Open Access Original Research Article

Role of KASAM in Marketing of Organic Turmeric in Kandhamal District of Odisha

Prangyaparamita Sahoo, Upasana Mohapatra, M. Sangeetha, K. K. Sarangi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/31916

The present study was conducted in Daringbadi block (Kandhamal district) of Odisha. Primary data was collected for the year 2015-16 using semi-structured interview schedules from seventy turmeric growers selected from ten villages. The paper aims to study the marketing practices and channels involved in the marketing of organic turmeric, as well as to identify major constraints in marketing of organic turmeric. Three marketing channels were found to be dominant in the study area namely, Channel I: producer---consumer, Channel II: producer-- commission agent-- local wholesaler– retailer-- consumer, Channel III: producer-- KASAM agency (Kandhamal Apex Spices Association for Marketing) -- state wholesaler—retailer-- consumer, The study revealed that local wholesaler and KASAM agency are important in the marketing of organic turmeric in the study area contributing to 54.28 per cent of the marketing channels. KASAM (Kandhamal Apex Spices Association for Marketing) agency was established on 1st September 1998 and has been able to solve the problems in marketing of organic turmeric to a great extent. The marketable surplus augmented with increase in production. Intensified efforts are needed to identify the specific problems related to turmeric marketing. Major marketing problems included non-availability of varieties that fetch higher market value, higher commission charges, lack of nearest market, unawareness among organic turmeric growers about its sky-rocketing prices in cities and export, obligation of the poor farmer producer to repay the loan and lack of proper storage facility. To overcome the problem and make organic turmeric marketing a profitable one, development of infrastructure, improved storage structures, timely extension services, entrepreneurship skills and awareness is essential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Knowledge of Inter Annual Rainfall Variability and Adaptation Strategies in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

V. A. Agidi, S. M. Hassan, T. G. Baleri, M. Usman, V. N. Gabriel

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/40006

The study investigated farmers’ knowledge of inter annual rainfall variability and adaptation methods used in Nasarawa State. The questionnaire was used to generate data on four sections bothering on the socio-economic background of farmers, farming practices, knowledge of inter annual rainfall variability and adaptation strategies. A Multistage random selection technique was used to distribute the questionnaire across the state. The study adopted the agricultural zones as used by Nasarawa Agricultural Development Program (N.A.D.P) which are South, West and North. The first stage of the picked two Local Government Areas from each of the agricultural zones, then the second stage was to divide each zone into three making a total of 18 units. Each of the zones was further divided into two extension units making a total of 36 units. Ten questionnaires were shared in the 36 units with the help of extension workers making a total of 360 units. The result shows that 53% of the farmers are not aware of inter annual rainfall variability while about 47% of the farmers are aware. Extension workers are the highest source of information amongst respondents with 55%. A large percentage of respondents (84%) noted that they have tried adaptation and it has led to higher yield. Changing in planting date is the most common adaptation used by the farmers (49%) while 55% of the farmers affirm that, lack of awareness is the greatest constraint to adaption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude of Social Science Scholars of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University towards Online Learning Management System in Agriculture

R. Nisha, R. Arunachalam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39794

This paper deals with the attitude of students towards online learning management system in agriculture. Electronic learning or online learning technologies have great potential to spread learning. Much of the success of e-learning can be attributed to the availability of Learning Management Systems (LMS), also known as Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) or learning platforms. Online LMS has been successfully used for agricultural education though it has content issues. Globally there are lots of organizations that provide online agricultural courses ranging from certificate courses to doctoral programmes. Online LMS for Agricultural Education is used for almost all subjects including Crop science, Animal science, Poultry science, Soil science and Water management, Plant/Animal protection, Plant/Animal breeding. This paper is an attempt to explore the attitude towards online LMSs among the Post Graduate students of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) India. A sample size of 30 students pursuing master's programme under the Directorate of Centre for Agriculture and Rural Development Studies of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, was selected by random sampling technique, with the prime objective to study the attitude of students towards Online LMS in agricultural education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness Status of Plant-parasitic Nematodes Occurrence and Damage among Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria

C. O. Eche, J. I. Oluwatayo, P. O. Unah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/21957

Aim: Benue state is reportedly one of the most agrarian-inclined states in Nigeria. With almost all economic crops cultivated largely in rural communities within the state, the activities of pests and diseases continue to devastate most fields. Among these pests are plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs). Hence the study was conducted to accentuate the prevalence and degree of PPN occurrence in Benue state for the first time.

Methodology: Using well-structured questionnaires 120 farmers were interviewed in six Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Benue State covering 12 districts to divulge the level of PPN awareness among rural farmers and in addition, the extent of PPN damage on their fields. Laboratory-based microscopy study was used to identify common PPN genera on farmers’ fields.

Results: Among the results obtained, it was shown that of the number of respondents interviewed throughout the twelve districts, only 10% of farmers in 7 LGAs have heard of PPN as soil-borne damage-causing organism. In Tsambe, Mbatian, Mbaityu, Ukpekpe and Ibilla LGAs only 20% of the farmers have heard of nematode. Microscopy studies showed that average extent of nematode damage on plant roots and presence was 4.1 out of a scale of 1.0 to 5.0. A total of 7 families comprising 10 genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were recovered from composite root and soil samples collected from surveyed areas.

Conclusion: The level of awareness on plant-parasitic nematode occurrence and damage in Benue State is very low even though devastations on economic crops grown within the State is high. There is an urgent need to increase information dissemination among farmers within the studied state on PPNs with attendant campaigns on their management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contributions of African Bird’s Eye Chilli (Capsicum frutescens) to Household Income of Smallholder Farmers in Northern Uganda: A Case Study of Paicho Sub-County

Genesis Acaye, Julius C. W. Odongo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39829

African Bird’s Eye Chilli, a non-traditional export crop in Uganda, is becoming an important cash crop to the rural farmers. Its growth potential remains unexploited. Rural farmers derive their livelihoods from the land, but there are limited high valued crops for export and chilli presents the alternative to diversification. This study focused on the adoption and contribution of chilli to the household income of rural farmers. A total of 100 households were selected randomly, provided with chilli seeds and trained in basic agronomic practices of growing chilli in Paicho Sub-county. Sixty households grew the crop on an average of 0.158 acres and obtained an average yield of 103 kgs of dried chilli. The households realized an average income of 781,400 UGX. Before chilli production, average income from farming activities was 1,028,900 UGX and overall average total annual income was 1,672,000 UGX per household. After chilli production, average income from farming activities rose to 1,345,700 UGX and the overall average total annual income rose to 2,181,050 UGX. Advantages of growing chilli were; easy management, quick maturity, high yield, ready market, good market price, low cost of production, seeds are easy to access and resistance to weather. However, chilli production faces some challenges such as; difficulty in harvesting, pests and diseases, low access to seedlings, difficulties in drying during the rainy season, requires storage facilities and price fluctuation. African bird's eye chilli is a potential cash crop for smallholder farmers; its production should be embraced and promoted in Northern Uganda.