This study attempted to address resilience of households graduated from productive safety net program (PSNP) who pursued different livelihood strategies in rural Konso. The objective of the study is to measure the level of resilience of households to food insecurity by using the resilience approach. The study employed cross-sectional survey design for 298 PSNP graduated households drawn from sampling frame of graduated households. Systematic random sampling technique is used to select sample households. Factor analysis using principal component factor is employed to examine the components of resilience and the percentage variance is explained by each of the components. The study results indicated that households are resilient at different levels. The relative sizes of factor loadings of each observed variables and latent dimensions of resilience have important policy implications. The study also indicated that resilience indices across different livelihood strategies have shown significant differences. This implies households who diversified their livelihoods are relatively resilient. To enhance households resilience, therefore, enabling environment that support smallholder livelihood diversification should be facilitated.
Pakistan is the world fourth biggest maker of the cotton and positions tenth in productivity. Many factors such as poor seed quality, primitive agronomic practices, improper use of fertilizers and pesticides, lack of access to modern machinery, slow adoption of modern farming practices and use of low Bt expression varieties can attribute to it. In this study focus was on the slow adoption of the advanced generations of Bt cotton and that the role of government institutions in endorsement of Bt Cotton in Pakistan and the prognosticating benefits of adopting it more widely.
Bt cotton contains specific type of proteins that when consumed by a specific type of insect larvae, damage the insect gut walls by creating holes in it, which causes larvae to stop feeding and eventually die. The Bt gene is inserted in plants by genetic alteration in which the source code of the DNA is changed to produce the proteins / toxins which reduces the need for the application of insecticides. Brought in Pakistan during 2005 illegally and formally approved in 2010 the productivity increase in Bt cotton remains yet to be seen. This is more surprising when in India and throughout the world, the productivity of Bt cotton increased manifolds. Bt cotton’s main function is not to increase productivity but to check the role of the boll worms in decreasing productivity and through decreasing the pest attacks on the crops; Bt cotton serves to increase productivity by decreasing sub economic threshold levels damages and creating more reliable insect control in all weather conditions. This paper will consider Progress of government institutes, different companies and Government agencies involved that correlate directly to the production of the Bt cotton in Pakistan.
This study aims to determine the perception of farmers on the performance of extensionist in the pasture agroecosystem of Timor Tengah Utara District. Determination of the sample of farmers as respondents from the population is determined purposively by the number of respondents 51 farmers. Primary data was obtained through interviews using a questionnaire. Data processing method uses a Likert Scale, then analyzed descriptively qualitative. Indicators to measure the performance of livestock extensionist based on extensionist performance, materials and methods, procurement of activities, availability of teaching aids and intensity of extension activities. The results of the study showed that the extensionist who served in the research area were skilled, mastered the material, creative and innovative, as well as discipline in starting activities. Then the farmer's perception of the material and method is in the agree category if the teaching aids used are in accordance with the activities, the material delivered is in accordance with the needs of the farmer, and the methods used are in accordance with the activities. While the procurement of activities is in the category of agree if the objectives of the activity are clear to understand, and the purpose of the activities to support the personal goals of the farmer. Availability of activity teaching aids, most (62.75%) use more than two kinds of teaching aids with activity intensity more than 1 time a year. In general, the performance of livestock extensionist is in good category.
This study measured the managerial efficiency of table egg producers in Akwa Ibom State. The specific objectives were to ; determine the levels of managerial efficiency of table-egg producers in the study area; analyse the factors that affect the managerial efficiency of table egg producers in the study area and examine table egg producers' perceptions on the severity of challenges of the business environment in table egg production in the State. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information from 210 table egg producers selected through simple random sampling technique. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to analyse table egg producers’ managerial efficiency while the factors affecting managerial efficiency were examined using Tobit regression model. Findings from the study showed that table egg producers were managerially inefficient with a mean managerial efficiency level of 12.6% and standard deviation of 16.1. Years of experience, marital status, sex and income were significant factors that affected the managerial efficiency of table egg producers in the study area. Non- availability of credit facilities, irregular extension contacts, epileptic public power supply high cost of feeds and high cost of labour were ranked as very severe challenges of the business environment in table egg production. The study emphasises the need for government to collaborate with relevant stakeholders in the private sector to fund and organise capacity building programmes for table egg producers. Also, Table egg producers in the State should be encouraged to collaborate with their counterparts to form partnerships. This would definitely improve their decision-making process or managerial capacities and consequently their managerial efficiency levels.
The study reveals the socio-economic status of Swarna sub1 rice variety growers in Chandauli district of Uttar Pradesh. The study was based on a survey of 60 farmers and the selection of farmers was targeted to only those who cultivated swarna sub1. The present study was conducted in Chandauli district of Uttar Pradesh by collecting primary data. An in-depth household survey based on purposively developed and pre-tested survey instrument was used. Simple descriptive statistics were employed, to understand the socio-economic characteristics of households. The average operational holding was 1.45 ha, and the average size of family was 5.80. The literacy was observed, 75%. More than 86% of cultivable land was engaged in rice cultivation in kharif season. Wheat and rice were the two major crops grown in the study area. The main source of irrigation was tube well and canal. Among livestock, the highest number was of calves contributes about 40% of a total number of livestock.