Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of Pig Production in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Ume Smiles I., Jiwuba, Peter–Damian, C., M. O. Okoronkwo, S. O. Okechukwu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/27980

Economics of pig production in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria was studied using sixty farmers randomly selected from three towns out of five that make up the study area. Percentage response, Net farm income and ordinary least square regression analyses were used to address the objectives of the study. The result showed that 78.3% of the respondents were male farmers, while the females accounted for 21.7%. The age bracket of 31-40 constituted the majority (36.7%) of the farmers in the study area. 76% of the sampled population were married and 15% were single. 80% of the respondents were educated, while 20% had no formal education. Majority of the pig farmers had flock size of less than 20 pigs. The farmers’ socio-economic characteristic determinant factors to pig farmers’ output were farming experience, rearing method, flock size and level of education of the farmers Result of cost and returns showed that pig production is a profitable venture in the study area. The findings further show that total variable cost constuted 86.3% of total cost of production, while fixed costs accounted only for 5.2%. The Net Farm Income (NFI) was N3421,190 with Gross margin of N350,330. The return to scale was 1.089, indicating increasing return to scale. The major constraints to pig production in the study area were lack of capital (25%), cost of feeding (13.3%), diseases (11.7%), lack of drugs (11.7%) and poor access to extension services (6.7%). The study recommended on the need to increase farmers’ access to drugs, education and credit facilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Export of Maize from India: Performance and Determinants

R. S. Geetha, S. K. Srivastava

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/45469

The present study has examined the growth, instability, trade direction, potential and determinants of maize exports from India from the period 1981 to 2016. Compound Annual Growth Rate, Cudda-Della Valle method, Markov Chain analysis, Revealed Comparative Advantage Index and Regression analysis were used in the study. The growth of export quantity and export value in pre WTO has found to be not significant, while unit value had negative growth. In post WTO period, the export quantity, value and unit value grew significantly at the rate of 38.74, 42.12 and 2.43 per cent per annum, respectively. The instability indices for export quantity and its value found to be relatively lesser in post WTO period. The reasons for high instability may be inconsistent domestic production, consumption and international demand. Thus, the export policies should be in line with consistent growth of maize exports with low instability. The Markov analysis reveals that Nepal followed by Bangladesh exhibited a strong preference for maize from India. India is not that efficient in maize exports as RCA index is not of higher value and it is less than 1 in the years 2001 to 2003, 2005 to 2006 and 2015 to 2016. The variables export price and lagged production are found to be significantly affecting the maize exports from India. As expected, export price had negative association and lagged production had positive association with maize exports. The significant increase in domestic production of the maize crop is the major option for improvement of maize export trade.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Role of Women in Fisheries Operations in the Fishing Communities of Doma Dam of Doma Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

A. A. Girei, A. A. Kigbu, A. Boyi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/37645

The study was conducted to determine the involvement of women in fisheries activities in three fishing communities (Yelwa, Agatu, and Water treatment plant) of Doma Dam in Doma Local Government area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A total of 50 women were selected through purposive sampling technique in three fishing communities of the study area. Primary data were collected through the use of a structured questionnaire and personal interview of the respondents. Simple descriptive statistics and ranking order were used to analyze the data. Results of the study showed that 54% of the respondents were within the active productive age of between 28 and 38 years. The majorities (92%) of the respondents are married, and about (80%) had a non-formal education. About 54% of the respondents are members of cooperative society, 42% had fishing experience of 3 - 10 years, while 60% of the respondents engage in trading as other activities that generate income apart from fishing activities. The result indicated that the respondents are engaged in fishing (98%), fish processing (100%) and fish marketing (100%). The major reasons for the respondents’ involvement in fisheries operation were to pay for children school/medical fees (86%), procurement of household assets (80%) and purchase of other goods for sale (6%). The major constraints faced by women in fisheries operation in the study area were inadequate extension service, inadequate storage facilities, poor marketing arrangement and lack of modern fish processing facilities thereby making their earnings low. Their major occupational hazards reported were redness/swelling of the eye (100%), skin rashes (4%) and pile (2%). Therefore, the study recommended that Government should enhance and upgrade fish processing facilities in the study area with the adoption of modern smoking facilities and technology. This will improve and add value to smoked fish which could increase patronage and income of respondents. Activities of respondents should also be made known and incorporated into the agricultural development programmes such as Fadama project, Badakoshi Agricultural Scheme and other related projects. This will help in improving the respondents’ access to capital/credit and other equipment necessary for improving fisheries activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption and Economics of Improved Wheat Varieties in Eastern Nepal

