Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Analysis of Cocoyam Marketing in Anambra Agricultural Zone of Anambra State, Nigeria

D. O. Enibe, E. Nwobodo, Cynthia, M. J. Nworji, C. A. Okonkwo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/46476

This study analyzed cocoyam market in Anambra Agricultural Zone of Anambra State, Nigeria. It determined the sources of cocoyam marketed in the study area; examined the profitability of crop’s marketing; compared the marketing efficiency of the crop’s wholesalers and that of the retailers and identified their marketing problems. Data for the study were collected from 60 respondents comprising of 40 retailers and 20 wholesalers sampled through Snow Ball Method (SBM) from the 4 major assembly markets (Eke Otuocha Aguleri, Oye-Olisa Ogbunike, Eke-Igwe Nteje and Oye-Farm Igbariam) of the study area. The markets were purposively selected as they are the biggest in each of the town communities. Data were collected using two sets of interview schedules (One for the Wholesalers and the other one for the Retailers).  Descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis and Shepherd-Futrel Model were used in data analysis. The study inter alia revealed that larger proportion (78.3%) of cocoyam consumed in the study area were sourced by the marketers from outside Anambra Agricultural Zone of Anambra State implying that the Zone is not self-reliant in cocoyam production. Result further shows that 0.33 and 0.62 returns on investment were made by the wholesalers and retailers respectively; revealing that cocoyam business is profitable. High transportation cost, lack of fund to increase business scale and poor storage facilities were found to be the main problems of the marketers. The study reveals that encouraging business opportunities exist on cocoyam’s marketing. Entry into the crop’s business was recommended for potential farmers, processors, traders and entrepreneurs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Marketing Extension Services on the Control of Postharvest Losses of Root and Tuber Crop Produce in Abia State Nigeria

Solomon Chimela Nwafor, Francis Shagbaor Wegh, Agness Agbanugo Ikwuba, Adegbola Adetayo Jacob

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/45483

Aims: This study assessed the effect of agricultural marketing extension on control of post-harvest losses of root and tuber crop produce in Abia State.

Study Design:  This study employed a public opinion survey.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Abia State, Nigeria between March 2017 and January 2018.

Methodology: Using the multistage sampling technique and a structured questionnaire as an instrument, data were collected from a sample of three hundred and eighty (380) respondents in the study area. Percentages, mean scores, and regression analysis were used as statistical tools for data analysis.

Results: The overall mean score of the farmers on the effects of marketing extension services on the control of postharvest losses of root and tuber crop produce was 2.858. Marketing extension services had significant effect on the volume of postharvest losses of root and tuber crop produce in the study area given that the F- statistics of 102.569 is significant at 1% level of significance and that computed F- value was higher than the F-tabulated value of (1.94) at 5% level of significance and (2.51) at 1% level of significance.

Marketing of root and tuber crop produce/products are adversely affected by poor linkages within the marketing, processing and production chains, poor market-orientation and inadequate processing facilities leading to high levels of produce wastage.

Conclusion: Therefore organizations and agencies providing marketing extension services (ADPs, Research Institutes, Universities, NGOs etc.) should do so in accordance with farmers' needs. Rendering marketing extension services requires sets of skills that extension workers may not have needed in the past and reduction of post-harvest losses through marketing of produce and also the transition to a greater market orientation cannot be achieved without developing those skills. Extension workers should be trained. The Government should develop, support and promote training in marketing skills and services for agricultural marketing extension workers.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Croton macrostachyus, Plectranthus barbatus Leaf Aqueous Extracts and Inorganic Fertilizers on Growth and Nutrients Concentration of Brassica oleracea L. in a Greenhouse at Nairobi

Kevin Odhiambo, Jane Murungi, Ruth Wanjau, Naumih Noah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/46347

