Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Analysis of Gari Processing Systems in Sierra Leone

Osman Nabay, Abdul R. Conteh, Alusaine E. Samura, Mathew L. S. Gboku, Martin Koroma, Fallah S. Kassoh, Keiwoma M. Yila, James B. A. Whyte, Daniel S. Fornah, Isata Kamanda, Dan D. Quee, Festus B. Massaquoi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/42393

This study assess the performance and efficiencies of existing (4) gari production systems (profitability and marketing margins as well as the strengths, weakness, opportunities and constraints) in Sierra Leone. The Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) was used for the analysis. Multistage random sampling was used to select study samples. Information was collected using a structured questionnaire from a total of 108 gari processors in 24 chiefdoms. Data collected included cost return and socioeconomic variables. The PAM was based on 50 Kg of fresh cassava storage roots and Leone (SSL) as money to evaluate costs and revenues. The analysis indicates that only three (3) cassava gari production systems (2, 3 & 4) present a Domestic Resource Cost Ratio of less than 1 (DRC < 1) and Cost-Benefit Ratio (CBR) also less than 1 (CBR within 0.64 to 0.96). Cassava gari production activity which uses systems 2, 3 and 4 was economically profitable for gari processing. Discounting potential revenue from cassava gari production systems that use at least mechanical equipment have higher comparative and competitive advantages. PAM for cassava gari production systems at 30% interest rate only system 4 remains profitable and thus have a comparative and competitive advantage which was the most mechanized system. It can be concluded that among the four gari production systems identified, system 4 was the most profitable with higher competitive and comparative advantage. This implies that policies for mechanizing gari production must be enacted for profitable and sustainable gari production in Sierra Leone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Elasticity of Farm Output among Smallholder Farmers in Selected Agro-Ecological Zones of Embu County, Kenya

Samuel Njiri Ndirangu, Stephen G. Mbogoh, O. L. E. Mbatia

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/43048

Aims: Low and declining levels of crop and livestock productivities in the Kenyan agriculture have been attributed to the low application of the key farm inputs.  Measures to encourage application of farm inputs with the highest effect on farm output in a given agro-ecological zone (AEZs) have been hampered by lack of adequate and reliable research-based information to guide the choices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elasticity of farm output for some selected farm inputs across three different agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Kenya, using data collected from Embu County in Eastern Kenya as a case study. 

Place and Duration of Study: The sample was collected from three agro-ecological zones, namely Sunflower, Coffee and Tea zones, in Embu county, Eastern Kenya between June 2015 and November 2016.

Methodology: The data was collected from a sample comprising 384 farms that were randomly selected using multi-stage stratified sampling employing probability proportionate to size sampling procedures. A stochastic log-linearized Cobb-Douglas production function was used to estimate the elasticity of output for the key factors of production. 

Results: The elasticity of farm output for labour was found to be significant and positive in the Sunflower (p=.000), Coffee (p=.000) and Tea (p=.000) zones. The elasticity of farm output for fertilizer was significant and positive in the Sunflower (p=.02) and Tea (p=.01) zones. It was only in the Sunflower (p=.01) Zone where the elasticity of farm output for land was found to be significant.

Conclusion: The study recommended that measures be put in place to increase labour usage in the three agro-ecological zones. The study also recommended for increased fertilizer usage in the Sunflower and Tea zones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microeconomic Analysis of Marketing Selected Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in AWGU Agricultural Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria

Nzeh, Emeka, Chukwu, Blessing, Nze, Lawrence

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39604

Non-timber forest products have the capability of providing food, being a source of livelihood and income generation for the rural households. This study investigated the marketing of selected non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in Awgu Agricultural zone, Enugu state of Nigeria. The study sought after the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, identified some of the NTFPs, and ascertained the profitability of NTFP marketing as well as the constraints facing NTFPs in the study area. With the use of data collection instrument, 90 respondents were interviewed from five (5) main rural markets across the two local government areas in the study area. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, net income analysis, benefit cost ratio, and profitability index. Results indicate that NTFP marketing is profitable with a gross margin of, N9,000 for bitter kola, N4,500 for ogbono, N1,200 for utazi, N1,300 for ukazi, N6,000 for grass cutter, also a net income of N7,297; N2,797; N309; N409 and N2,330 respectively for them. The benefit-cost ratio result also shows that for every N1 the marketer puts into marketing these selected NTFPs, N1.20kobo; N1.20kobo; N1.10kobo; N1.10kobo and N1.60kobo were realized for; bitter kola, ogbono, utazi, ukazi, and grasscutter respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clean Milk Production Practices Adopted by the Dairy Farmers of R. S. Pura in Jammu District

