Open Access Original Research Article

Profit Efficiency and Poverty Status of Farmers in Selected Rice Growing Communities in Cross River State, Nigeria

Idiong C. Idiong, Michael A. Iko

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v30i130098

Aim: This study analyzed the profit efficiency and poverty status of rice farmers in selected rice growing communities in Cross River State, Nigeria.

Methodology: The multistage random sampling was used to select rice farming households in the study area. Primary data were collected by means of questionnaire. The mean per capita household expenditure (MPCHHE) and the P-alpha measures of poverty were used for the measurement of poverty while the Stochastic Profit Frontier (SPF) was used to obtain the efficiency estimates and determinants among the rice farming households. The logit regression model was also used to show the effect of some factors on poverty status of the rice farmers.

Results and Discussion: The results showed that, out of the 64.32% of the farmers who were generally poor, 40.85% and 23.47% of them were assessed to extremely and moderately poor respectively. The incidence, depth and severity of poverty were 65.32%, 27.84% and 16.38% respectively. The study further showed that profit efficiency ranged between 0.34 and 1.0 with mean efficiency of 0.73, suggesting that there are opportunities for rice farmers in the State to increase their farm income with a view of reducing their poverty levels. The result indicate that educational level, farm size and efficiency negatively influenced poverty while sex, age, educational level, farm size, household size and farming experience were the main determinants of profit efficiency. Inadequate credit access, capital and supply of farm inputs; high cost of labour, poor marketing outlets, and near absence of modern processing facilities were the rice production constraints.

Conclusion and Recommendations: The study has shown that rice farmers in the State were majorly poor and relatively efficient with opportunities for improvement. To improve the profit efficiency of rice farmers and reduce their household poverty status would require addressing some vital policy indicators that influenced them. Such policies should encourage experienced rice farmers to remain in production, the raising of the level of education of the poor through adult education, and provision of single digit interest loans and input subsidies to enable the farmers increase their farm sizes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Social Capital on Poverty Alleviation among Fish Farming Households in Oyo State, Nigeria

A. A. Adepoju

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v30i130099

This study investigates the effect of social capital investment on poverty reduction among fish farming households of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of the respondents. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire from a representative sample size of 359 households in four local government areas representing the four agricultural zones, namely Ibadan-ibarapa, Oyo, Ogbomoso and Saki in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study used a multinomial logit regression model to examine the effect of social capital on household poverty. The estimates of the regression model indicated that, in addition to the socio-economic characteristics of some households, social capital endowments have significant effect on the probability of a household being poor. The study concluded that, among other factors, social capital is very important in reducing household’s poverty. It was therefore recommended that stakeholders should be encouraged to invest in households’ social capital to accelerate poverty reduction among the fish farmers in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Farm Mechanization on Income of Farmers in Assam, India

Sinki Barman, Nivedita Deka

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v30i130100

The study was conducted in Central Brahmaputra Valley and Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam in India. The present study is an attempt to study the effect of mechanization on income and limiting factors of farm mechanization of the sample farms. Primary data of 240 sample farms by personal interview schedule method was used for examining the effect of farm mechanization on income along with limiting factors for mechanization adoption  . All data collected from sample farms pertains to the year 2014-15. Tabular, per cent analysis were done and results obtained from these analysis were summarized to examine the impact of farm mechanization on income . In case of Tractor Ownership Farm, Tractor Hired Farm, Power Tiller Ownership Farm, Power Tiller Hired Farm and Bullock Operated Farm gross return per cropped hectare were Rs.62916.24, Rs. 61370.31, Rs.62408.87, Rs. 56783.89 and Rs.34425.58, respectively. Family labour income and net income also had inverse relationship with farm size in each categories of mechanized and Bullock Operated Farm and exception in case of under Group III under Tractor Hired Farm. Family labour income and net income relative proportion of each mechanized farm was higher over Bullock Operated Farm. Net return were observed to be Rs. 33898.17, Rs.377.76, Rs. 33606.45, Rs.27831.05 and Rs. (-)12075.51 in Tractor Ownership Farm, Tractor Hired Farm, Power Tiller Ownership Farm, Power Tiller Hired Farm and Bullock Operated Farms, respectively. Family labour income and net income also had inverse relationship with farm size in each categories of mechanized and Bullock Operated Farm and exception in case of under Group III under Tractor Hired Farm. Family labour income and net income relative proportion of each mechanized farm was higher over Bullock Operated Farm. Hence it was observed that there was positive impact of farm mechanization on income. In case of Tractor Hired Farm net income was higher than Tractor Ownership Farm. Small and scattered land holding and inadequate sufficient funds to meet the initial cost of purchasing were the most serious problem faced by the farmers in the study area as out of total household 170 and 169 numbers of farmers found it most serious in case of small and scattered land holding and high initial cost to purchase the machineries respectively So, hence effort should be given to make available of the tractors amongst the farmers in the study area through establishment of Farm Machinery Banks for custom hiring along with development financing of second hand tractors for small farmers having operational holding less than 2 hectares should been given  to make economical use machineries amongst the small farmers in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

