The mulberry, which is cultivated generally in mild and subtropical regions, is cultivated in our country extensively. However, this potential cannot be assessed enough. Cultivation of mulberry has started to earn importance in Adıyaman in recent years. Mulberry has a great market potential thanks to its nutritive features of processed products and the fresh consumption of it. Dozens of products such as molasses, jams, fruit pulp, mulberry butter, dried mulberry, fruit ice cream, walnut sausage, vinegar, fruit juice concentrate, alcohol are made from its fruit. In this study, the general economic features of mulberry cultivation in Adıyaman is tried to be put forth. For this purpose, the statistics that are published by Turkish Statistical Institute and other data sources have been taken as references. In the study, the initial evaluation subjects were carried out about the cultivation areas, the number of the trees, and the amount of production and the production amount according to districts in Turkey. After that, the data were examined so as to put forth the economical features of mulberry cultivation in Adıyaman.
According to TSI data of the year 2005, the area of collective fruits produced as a commercial enterprise in the line of industry demands of mulberry is 12000 decare area and the number of products is 55000 tons from 2120000 efficient trees. In 2010, the figures raised above 75000 tons and it was 69334 tons in 2015. Average yield per tree varies from 25 to 30 kg within the examined period. Mulberry production in Adıyaman is not very common; however, the fruit is presented to the market as fresh for a short time and in order to apprise the producers redundant. Producers didn’t use to harvest the fruit as it was thought to be worthless in previous years. But today, it has become one of the most important income sources. The mulberry production area in Adıyaman has increased twenty times in the last decade. It is remarkable to see that the increase in the production areas in last few years. Thanks to local people’s realizing the support of the mulberry for their economies and establishing new production areas have a great effect on this increase. Total tree number and a good bearer numbers have been doubled. While Adıyaman’s mulberry production was 661 tons in 2005, it reached 1629 tons in 2015. The production increased about 2.5 times within this period. Average yield per tree varies from 25 to 30 kg. When the potential that Adıyaman has in mulberry production is appraised, it will contribute local economy in coming years. Mulberry will be an important fruit for the development of the region as it creates added value and employment increase.
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), is the largest work guarantee programme in the world, was enacted in 2005 with the primary objective of guaranteeing 100 days of wage employment per year to rural households. Implementation of programme at village level had done through village level functionaries i.e. Gram Rojgar Sevak (an official employee under MGNREGA) and Mates (chosen by the Gram Panchayat or Gram Rojgar Sevak (GRS) for marking attendance). Right of the workers and implementing procedure is written under the act. This study aimed to find the awareness of village level functionaries about the right of the workers and implementing procedure. It covered all socio-cultural region of Punjab. A total 44 (28 from Malwa, 8 from Majha, 8 from Doaba) village level functionaries were selected for the study from the all socio-cultural regions of Punjab i.e. Malwa, Majha and Doaba through probability proportionate to sampling size. The results of the study showed that overall, Doaba region high level of awareness was observed regarding the aspects such as ‘right to employment’, ‘gram panchayat responsibilities’, ‘procedure to obtain job cards’, ‘work and wage rates’, ‘implementation and wage disbursement’ and medium level of awareness was observed in ‘social audit and public scrutiny’ whereas in Malwa and Majha region in all the aspects high level of awareness was observed. Overall, the functionaries had a high level of awareness regarding all types of provisions under the act but since the functionaries included both the GRS and Mates, so the educational background of mates influenced the results as mates comparatively were less educated and consequently found less aware. Although, functionaries were found highly aware of the provisions under act but due to excessive workload they were not able to implement the programme effectively. There is need to plan the workload judiciously so that they can implement it properly.
The state of West Bengal has been divided into three agro-climatic regions that can further be stratified into six agro-climatic sub-regions, with specific climatic features. Each climatic sub-region (or zone) has different possibilities of crop production determined by its agro-climatic features along with demand and supply related factors. Farmers have been observed to practice crop diversification in each sub-zone. Crop diversification is an effective method of eliminating uncertainty involved in agriculture and raising farmers’ income. The present study intends to analyze the pattern of crop diversification and the factors influencing it in different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. The Simpson’s index has been used to estimate diversification. The results show that all the zones (except Eastern Plateau & Hilly zone), as well as the state of West Bengal as a whole, have witnessed -rising crop diversification since the new millennium compared to the nineties. The Principal Component Regression (PCR) has been used to identify the factors that influence the shift in cropping pattern in each agro-climatic zone. Eleven variables have been included in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The first four Eigenvalues capture maximum variability and the corresponding four components have been selected for PCR. Both the supply-side and the demand-side variables have been taken into consideration for analyzing PCA. The demand-side factors like the size of the urban population, per capita income and supply-side variables such as the proportion of small landholders, area under High Yielding Varieties (HYV) and density of markets play a significant role in determining crop diversification in all the agro climatic zones (except ‘Eastern Plateau and Hilly zone’).
Pesticide use is said to have contributed significantly to the food security though, with the decline in crop production and post-harvest losses, there is a growing concern over the ill effect of pesticides on human and animal health, environment, natural resources and sustainability of agriculture production. The farmers in Dharwad district of Karnataka are under the misconception that higher returns could be gained through the use of high doses of pesticides. However, this has resulted in pest resistance, pest resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks in the region over the past few years and farmers are only unaware of short-term ill effects of pesticides. Likert scaling, which is the most widely used psychometric scale in survey research, was used to study the perception of cotton farmers on pesticide use and Chi-square test was done to study the relationship between levels of perception and independent variables. Almost 90.83 percent respondents felt that the pesticide use effects human health. Approximately, 52.50 percent accepted the fact that pesticide kills other organisms and only 10 percent of the respondents neglected it. When asked further about the loss of biodiversity, soil, air and water contamination, pesticide drift and pest resurgence, the majority of the respondents didn’t know anything about it, i.e. 48.33 percent, 52.50 percent, 60 percent and 55 percent respectively.
This study is about marketing behaviour of dryland farmers and the challenges that the dryland farmer, as well as farming, is facing. Nowadays dry land farming is facing one of the major challenges regarding the recurrent drought occurrences. Dryland farming is a part of agriculture which generates one-fourth of total income to the agro-industry. If dryland crop is cultivated properly, it can contribute much to the economy of the nation . In India, 68 percent of the total net sown area (136.8 ha) comes under dry land which spreads over 177 districts [2,3]. Food growing area of, Dry land crops account for about 48 percent, whereas crops that do not grow is 68 percent. Nearly 50 percent of the total rural work force and 60 percent of livestock in the country are concentrated in dry districts . In general, the economic policies of developing countries in past years were having negative effects on the development of the dry land cropping cultures [5,6]. So to develop the strategies of dry land cropping; it is important to generate newer methodologies, in response to the benefit of stake holders and it is equally important to generate an optimum outcome with minimum resources. So that the economy can also build up properly.
India is contributing much efficiently to the international market, with utilizing the changing pattern of the nation. The present scenarios show a decrease in the area of dryland farming. At this juncture, marketing behaviour of these dryland farming systems was considered as an important thing and it was being analysed. The finding concluded that they are existing medium marketing behaviour among the growers.