The study examines a snapshot of domestic marketing of freshwater Chinese mitten crab and support to the farmers in China with focus on the Jiangsu Province. A total of 96 farmers were sampled for the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to elicit information from the mitten crab farmers. The researchers employed descriptive statistics for the data analysis.
Chinese mitten crab farmers accessed price information from their fellow farmers, wholesalers, cooperatives, local market and the internet; most farmers accessed price information from their fellow mitten crab farmers. Farmers determined the quality of mitten crab through attributes such as maturity, appearance, weight, odour and texture with maturity ranked as the highest followed by appearance in quality attributes. Actors within the producer output supply chain are wholesalers, retailers, enterprises/organizations, supermarkets, cooperatives and consumers. Majority of farmers relied on own source of income (savings) to fund their mitten crab farming activities. Farmers who are members of cooperatives benefited from services such as technical support, uniform sales and purchase, unified feed and uniform crab seed of good quality. In conclusion, Chinese mitten crab farmers mostly share price information among themselves and employed multiple quality attributes in determining the quality of mitten crab. Most preferred supplying their mitten crab to wholesalers and depend less in accessing of credit. Majority of the farmers have been trained in the culture of mitten crab.
Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) serve as a frontline extension system and as knowledge resource centres of agricultural technologies for supporting farmers in improving their agricultural production and livelihood. They are vital in contributing to agricultural development in the county through technology assessment, refinement and diffusion. They also play a significant part in the development of the capacity of human resources in the grass root agricultural sector. Owing to the importance of these organisations, this study was conducted in five KVKs of Meghalaya to explore the work environment of the KVK workforce through studying the Organisational Climate (OC). Organisational Climate is the shared perception of the people working in the organisation about their organisation. It can be considered as the team spirit in any organisation and is important to the effectiveness of those organisations, be it big or small, private or public and profit or non-profit. The tool employed for the study was the Organisation Climate Questionnaire (OCQ) developed by Furham and Goodstein (1997). It was found that all the dimensions of organisational climate were having relatively high scores except in the case of Career Development, Teamwork and Support, Relationship and Reward System in some of the KVKs. These aspects of organisational climate had a relatively lower OCQ score and indicated that there was a need for change to address these problems in the organisations. Proper measures like progressive career development opportunities and fair promotions, recruitment of motivated and qualified support staffs, a more comprehensive orientation programme with efforts on professional relationship building strategies and proper reward incentives (financial and non-financial) may be a remedial measure to these ailing organisation climate aspects in these organisations.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the hierarchy of urban centres in Saudi governorates using the rank and size rule. Also, determine the primacy governorate. This study applied different methods to examine the possibility of a primate governorates within the law of the primate city, the primacy of index, rank and size rule, and four-city index. The census data for the years 2004, 2010, and 2014 were collected from GASTAT. The results show that the population concentrated in Al-Riyad, then Jiddah, followed by Makkah Al-Mokarammh. Moreover, the Al-Riyad governorate is the dominant primacy governorate in the urban hierarchy in Saudi Arabia.
Youth is a precious segment of the population as they play quite a significant role in development. Youth unemployment has risen dramatically. Vulnerability increases more in the agriculture sector due to disguised employment. Reasons behind employment vulnerability may vary in different situations which need to be identified for unemployment mitigation. Hence, it is essential to understand the factors responsible for employment vulnerabilities among rural youth. The present study was conducted in the 10 villages of Almora and Pauri Garhwal districts of Uttarakhand state in India. Data were collected from 210 rural youth (15-24 years) through the pre-structured interview schedule. The study revealed that 51.43 per cent of the respondents belonged to young age group, 58.10 per cent were female and most of them were educated up to higher secondary level. Regarding the relationship, education, size of landholding, media ownership and change-proneness had a significant relationship with employment vulnerability of rural youth. The study will help development functionaries to frame suitable policies and programmes.
Background: The growth and development of any country depends upon how well its resources, be it physical, financial or human, are put to use. Amongst these resources, the most vital is the human resources. Women constitute nearly one half of the world's population having enormous potential but being underutilised or unutilised for the economic development of the nation.
Objectives: The study aims to explore different enterprises for women in the food sector as well as examine the obstacles faced by the women for setting up their own business in India. The study also makes a framework strategies for rapid growth of women entrepreneurship in the food sector.
Materials and Methods: This paper is descriptive. Secondary data has been collected from various books, journals, thesis, websites, reports, research papers and our experiences as an extension worker.
Results and Recommendations: Women play a crucial role in the agriculture production because agriculture merely not only involves the production of food grains but also it's processing preservation and packaging. Therefore, more attention needs to be paid for the development of women entrepreneurship in food processing, preserving and packaging of the products. Skill development training for starting different enterprises should be imparted. Rural women should be targeted as a raw material can be readily available and generated at nearby places. Promoting and rewarding programmes serves women entrepreneurs should be enhanced.
Conclusion: There is great need to explore more women who are enthusiastic and have skills, strong willpower, need and potential to start, operate, manage and bear the risk of starting up an enterprise and to do something productive. Moreover, the development of entrepreneurship in women is essential for sustaining a competitive atmosphere in the context of globalisation of the economy.