Open Access Systematic Review Article

The Poverty - Environment Nexus in Developing Countries: Evidence from Ethiopia: A Systematic Review

Getahun Kassa, Biruktait Teferi, Nardos Delelegn

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39310

The relationships between poverty and the environment are highly contested, debated and researched. Environmental degradation and poverty, however, may have mutual causality. This paper, therefore, tried to examine whether there is an association between poverty and environmental degradation in developing countries. An extensive literature review was made to evaluate the effect of environmental degradation on the poor. The paper posited that poverty worsens environmental degradation by leaving poor with no alternatives rather than degrading their environment to meet their present needs at the expense of future benefits. Conversely, environmental degradation exacerbated poverty through deteriorating poor’s livelihood, income and health. Therefore, an effort has to be made to curb the effect of poverty on the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Extent of Adoption of Organic Red Gram Cultivation Practices in Dryland Areas of Karnataka (Cajanus cajan)

Akkamahadevi Naik, M. Sreenivasulu, I. Sreenivasa Rao

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39908

Red gram is commonly known as Tur or Pigeon pea in India and is the second important pulse in the country after Bengal gram. The ability of red gram to produce high economic yields under soil moisture deficit makes it an important crop in rainfed and dryland agriculture. The present study was confined to the organic red gram growers of Gulbarga district. Majority of the respondents shown fully adoption of recommended practices, like 91.66 percent of the respondents had fully adopted the practice of deep summer ploughing for pest and disease control and the practice of timely sowing, followed by (83.33%) had fully adopted the practice of allowing cattle grazing to add cow dung manure in field and for weeding. This might be due to medium training received and perceived attributes of respondents towards organic farming and a majority of the respondents in this study were young age farmers and they were more curious regarding organic farming practices. In the same manner, respondents also showing partial to non-adoption of recommended practices might be due to less formal education level, medium social economic status, extension contact and medium risk taking capacity.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Evaluate the Intervention being Provided by AWCs Regarding Breastfeeding, Weaning and Child Diet in District Budgam of Kashmir Region (J&K) (Based on Beneficiary Responses)

Iffat Jabeen Ghani

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39887

This study was undertaken to assess a feedback regarding the intervention being provided by Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) in District Budgam. The study was conducted in 60 Anganwadi Centers (AWCs) and the beneficiaries included three registered groups viz., Pregnant Women (PW), Nursing Mothers (NM), and mothers of child beneficiaries (MCB) having children in the age group 0-3 years - 4 beneficiaries were selected from each AWC. Since India’s 66% of the total population comprises of mother and children who are also the major consumers of health services hence they are the “priority,” “special risk” and “vulnerable group.” and therefore specific programmes for enhancing maternal and child health have been in place since the early fifties in India. These AWCs serve the purpose and are supposed to provide pre-school education on one hand and breaking vicious cycle of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality on the other hand. By educating women beneficiaries and also providing supplementary nutrition. Keeping in view the above factors and also to evaluate the intervention being provided by Anganwadi centers this study was planned and designed accordingly. Results obtained indicate that inadequate intervention is being provided regarding most of the aspects of breastfeeding with 86% denying the intervention regarding initiation of breastfeeding and 96% said no awareness regarding frequency of breastfeeding is provided in AWCs and 97% reporting no intervention regarding importance of balanced diet for children, although some of the blocks are better in providing information regarding some aspects while as others are lacking the ability to improve the knowledge of their beneficiaries regarding various parameters under study, which needs to be further taken care of through, advanced interventions by involving Anganwadi centres and medical department for the safety and health of our children. All the results were obtained by using Chi-square analysis and by comparing the responses of beneficiaries and AWWs (Anganwadi workers) across the blocks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Innovation and Employment Generation for Universities and Agricultural Colleges Graduates in Ghana: A Case Study

Daniel Agbeko

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39501

In recent times over 50% of graduates from universities and agricultural colleges in Ghana, do not gain employment upon completion of their education. This research finds out how the agricultural colleges could be repositioned such that their graduates will be self-employed upon completion of their education. In this research, I deployed a qualitative research method and concluded that: the agricultural colleges should establish an entrepreneurship hub in their respective colleges to train students on how to exploit their entrepreneurial intent so as to establish their own business upon graduation from their respective colleges. Secondly, I established that information communication technology is fast growing in developing countries and therefore students entrepreneurial activities should also focus on the development of information communication technology platforms to aid the agricultural sector in information dissemination and usage by farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Agriculture Extension Functionaries Regarding Information and Communication Technology Tools

Dishant Jojit James, M. T. Lakshminarayan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/40963

The present study was conducted during 2016-17 to assess the knowledge of agriculture extension functionaries regarding Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools. Eighty Agriculture officers and Assistant Agriculture officers were interviewed from 43 Raitha Samparka Kendras in four Southern districts of Karnataka state of India. Data was collected from the agriculture extension functionaries during the bimonthly meetings held in the District Agricultural Training Centres (DATCs) of the respective districts. The collected data was scored, tabulated and analysed using frequency, percentage, standard deviation, chi-square test and multiple regression analysis. The results revealed that three-fourth (75.00%) of the agriculture extension functionaries were having high and medium level of overall knowledge regarding ICT tools. It was also found that 72.80 percent of the variation in the knowledge of agriculture extension functionaries regarding ICT tools was explained by the 14 personal, socio-economic, psychological and communication characteristics of agriculture extension functionaries.