Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption of Improved Crop Management Practices for Enhancing Productivity of Pigeonpea on Farmers' Fields in Kalaburagi District of India

D. H. Patil, Pandit S. Rathod, Zaheer Ahmed, Anand Nayak

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/38785

The present study was carried out at Agricultural Research Station and Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Gulbarga district of India, to know the yield gap between improved package and farmers’ practice under Front Line Demonstration. Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. Being one of the major Kharif pulse crop of Karnataka, it is having lower yield in farmer’s field due to multiple constraints. The major constraints of its lower productivity are non-adoption of improved technologies or Improved Crop Management practices. Front line demonstrations on Improved Crop Management practices were conducted at 99 framer’s fields in five adopted villages of Gulbarga district during Kharif seasons of 2010-11 to 2014-15. The Improved Crop Management practices included use of wilt resistant pigeonpea variety (WRP 1 and TS 3R), Seed treatment with Trichoderma (4 gm kg-1 seeds), use of biofertilizers (Rhizobium and PSB), Integrated nutrient management (25:50:0 NPK kg ha-1 + Zinc Sulphate @ 15 kg ha-1 + Sulphur @ 20 kg ha-1) and Integrated Pest Management. The improved technologies recorded a mean yield of 13.54 q ha-1 which was 18.69 percent higher than the yield obtained with farmers practice (11.10 q ha-1), besides having higher mean net income of Rs.22876 ha-1 with a B:C ratio of 2.68 when compared to farmers practice (Rs. 16177 ha-1 and 2.12).

Open Access Original Research Article

Traditional Fish Traps and Indigenous Fishing Devices of North Malabar Region of Kerala

P. S. Swathilekshmi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/33240

The present study was carried out to document the various kinds of indigenous traps and fishing gears used in 20 river systems covering three districts of North Malabar region of Kerala. The use of indigenous traps such as box traps namely “Chemballi Koodu”, and other fishing gears and methods such as Komma, Njandu Kothhi, Challam and Chemeen Kori, their dimensions, fabrication and methods of operation are discussed in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nexus between Household Asset Base and Agrarian Livelihood Strategies’ Diversification: Using Multidimensional Approach

Tagesse Abo, Sandra Rajan, Endrias Geta

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39355

Diversification of livelihoods is a commonly applied strategy for coping with economic and environmental shocks and instrumental in poverty reduction. The purpose of this study was to identify farm household’s livelihood asset base and its effect on the extent of livelihood diversification among smallholder farmers of Kembata Tembaro zone, southern Ethiopia.  The study employed a cross-sectional survey design where the mixes of qualitative and quantitative data were gathered using participatory rural appraisal and questionnaire as the main data collection tools. Employing the data produced from household surveys, we developed a composite household livelihood asset index incorporating five components and 17 indicators and measured the effect of asset dimensions on livelihood diversification status. The multivariate analysis showed that four out of the five household asset latent dimensions:  social capital, human capital, physical facilities, and agricultural resource endowments were significantly predicting the farmers’ livelihood diversification status. Thus, to enhance and contribute to the overall agrarian welfare, livelihood diversification strategies have to be supported by the appropriate household asset inputs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability and Viability Analysis of Aquaculture Production in Central Uganda: A Case of Urban and Peri-Urban Areas

Namatovu Safina, Atukunda Gertrude, Obeti Lawrance, Walozi Ronald, Candia Alphonse, Onep Samuel, Bwambale Mbilingi, Andrew A. Izaara

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/37721

Aquaculture sector if fully exploited has great potential of boosting foreign exchange, household nutritional and income levels. However, not much has been done regarding economic analysis of aquaculture production to attract and guide investment. This study was carried out to assess the profitability and viability of the aquaculture enterprises in central Uganda. The study focused on the socioeconomic and production characteristics, profitability indices and significant challenges experienced by the fish farmers. The fish farmers were selected using simple random and purposive method from the farmers’ lists provided by the Aquaculture Research Centre. The study was carried out in Kampala, Mukono and Wakiso districts between July and August 2015 using well structured questionnaire complemented with interview schedule. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics and pseudo-profit function. The results indicated that male aquaculturists owned the majority (86.8%) of the farms. On the average, a majority (77.4%) of the respondents’ cultured tilapia as the primary species. The Tilapia and African Catfish culture periods lasted for 8 and 9 months to attain an average body weight of 0.5kg and 1kg, respectively. The operational costs accounted for 2736000 and 2865960 Uganda shillings of the total tilapia and catfish production cost. A kilogram of tilapia and catfish were sold at 10800, and 9360 Uganda shillings, respectively and positive gross margins were reported for both species. The fish farmers still faced challenges of expensive fish feeds, predators and water quality problems due to increasing urbanisation. The study recommended the need for farmers to re-organise themselves into cooperatives to collectively purchase inputs, train farmers in business management skills to run aquaculture as sole business entities, stocking of monosex tilapia for easy control of tilapia populations and efficient feed utilization to reduce the current feed conservation ratios.

Open Access Review Article

Natural Resource Management, Food Security and Violent Conflicts in Nigeria: Concepts, Issues and Policy Considerations

Clementina O. Ajayi, Adegboyega E. Oguntade

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/37638

The ability to manage natural resources in our environment sustainably will determine the human well being today and in the future. In spite of this, policy formulations and pronouncements in Nigeria have not taken due cognizance of the fact that human well being and natural resources management should be examined as joint issues because of the nexus between them. This paper reviews relevant concepts on natural resources, food security and conflicts in order to highlight the linkages between natural resources management, on the one hand, and food security and conflicts, two factors which have a significant impact on human well being, on the other hand. The paper further looks at the effects of the struggle for control over natural resources and food insecurity status on conflicts in Nigeria, and the political, social, and demographic factors that may aggravate these conflicts. It concludes with a discussion of some policy recommendations and measures that may be used to manage natural resources and ensure food security which may reduce violent conflict and foster peace in Nigeria.