The study was undertaken in Sustainable Development Initiatives Centre greenhouse at United States international university -Africa. The greenhouse experiment was laid out in potted containers in a randomised complete Block design (RCBD), with 3 replications. A total of four treatments composed of decomposed leaves extracts of Plectranthus barbatus (PB) and Croton macrostachyus (CM), inorganic fertilizer (IF) and Untreated soils (US) as control were used. The level of mineral and nutritive elements in leaf extracts and kales were determined by ICPE, β-carotene was determined by HPLC while Phosphorus Nitrogen were determined by UV-VIS. Data was analyzed using (ANOVA) and significant treatment means separated using the Turkey’s Honestly Significant Difference Test. The highest mean levels macro nutrients in leaves (μg/g) K+; 228.31±1.76; Mg2+, 188.35 ± 1.24; PO43-, 16.21 ±3.36 and NO3-, 95.35 ± 2.36 for croton macrostachyus and K+: 412.71 ± 2.55. Mg2+: 369.72± 3.25, PO43-: 29.59 ± 2.04 and NO3-, 63.24± 1.47 for Plectranthus barbatus. Application of croton macrostachyus, and Plectranthus barbatus leaf water extracts resulted in increased mean shoot length, leaf length, and number of leaves of kales as compared to the control. The mean growth rate for kales (shoot length 8.69 ± 3.68-12.64cm, Mean leaf length 8.34 ± 4.17- 12.82 ± 5.53, Mean number of leaves 8.38 ± 2.94-12.53± 4.73 and Yield (t/ha) ranged from 2.44 -5.89. Kales grown using leaf extracts had higher nutritive values as compared to the control. The mean nutritive values in kales were Iron (Fe) 3.87 – 5.24 mg/100g; Magnesium (Mg) 250.96-323.67 mg/100g; Sodium (Na) 216.21-320.81mg/100g; Phosphorus (P) 261.82-294.31 mg/100g; zinc (Zn) 1.17 -1.36 mg/100g; and β-carotene 4.73±0.15 - 3.38± 0.09 mg/100g.There was significant difference in nutritive values between leaf extracts and control. The growth of kales using leaf extracts of Croton macrostachyus responded better and gave a yield that was comparably higher to those of inorganic fertilizer and control. This study suggests that Croton macrostachyus and Plectranthus barbatus leaves may be potential source of plant nutrients for crop production and higher nutritive values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Opined by Paddy and Cotton Cultivation Farmers in Application of Recommended Doses of Chemical Fertilizers in Karnataka (India)

Ravindra Chavan, Suresh S. Patil, G. M. Hiremath, B. S. Reddy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/47503

Chemical fertilizers have played a vital role in the success of India's Green Revolution and consequent self-reliance in foodgrain production. The increase in fertilizer consumption has contributed significantly to sustainable production of foodgrains in the country. In the Indian context, land is becoming a shrinking resource for agriculture owing to competing demand for its use. Hence, in order to realize the constraints opined by paddy and cotton cultivation farmers in application of recommended doses of fertilizers (RDF) needs to sustain the agricultural production, the result pertaining to this aspect was based on the primary data collected through survey method from paddy and cotton cultivation farmers 120 farmers in Raichur and Yadgiri district during 2015-16. Farmers faced many problems in applying recommended doses of fertilizers in paddy. In case of small farmers, not available in adequate quantity was a major constraint with a mean score of 73.10. The second major constraint was difficulty in calculating NPK ratio as per RDF from the availability of fertilizers bags in the market with a mean score of 65.80 While in case of large farmers, adequate quantity as per RDF not available was a major constraint with a mean score of 76.20. The second major constraint was difficulty in calculating NPK ratio as per RDF from the availability of fertilizers bags in the market with a mean score of 69.80. Similarly, in cotton cultivation by small and large farmers also faced many problems in applying recommended doses of fertilizers, among different constraint, adequate quantity as per RDF not available was a major constraint major constraint.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Rising International Market Prices of Rice on Welfare and Poverty in Senegal

Shéïtan Sossou, Charlemagne Babatounde Igue

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2019/46688

This study assessed the impact of rising international market prices of rice on real household income and poverty in Senegal. Net benefit ratio indicator developed by Deaton (1989) to assess the impact of a change in the international rice price on household welfare were used in the analysis. The data came from the second poverty monitoring survey in Senegal. Using two indicators: (i) per capita spending and (ii) expenditure per adult equivalent, the results showed that rising international rice prices negatively affect real income and poverty. This negative effect were more pronounced in urban areas and in areas with high rice consumption. Poverty also increased by 3.5% when the first indicator was used. However, it increased by 4.25% when the second indicator was used. Statistics showed that 37% of the richest households consume rice compared to 7% of the poorest households. In addition, urban households allocate 25% of their budget to rice consumption, compared to 24.4% for rural households. To reduce Senegal’s vulnerability, governments need to take steps to limit the country’s dependence on rice imports. Therefore, it would be essential to invest more in the production and consumption of local rice.