EU Product Standards and Export Diversification in Nigeria and South Africa

Ebenezer Adesoji Olubiyi, Folashade Akolade, Haleema Oluwadamilola Bello

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v30i130103

The issue of export diversification has been receiving attention among scholars and policymakers. However, African countries face critical challenges in improving domestic capacity to meet production and quality standards required in the foreign markets.Premised on this, this study explores how standards affect agriculture and textile products exported to the EU market, by the two biggest economies in SSA between 1995 and 2004. Employing the Hirschman concentration index as a measure of diversification in the context of a modified poisson model of gravity trade theory, findings show that standards and harmonized standards are of no significant effect on South African agricultural export diversification while in Nigeria, standards have significant effect on agricultural export diversification but have no effect on textiles. Moreover, harmonized standards show positive effect on agricultural export concentration but have no effect on textile exports in South Africa. However, harmonized standards plays no role in the diversification of Nigerian agricultural and textile export varieties. The study therefore recommends that producers of agricultural products in South Africa should focus on single, country specific standards while producers of agricultural products in Nigeria should adopt harmonized standards to promote bilateral trade and develop quality products to improve competition in the EU markets.

Open Access Review Article

Effectiveness of the Public Distribution System: A Critical Review

Alok Kumar Sahoo, D. K. Krishna, N. V. Kumbhare

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v30i130104

Public Distribution System (PDS) started from 1997 for providing essential commodities like rice, wheat, sugar etc. to a large number of people through a network of 5.35 lakh Fair Price Shops (FPS) on a recurring basis at a subsidized price to boost food and nutritional security in India. Whether the PDS is effective to reach targeted people is under serious concern. The problem arises as supply exceeds demand at Minimum Support Price (MSP) of food grains. Over the last 7 years, the average procurement of food grains (rice and wheat) has been around 25 per cent of production. The rising MSP of foodgrains during the last 7 years which enhances the chance of increased subsidy amount given by government resulting increased quantity of food grains procurement and inflation in input prices at constant Central Issue Prices (CIP). Gulati and Saini [1] evaluated under various studies- since 1999-2000 to 2011-12 which narrates about rising leakages of food grains from 9 per cent in 1999-2000 to 36 per cent in 2011-12. In terms of absolute quantity of grains pilfered, of the total quantity of 25.91 MMT pilfered, UP stands at the top with almost 4 MMT (15.3%) pilfered from PDS in 2011-12. There are 39.6 per cent poor having ration cards and 60.4 per cent poor having no cards. There are 26.3 per cent non-poor having ration cards causing inclusion error. The exclusion error is severe as a Type-II error causing 70.5 per cent total in India. There are many loopholes in PDS, leading to ineffectiveness and inefficiency in achieving its objectives. It needs reforms like the transparent selection of beneficiaries, universalization, end to end computerization, more commodities to be included, an effective grievance redressal agency, ADHAAR based PDS, the inclusion of innovative schemes like food coupon, smart card etc. More or less, the innovative mechanism in PDS has to be assessed before implementation to enhance effectiveness and check further error.