The tribal communities in Kerala constitute 1.4 percent of the general population. Despite, Kerala’s remarkable social sector development, it is observed that the tribal communities still remain the most vulnerable community in the state. Hence, the present study was an attempt to study the extent of social exclusion of Adiya tribal communities of Wayanad. Social exclusion was measured using five indicators and primary data was collected from 90 respondents, using structured questionnaire. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that Adiyas faced an overall exclusion of 66.38 percent. Analysis of extent of social exclusion indicator wise showed that economic exclusion was felt to the extent of 74.54 percent followed by political-legal exclusion (69.89%). Also, Adiya tribe experienced geographical exclusion to the extent of 69.76 percent followed by service exclusion (67.96%) and socio-cultural exclusion (48.92%) respectively. Further 50.00 percent of the respondents felt medium level of social exclusion. Considering the significant level of social exclusion faced by this tribal community, developmental interventions for the empowerment of Adiyas in social, economic and educational spheres for ensuring food and livelihood security and for defence against exploitation is the need of the hour.
Aims: The study employed cross-sectional data obtained from Oyo and Osun state, South-western Nigeria, to explore cashew farmers’ awareness and perception of climate change, as well as to ascertain the adaptation strategies they adopt to cope with the effects of climate change.
Methodology: Qualitative approaches were taken to obtain information needed to address each of the specific objectives. The responses were analysed descriptively and presented in the form of tables, bar and pie chart. Chi-square test of independence was employed to test the hypotheses.
Results: Survey results indicated that almost all the respondents were aware of climate change prior to the time this survey was conducted. Moreover, a large proportion of them claimed to have noticed that temperatures were warming, while precipitation was declining. They react to these changes in climate by adopting various climate-adaptive strategies, prominent among which are introduction of new cashew varieties and intercropping of cashew alongside other crops. The study further revealed that there was a significant relationship between farmers experience and adoption of at least a single adaptation strategy.
Conclusion: The survey results demonstrated that cashew farmers in the study area were aware of climate change, and they put in place adaptation measures to help them avert its negative consequences.
Innovations in Technology Dissemination (ITD) is part of the agricultural extension system that holds key to rapid development and transformation of rural society and it is greatly influenced by the linkage between the research subsystem, extension subsystem and client subsystem. In Kerala, several linkage mechanisms are existed at the state and regional levels to provide strong ties between research and extension system. The study was conducted in Kannur district of Kerala to identify the extent of awareness of farmers on ITD methods implemented by different agricultural institutions in Kannur district. Thirty farmers each from four selected grama panchayats (Ezhome, Kankol- Alapadamba, Kadannapalli- Panapuzha and Mayyil) of Kannur were identified using simple random sampling and a total of one hundred and twenty respondents were included in the study. A well-structured interview schedule was used for collecting the data from the respondents. The data were tabulated and inferences were drawn from the appropriate statistical analysis. The result shows that majority of the farmers were aware of the ITD methods like training programmes by ATMA (68.33%), ATMA newsletter (58.33%), LEADS activities (53.33%) and training and workshops by Department of Agriculture (66.67%). Most of the farmers lack awareness about the innovations by NGOs and farmers clubs formed by different banks.
The study was carried out to determine the willingness to pay for forest conservation among villagers living at the perimeter fence of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The multistage sampling procedure was adopted for the study. A total number of four hundred and eight respondents comprising of farmers, hunters, herbalists and herb sellers were randomly selected and interviewed using copies of well-structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Log it regression model. The study showed that the average age of farmers and hunters was 55 and 57 years while the average age of herb sellers was 43 and herbalist 63 years. Majority of the respondents pooled together are male, married with an average age of 55 years and household size of 7 members. The larger percentage of them were native of the study area, not educated, not employed, but having the monthly income between 12,000- 20,000 naira (US$33.38 to US$55.63) and closer to the forest by 1-9 km. The mean willingness to pay for forest conservation was N114.38 (US$0.32) per month per household and the total willingness to pay was N3, 461,024.42 (US$9, 627.32) per month. The study further revealed that there was significant relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and their willingness to pay for forest conservation. Variables such as gender, educational level, occupation, income and bid amounts had significant effect on the willingness to pay for forest conservation. The study therefore recommends that monetary value should be placed on the social, cultural, ecological and economic services generated by the forests for the forests to continue to provide goods and services on a sustainable basis. Also, the willingness to pay for forest conservation can be used as an alternative measure of displeasure against the conversion of the forests to other uses and as a supportive argument for the invaluable roles the forests play in sustaining the livelihood of the people.
To create subsidiary income and employment to small and marginal tribal farmers of Adilabad district, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Adilabad introduced Goat farming as a livelihood opportunity to the tribal farmers. Under the Goat farming 40 tribal farmers were selected from 8 adopted villages of KVK, Adilabad by Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques. Every farmer was given 2 goats with a worth of Rs. 8000 and few supplementary medicines and vacancies were also supplied. The net value created under goat farming in 4 years from 2013 to 2017 is Rs. 20, 75,000 and the number of goats is 415. It is also found suitable from the point of employment generation per unit utilization of resources. Further, it also created regular subsidiary income, goat milk for family consumption and farm yard manure for soil fertility.