Background: Animal rearing has been an indivisible part of human civilization and culture from the very ancient periods. From centuries it is emphasized that livestock possession is a symbol of prosperity that not only enhances income but also diversifies the farming risks and stabilizes the farmer’s income, thus resulting in an improvement in the living standards of our rural farmers.
Aims: To explore and assess the present scenario of mutton production in terms of economics and prevailing farming practices in Quetta, a northwestern district of Balochistan province of Pakistan.
Place and Duration of the Study: Study was conducted in three sub-tehsils (Quetta, Khuchlak and Panjpai) of District Quetta from July to October, 2016.
Methodology: A survey of eighty-one mutton farmers / producers was conducted through personal interviews that were randomly selected from three tehsils of District Quetta to evaluate the economics and management of their production system.
Results: Results revealed that majority (51.85%) of respondents were above 41 years of age having literacy rate 81.48%, their major ethnical group was Pashtoon (62%) and most of them belong to agriculture and livestock related occupation (50%). Average farm land, covered area and covered space per animal were 1295, 479 and 5.52 square feet (sq. ft.), respectively. Maximum number (62.96%) of farm sheds was kacha. Average flock size was 80 and majority (66.12%) flocks comprised of sheep with relatively lesser number (33.87%) of goats. Shinwari sheep (52.02%) and Khurrasani goat (44.65%) breeds were the most preferred and prevailing breeds being reared in the study area. Commonly adopted feeding method by the farmers was a combination of natural grazing with supplementation (43.42%), while ground wheat was the main feed supplement. Most of the farmers got their animals through purchase only. Capital cost incurred in PKRs. were 313418/-, 4520/-, 6615/-, 548/-, 1591/-, 1996/- and 14994/- on feed & fodder, veterinary services, hired labour, marketing, transportation, miscellaneous and on building & equipment depreciation charges, respectively. Average gross revenue / income earned from mutton production in PKRs. was average 21092/-, 17.79/- and 27.79/- from sale of animal, wool/hair, empty bags and manure etc. Net return obtained by mutton farmers in District Quetta per animal in three months was Rs. 7045/-; while cost-benefit ratio observed was 1:1.32, 1:1.34 and 1:1.33 for Quetta, Khuchlak and Panjpai tehsils, respectively with an average of 1:1.33.
Conclusions: This study shows that the overall mean economic efficiency need to be improved by efficient utilization of resources.
Aims: To access farmers’ ability to identify traits of their preferred maize varieties and their implication on DUS testing.
Study Design: Purposive Sampling of Maize farmers.
Place and Duration of Study: Data were collected from two (2) districts (Ejura-Sekyeredumasi and Nkoranza North) and villages of Wenchi Municipality of a selected smallholder farming area in Ghana using a survey covering one hundred and seventy (170) maize farmers in 2015.
Methodology: Results indicated a limited selection of hybrids and improved open-pollinated varieties (OPV) grown by farmers in the area under study. More than 90 % of the farmers grew local landraces (Abrohoma or Appiah and Denkyeaburo) and the majority of the farmers were males. The results showed that bulk of the farmers were illiterate and youth farmers showing great prospect to future farming. Hybrids and improved OPVs were planted by less than 10% of the farmers. Abrohoma landraces had a characteristic similar to the hybrids and OPVs according to their abilities and their preferred characteristics of maize varieties with high yield, tolerance to abiotic stress, yield stability, white grain color and drying and shelling qualities. Farmers were willing to grow hybrids and improved (OPVs) if their preference and availability were considered.
Conclusion: The results showed that breeding opportunity exists for improving the farmer's local landraces and their ability to check off type with their long years of experience in growing maize. Plant breeders can therefore take advantage of this by incorporating farmers preferred traits into existing high yielding varieties.
Recommended water management technologies and practices are a number of measures developed for the specific crop of varied farming systems as a resolution for conserving water in agriculture. These technologies are developed after meticulous research and recommended to farmers by research institutes of Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), State Agricultural University or other organisation. In This Paper, a scale is developed that can be used to assess the attitude of farmers towards recommended water management technologies and practices to frame various developmental programs. Attitude is a developed feeling or emotion about some psychological object which helps an individual to give a verdict on that psychological object. The scale is developed to measure the attitude of farmers towards recommended water management technologies and practices for which ‘Likert method of summated ratings’ is followed.
A total of 57 statements results after edition of 85 statements as per the criteria suggested by Edwards , and sent to 100 extension specialists working in various research and extension wings of ICAR, State Agricultural Universities throughout the country for critical evaluation of statements on a 5 point continuum. The responses received from 46 judges out of 100, an aggregate of 29 statements are selected based on the relevancy test i.e., relevancy weight, percentage and mean relevancy scores. Further, the statements are subjected to item analysis by administering them to 100 farmers from a non-sample area. Finally a total of 12 statements are selected based on the ‘t’ values (> 2.75) resulted from the item analysis and included in the final scale. Thus, the instrument developed to measure the attitude of farmers towards recommended water management technologies, and practices consist of 6 positive and 6 negative attitude statements.
A study has been undertaken to work out the costs involved and returns generated in mulberry and cocoon production among the farmers of rainfed and irrigated conditions in Chamarajanagar district of Karnataka state, India. In mulberry production, costs (fixed and variable) involved in the production of mulberry was lower with rainfed farmers over irrigated farmers with lesser among small farmers over medium and big farmers. The unit cost of mulberry production was lower under the irrigated condition as compared to the rainfed condition being lower among big farmers over medium and small farmers. However, gross returns, net returns and B:C ratio were more under irrigated condition over rainfed condition with higher being among big farmers over medium and small farmers. In cocoon production, the total cost of cocoon production was lower with rainfed farmers as compared to irrigated farmers with lesser among small farmers category over medium and big farmers category. The unit cost of cocoon production was lower under irrigated farmers over rainfed farmers with least being among medium farmers over big and small farmers. Grass returns, net returns and B:C ratio were more under the irrigated condition when compared to rainfed condition with better returns among big farmers over medium and small farmers.
Tea garden workers are the most deprived section in Bangladesh, especially female tea workers. The present study is an attempt to explore the health and hygiene condition of the female tea laborers, especially laborers of the Malnichara, Lakkatoorah and Tarapur tea estate in Sylhet district. The study was conducted through a personal interview with 80 purposively selected sample respondents. The study reveals that almost all are illiterate. Nearly 70% are living in an extended type of family, and their household’s monthly income is between 5000-6000 Taka, whereas their monthly family expenses are almost equal to their earnings. Therefore, it was observed that the female laborers are suffering from various disorders like fever, skin problems, diarrheal diseases, cough, hypertension, gastric problems, etc. Significant percentages (76%) of female laborers do not get an opportunity to take foods during working hour. Around 86% revealed that they do not reach proper nutritional facilities due to lack of knowledge and economic insolvency. The study showed that health services of tea estates are not satisfactory. Highest 65% disclosed that they are using water from river, canal, lake for cooking proposes. A noteworthy portion (78%) of female tea workers does not wash their hands before eating or after toilet. Majority of the respondents use ordinary shared latrine, and these are not sanitary as well as they throw their garbage’s in open places, which contaminated the estates environment. Finally, areas and context-specific data are essential to raise awareness among the tea gardeners about female workers rights and also for future policies and effective surveillance initiatives.