Surya Prasad Adhikari, Jeevan Lamichhane

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/46040

A study was conducted to identify the productivity, profitability and adoption status of improved wheat varieties in Eastern Terai. A household survey was carried out in two districts of Eastern Terai viz. Morang and Saptari to collect information on the adoption of modern wheat varieties and economics of on-farm wheat production. In each district, two village development committees (VDCs) were selected to carry out the household survey. Structured questionnaire was administered to 20 randomly selected households in each VDC making altogether 80 samples in two districts. Descriptive and statistical tools including tobit model were used to analyze data. The tobit analysis showed that household with larger farm size was more likely to adopt improved wheat technology. About 60% of the total wheat area was covered by NL 297 followed by Gautam (15%) in Morang district, whereas in Saptari, 77% wheat area was covered by NL 297 followed by Vijay (15%) with average yield of 2.29 MT per hectare, the benefit cost ratio (1.25) indicated that wheat farming was profitable in the Eastern Terai.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study the Profile Characteristics of Farm Women with Reference to Decision Making Behaviour

S. Santhi, V. Kalirajan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/45772

Indian rural women always play an important role and remain as a prominent partner of agricultural sector. Women form one – third of the world’s official labour force but are concentrated in the lowest paid occupation and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. Rural Indian Women are extensively involved in agricultural activities, however, the nature and extent of their involvement differs with the variations in agro-production systems. Hence, the study focused on ‘profile characteristics of farm women in decision making behaviour’. The study was conducted in Orathanadu and Thiruvonam blocks of Orathanadu Taluk in Thanjavur District with sample of 120 farm women selected based on proportionate random sampling procedure. The profile characteristics of farm women in majority of the farm women were in middle - age category, with middle level of education, nuclear family type, agriculture as their major occupation, medium level of farming experience, information source utilization, innovativeness, risk orientation, economic motivation, self-confidence, with low level of extension agency contact, with high attitude towards farming and low level of socio-economic status.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Socio-economic Status of Gujjars and Bakerwals of Jammu Division of India

Tariq Iqbal, Rakesh Nanda, Rajinder Peshin, Yudhishther Singh Bagal

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/44747

Gujjars and Bakerwals are the third largest ethnic group in Jammu and Kashmir and constitute more than 11.9 per cent of the total population of the state. The study was conducted in order to access the socio-economic conditions and migration status of Gujjars and Bakerwals of Jammu division. Multi-stage random sampling technique was employed for the selection of districts, blocks, villages and ultimate respondents. The total sample size was 112. Pre-tested interview schedule was used for collection of data. The mean age of the respondents was 49.91±15.50 years and mean education was 2.29±2.09 years. 36.6 per cent of the respondents were illiterate. Majority of the respondents (60.71%) had marginal land holding and 19.64 per cent respondents had small land holding, in case of migration status only 47.3 per cent were migrating. Kacha houses were possessed by 63.4 per cent of the respondents. Further, it is concluded that the number of sheep, goat and buffalo affected the migration status of gujjars and bakerwals significantly (R2=0.580) followed by sheep, goat and cow (R2=0.556). This study gives a concrete fact about the background of "Tribal Developmental schemes" their impact on tribal people and social change came in their life due to it.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Economic Analysis of Technology Adoption Coupled With Conjunctive Use of Ground Water in Tank Command Area

