Poverty is multifaceted in nature and its measurement based on uni-dimensional is insufficient to explain the various deprivations experienced by the poor. Using the Alkire and Foster’s multidimensional methodological approach, this study confirmed that multidimensional approach to poverty should be used to complement uni-dimensional measure of poverty. The paper examined the factors influencing farming household poverty by applying two approaches. It specifically identified the attributes of the rural farmers and the contributions of the various dimensions to poverty. Primary data was collected from 362 rural farming households and analysed using descriptive statistics, Alkire and Fosters MPI and logit regression model. The results revealed that 66.85 percent of rural households were declared monetary poor while only 34.53 percent of them were multidimensional poor. Housing condition contributed most (27.34%) to household multidimensional deprivation followed by education (23.58%). The two approaches, while sharing many similarities, do not lead to the same results. The logit regression results revealed that female headed households are more prone to be poor for both uni-dimensional and multidimensional approaches to household poverty. Increase in age increase the probability of being multidimensional poor and decrease the probability of being monetary poor. As farmer aged they may be constrainedto improve or maintain their asset base especially the dimensions used in measuring their poverty status, however, they may not be monetary poor if they have grown up children through who they receive remittances for their upkeep. Among other factors, being married and household size reduce the likelihood of being monetary poor but has no influence on being multidimensional poor. This can be when married couples are economically empowered to generate income to sustain the household rather than having only the household head empowered economically.Also, farmsize and membership in social group influence the probability of multidimensional poor and no effect on monetary poor. Having a large farmland beyond the available resources and membership in many social group will make a heavy demand on available resources Efforts should be geared towards poverty reduction to empower the household to acquire good housingstructure in additional to enlightenment on human capital investment to reduce poverty.
Community-based seed production has a potential for improving farmers' access to quality seed of locally adapted and preferred varieties. Besides, Seed Producing Cooperatives (SPCs) are fully engaged in formal seed production as contract out-growers to public enterprises that benefit members economically. Hence, the research contributed to show the importance of community-based improved seeds production in the form of seed-producing cooperatives formed by smallholder farmers. It showed the main problems and opportunities for the production of seeds conducted in three districts of Southern Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.Three stage sampling technique was employed in this study. First, purposive sampling was employed to select the three districts. Secondly, simple random sampling was employed to select the seven from fourteen seed producing cooperatives in the zone. Finally, focused group discussion at each kebelles which consists 7-10 group members (district seed multiplication experts, development agents and SPCs committee members were included) to gather data. The collected data was analyzed using ranking index. The result of the study shows that availability of suitable agro ecology, timely availability of technology, suitable and fertile land for seed production for the candidate crops respectively, were the main opportunities whereas lack of working capital, violating the bylaw of the cooperatives by members and diversified interest of farmers within a cluster respectively, were the main constraints of SPCs to respond the local demand for quality seed and seed security in the area. Therefore, improving the facilities of SPCs, creating common awareness of members on their guiding stated bylaws and creating common interest among members is very important for future development of community based seed production in the form of SPCs in the study area and beyond.
Dairy cattle and buffalo marketing in India is highly unorganized and their market prices are negotiated with hidden secret codes in livestock markets. In this context, the present study was carried out with the objective of identifying the pattern of sales of dairy animals and to ascertain the pricing of dairy cattle and buffaloes based on their age, breed and yield. Primary data were collected from 525 dairy cattle and buffalo farmers from seven randomly selected districts in the state of Tamil Nadu located in Southern India. The data were analysed through frequency, arithmetic mean, percentages and standard deviation. Majority of the dairy farmers sold their animals through middlemen and the rest sold their animals equally at their farm gate and shandies (livestock markets). The major reason for selling of animal was to meet out family expenditure and about one-third of the dairy farmers sold because of culling. The price of dairy animals differed between the species (cattle and buffaloes), age (number of calvings), presence of calf, sex of the calf, milk yield and health status of the animals. Scientific price fixation need to be implemented so as to regulate the dairy cattle and buffalo marketing.
This study analysed improved breadfruit (Treculia africana) awareness and adoption situation in Southeast Nigeria. It examined farmers’ budded breadfruit awareness and adoption status and their willingness to adopt the innovation. The study also identified the reasons why farmers do not adopt the crop’s new varieties. Two hundred and sixty respondents (260) spread in thirteen (13) communities of Anambra and Enugu States were randomly selected and interviewed using survey questionnaire. Data collected were verified in an in-depth interview (II) and two Focus group discussions (FGD). Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results show that: adoption status (20.47%) of its improved varieties was low while majority of the farmers were willing to adopt (88%). The study also found the major reasons why the farmers have not adopted the crop’s improved varieties. The result concludes that farmers are greatly in need of improved breadfruit varieties and that the crop requires favourable policy interventions. The paper recommends policy interventions for the crop’s conservation, awareness creation and provision of its improved varieties to farmers at affordable prices.
The relevance of intra-household division of labor for overall household wellbeing is common knowledge, especially among development practitioners from the developing world. While division of labor acquired a newer impetus as a consequence of a strong and emerging gender narrative a few decades ago, its momentum seems to have been torpedoed by the comfort of gender mainstreaming; reducing the role of gender analyses in agricultural extension and sustainable development initiatives. We briefly revisit the gender evolution, and empirically apply Caroline Moser’s triple roles framework in order to rekindle the role of gender analyses in understanding and promoting targeted extension services and sustainable development. A cross sectional, empirical survey was carried out in the North West region of Cameroon from 7-30 October 2014. Two rural and urban divisions were purposively selected. One division had difficult road access, while the other was fairly accessible. Eight villages (four rural and four urban ones) were randomly selected from both divisions. Gender analyses using Moser’s triple roles framework were carried out separately in all villages, with groups of 30-35 self-selected men and women, facilitated by trained enumerators; and complemented with focused group discussions and key informant interviews.
Wide differences between the productive, reproductive and socio-cultural roles in rural and urban communities were unveiled; with even stronger differences between men and women based on gendered results. As expected, more women were engaged in reproductive activities than men, irrespective of setting. Strong bias against women evident in the gender literature was not reported. The results emphasize the implications of regular gender analyses for development effectiveness. There is need for consistent gender analysis as prelude to improving agricultural extension initiatives, achieving gender balanced sustainable development of rural and urban areas in developing countries and upgrading development effectiveness. Context-specific aspects should be considered in informing gender based development actions and policy.