to focus on the entrepreneurial behavior of smallholder farmers and how they can open up market opportunities, and spur economic growth and development, especially in agro-based economies.