R. Minithra, D. Suresh Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/45946

This paper aims to evaluate the conjunctive use of surface and ground water, adoption of water management technologies and factors which influence the adoption of water management technologies in the tank command area since water scarcity problem is becoming major concern in most of the districts in Tamil Nadu. Dindigul district was purposively selected for the study since there are about 3,104 tanks and 30 per cent of area was irrigated by tank to total net area irrigated. Tank irrigation was also supplemented with well (open well) irrigation (i.e. conjunctive use of surface water and ground water was playing significant role). Simple random sampling technique was employed for selecting the sample farmers. Primary data was collected from 150 sample farmers and multinomial logit model was used for analysis. The result revealed that the yield was higher for farmers adopting water management technologies under conjunctive water use situation. . The adopters of water management technologies had realized increased productivity and thereby the returns in rice crop were comparatively high the farming experience, income from off and non-farm activities and contact with extension agents were found to have positive and significant influence on adoption of technology. The farm size of the farmers had negative effect on adoption of technology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status of Bodichitta (Ziziphus buddhensis) Cultivation and Its Prospects in Nepal

Huma Neupane, Karan Singh Thing, Navraj Upadhayay, Janma Jaya Gairhe

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/43484

Bodichitta (Ziziphus buddhensis) is a religious plant, the seeds of which are used for meditation purpose. It is different from Zizipus species found in other countries in context of physical characteristics or its habitat requirement, however, there is some resemblance in physical characteristics with Ziziphus montana found in China. A survey study was carried out purposively in selected sites near the Timal village where cultivation of Bodichitta was at commercial as well as subsistence scale. Questionnaire interview was performed on 62 farmers along with the key informants’ interview. The key informants included traders, local leaders and development workers of the region. A transect walk was made across the village to assess the physical situation. The study results showed that this plant species has changed the life of people in the villages namely Timal, Kirtas, Salleni, Pepta, Kharpachowk of Kavre district of Nepal through drastic change in their income. The rise in value of Bodichitta increased the income of the farmers and mean increase per plant per season was found to NRs. 269728.78. Regression analysis shows that factors affecting log of average income include number of female members of the family, type of cultivation and number of fruiting plants. The farmers expressed their satisfaction with the income through Bodichitta cultivation. They also suggest the youth to be involved in the cultivation and business related to Bodichitta, however, farmers report that they lack trainings and support from government or non-government sectors. The result shows the need of training and information access to the farmers regarding production and marketing of Bodichitta so as to extend its cultivation and generate income in a sustainable basis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of Women Self Help Groups in Punjab

Kiranjot Sidhu, Shikha Sharma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/45386

Women self-help groups are formed as an instrument of empowerment to bring qualitative changes in their lives. Findings from the study conducted in Punjab state on 400 Women Self Help Groups (WSHG’s) found one-third group having discontinued within five years of registration and majority being dormant with only one fifth having few members involved in income generation activities. Majority had no gap between formation and registration time and were not regularly conducting meetings of the group members. Status of the group was positively and significantly related to both period between formation and registration and frequency of meetings. It was suggested that group approach need to be revisited in social context for attaining the goal of women empowerment.

Open Access Review Article

Agri-Marketing Partnership: An Indian Perspective

Shakeel-ul-Rehman .

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/45813

The partnership extension involves any personnel in the private sector delivering physical or advisory services in the areas of agriculture and is viewed as assistance to public extension. Increased agricultural productivity and rapid industrial growth in the recent years have contributed to a significant reduction in poverty level, from 58% in 1973 to 17% in 2017. Despite the impressive growth and development, India is still home to the largest number of poor people of the world. With about 250 million below the poverty line, India accommodates about one-fifth of the world’s poor. About 25% children suffer from serious malnutrition. More than 50% of the rural pre-school children and rural pregnant women are anemic. Moving towards a vision of developed nation by 2022, Indian farmers still face a lot of complications of not getting a maximum return for their produce which results in outmigration and farmer suicides. Though much has been done in stimulating agricultural development in India by governments as well as by private organizations, still much more is needed in this sector to make farmer self-sufficient and resourceful. It is the call of the country to make agriculture as the most prioritized sector as other sectors are dependent on it. The present paper brings out some of the agri-business ventures by corporates and government into light and the success they have achieved in uplifting the Indian agricultural community. The paper also tries to highlight the gap in terms of agricultural inefficiencies. Although the present paper lures its findings from the Indian context; it is believed that the present study may have equal relevance to many of the developing countries that are facing similar problems in agricultural sustainability and diversification.