Rayees Ahmed Bafanda, Rakesh Nanda, S. A. khandi, Farzana Choudhary, Mohd Saleem Choudhary, Fahad Shehjar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39985

Clean milk production is considered as one of the important factors in the economy of the state.  The adoption of clean milk production practices has great potential for increasing the quality of milk production. Considering the importance of adoption of clean milk production practices followed by dairy farmers and the quality milk production the present study was conducted in R. S. Pura block of Jammu district to evaluate clean milk production practices adopted by the dairy farmers. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. R. S. Pura block was purposively selected for the study. From the selected block, a list of villages with maximum populations of milch animals was identified. Out of the list of identified villages, two villages were randomly selected for the study. From each selected villages 20 dairy farmers were selected randomly, thus making a total of 40 farmers. The data were collected by personal interview method using structured interview schedules. The data were coded, classified, tabulated and analyzed using the software; Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS 16.0). The presentation of data was done to give pertinent, valid and reliable answer to the specific objectives. Frequencies, percentage, mean and mean percent score (MPS) were worked out for meaningful interpretation. The results of the study revealed that cleaning of animal house daily was adopted by majority (92.50) of the respondents, very few ( 27.50) percent of respondents have construction of the pucca floor and well drainage system in the animal shed. Only few respondents provide ventilation to animal house and collect the dung and dispose away of the animal house. Very less (17.5) percent of respondents keep milking area clean, disinfested and free from flies and insects. Majority 72.50 percent of respondents adopted the practice of vaccination milking animals regularly. None of the respondents’ cleaned animal shed fifteen minutes before milking, adopted regular examination of milking animal by veterinary doctor and clip hairs around the udder and hind quarter of the milking animal as a preventive measure for clean milk production. A very low 22.50 percentage of respondents wash udder for removal of mud and dung. Not a single respondent practice post and pre-milking tip dipping in potassium permanganate solution. All the respondents (100%) washed their hands with plain water before milking and trimmed their nails regularly. Only 52.5 percent of respondents covered their head with cap or handkerchiefs at time of milking. Milking by healthy person is adopted by majority (85%) of respondents. None of respondents practiced washing entire animal or washing hind quarter or back of cows before milking and changed the clean dress before milking. Majority 82.5 percent of respondents milked milch animals randomly.  Only 24.3 percent of adopted the practiced of milking the healthy animals first. Very few 11.90 percentages of respondents uses separate utensils for milking of healthy and sick animal. Majority 77.50 percent of respondents complete milking within 6-7 minutes. None of the respondents dispose fore-milk and practiced post-milking feeding to keep animal in standing position for 15 min. after milking.  Only 12.5 percent had adopted the practiced of passing the milk from a sieve or muslin cloth for removal of the dirt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Training Needs in Agro-chemical Use among Farmers in Bali Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria

S. D. Tanko, A. A. Ndaghu, H. U. Mahmud, M. B. Bashir, A. A. Wambai

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/40016

Agro-chemicals though beneficial to farmers, could be harmful to the users and the environment. To safely explore the benefits of agrochemicals use it was imperative to assess the level of training needs on save use of agro-chemicals among farmers in Bali Local Government Area, Taraba state. The specific objective were to: describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondent, ascertain respondents training needs in safe use of agrochemicals, identified respondents source of information on safe use of agrochemicals and identify the constraints encountered by the respondents in the use of agrochemicals. One hundred fifty six (156) questionnaires were administered to the respondents selected through multi- stage random sampling and snowball. Mean, percentages and logit regression were used to analyse the data. The surveys revealed 58.33% of the respondents were within the mean 25 years. Majority of the respondents (76.92%) were males, and 80.13% were married, with 67.52 of them having acquired one form of formal education or the other. The mean household size, farm size and years of farming experience were 6people, 3hectares and 11years respectively.  Most of respondents’ (74.36) source of fund through personal savings, greater percentage of them (47.44%) inherited their farm lands. Also majority of the respondents were aware of the safety measures on the use of agro-chemicals 100% of the respondents were in training needs in the safe use of agro-chemicals. Furthermore, 75.64% have their source of information through neighbors. A positive significant relationship existed between training needs and age (r = 0.0495), marital status (r = 0.6279) household size (r = 0.0153), education (r = 0.0267), family size (r = 0.0183) and farming experience (r = 0.0121). It is recommended that farmers need to be subjected to training in the safe and profitable use of agro-chemicals in Bali Local government area of Taraba state.