The objective of this study was to Diversified Utilization of potato, and marketing constraint faced by farm women in potato production kannauj division. In India, potato is cultivated in almost all states under diverse agro-climatic conditions. About 85 percent of potatoes are cultivated in Indo-Gangetic plains of North India. The states of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Punjab, Bihar and Gujarat accounted for more than 80 percent share in total production. Fruits and vegetables are usually more difficult to market than to produce. Perishable and bulky nature of the produce makes marketing process more difficult and vulnerable to uncertainties to a higher extent. As for as potatoes area concerned India has experienced potato revolution over last 55 years. In 1949 (when CPRI was established), India produced 1.54 million tons potato out of 0.234 million ha with an average yield of 6.58 t/ha. Based on the average of three years ranging from 1998-99 to 200-01, the country produced 23.63 million tons of potatoes from 1.29 million ha with an average yield of 18.23 t/ha showing an increase of 5.5, 15.3 and 2.8 times in area, production and yield of potato, respectively. At present India is facing a problem of plenty as far as potato is concerned. However CPRI is believed to take this production to 40 million tons by the year 2020.
While urban dwelling is increasingly becoming common across the world, in Namibia, the population settlement pattern is skewed towards rural areas and so is the case for the Zambezi region. The main livelihood strategy is agriculture, which is subsistence in nature and practiced on communal land. This paper investigates changes in the agricultural livelihood strategy in the rural Zambezi. The work is premised around the hypothesis that the agricultural livelihood strategy has improved since 2002 to 2008. Parametric sampling approach in the form of stratified sampling technique based on environmental systems of being flood prone was used to yield a sample size of 253 respondents. SPSS was used in analyzing the data and in the process conventional descriptive statistics and a Chi-Square method were applied. The results show that households with members who were between 5 to 6 in number owned more land than households with more or few members. The majority of respondents are between the ages 36 to 60 years of age. Of the total respondents, 61% were married. The majority of respondents in the category of those with no education at all making up 35% are women. At Junior and Secondary education levels, women dominate men. Male respondents (at 5%) slightly outclass women respondents in terms of having attended tertiary education. Furthermore, the findings proved otherwise in favour of the alternative hypothesis that changes to the livelihoods have occurred but in an adverse manner. The declining livestock numbers from 53% to 47% of the total cattle numbers and crop harvests among the marginalized households require some long-term policy interventions. Introducing small irrigation projects for rural farming households holds potential for increased crop outputs when there is inadequate rainfall. Other than opting for sustainable livelihoods, anything less is unlikely to be inappropriate for a rural farming household in the Zambezi region.
The study was conducted in College of Agriculture (COA), Gandhi Krishi Vigyana Kendra, Bengaluru and College of Agriculture (COA), Vishveswaraiah Canal (V C) Farm, Mandya, in order to analyse the perception of students and teachers on Rural Agricultural Work Experience Programme (RAWEP) in 12 weeks village stay. In total 80 students and 30 teachers constituted sample size of the study. The ex-post facto research design was employed. Results revealed that 47.50 per cent of students and 46.67 per cent of teachers had a higher level of perception on the achievement of RAWEP objectives. Majority of both students and teachers have perceived that RAWEP objectives, helps the students to understand rural problems, rural institutions, and get familiar with rural life were fully achieved in 12 weeks village stay. Further, majority of both students and teachers also perceived that on-campus factors viz., orientation provided in the beginning and advance planning by teachers; off-campus factors viz., season during which village stay is conducted, teachers visits to villages, cooperation within students group and cooperation from farmers; General factors viz., students own interest in RAWEP, knowledge on subject matter and stipend provided to students were the highly influencing factors on the performance of RAWEP in 12 weeks village stay. RAWEP was helping the students to get more practical knowledge of rural life, crops and cropping season, the skills in identification of problems and providing solutions to the farmers. Therefore, proper planning, guidance, monitoring and evaluation of RAWEP work is very much necessary coupled with providing sufficient funds and a stipend to the students for achieving RAWEP objectives to a greater extent.
Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) is a technique which gives more emphasis on local knowledge end enable locals to do their own appraisal, analysis and planning on the participatory basis. In this study, a transect survey was conducted at Amba village of Ajmer, India to understand the factual needs of the farming community. The rank-based quotient (RBQ) was calculated followed by the value based Index (VBI) in order to prioritize integrated agriculture problems and their solution was given using problem-solution-tree approach. Findings indicated low productivity of animals, unavailability of irrigation water, bacterial blight in marigold, leaf blight in chrysanthemum and low yield in pearl millet as important constraints faced by the farmers. Constraints identified were categorized as problems arising out of gaps in research/extension activities in various agriculture and allied disciplines. Based on the results and necessity of the villagers, scope for research/extension and policy implications was made.
The study focused on the documentation and rationalization of Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) practices pertinent to tea in Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. An attempt was made to study the awareness and adoption level of the rationalized ITKs among tea growing hilly tribes. The study was conducted in two phases including documentation and rationalization and field survey. The ITK practices were documented from the tea growing from the elderly tribal farmers of Nilgiris district. They were rationalized based on the experience of 32 scientists from TNAU and KVKs of Tamil Nadu. Among the 34 total documented ITKs 26 were found to be rational. These rational ITKs were tested for the awareness and adoption level among the tea growing hilly tribes of the Konavakorai village of Kotagiri of block, Nilgiris district. The respondents were selected using simple random sampling technique and the majority of them were found to possess with medium to high level of awareness and adoption level about the ITKs in tea crop.