Open Access Short Research Article
This study highlights the factors causing loan default among farmers in Kwara state. A total of 3100 agricultural loan defaulters (from the members of Kwara State Apex farmers’ cooperatives union) were obtained for this study. The study frame was stratified into four, based on the existing ADP zones. A proportionate sampling technique was used in selecting the 400 agricultural loan defaulters. Data collected with questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result showed that high-interest rate was the reason why farmers default agricultural loan. The view of the agricultural loan desk officers was that miss utilization of loan causes default among farmers. It was concluded that interest rate, family commitment and delay in disbursement were the cause of default from the view of the farmers while miss utilization, political approach and change in business were the what causes default from the points of agricultural loan desk officers. To reduce the incidence of loan diversion, efforts should be made to monitor borrowers regularly so as to ensure they use the loan they received for the agreed and intended use. Getting regular account statement from borrowers and as well as regular visiting the borrowers' enterprise can also enhance this.
Open Access Original Research Article
Adaptation has the potential to significantly contribute to reductions in negative impacts from changes in climatic conditions. The study investigated the factors influencing farmer's choice of adaptation measures to climate change among smallholder arable farmers in Kogi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select one hundred and sixty (160), respondents. Data collected from the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics, logit regression and constraints encounter index. The result obtained from the analyses showed that average age of smallholder arable farmers in the study area was 46 years with a majority (72.5%) being male. On the level of education of the farmer, about (18.1%) of the farmers had no formal education while majority (81.9%) had various forms of formal education. 34.4% of the respondents were within 11-20 years of farming experience with large household size 11 above member representing 45.0%. Logit regression model results reveal that major socio-economic factors of arable farmers influencing farmer's choice of various adaptation measures include age, educational status, gender, marital status, household size, farming experience, farm size, the fertility of the soil, membership of cooperative/farmers group, extension visit and access to credit. Constraints encounter index revealed that major constraint encountered include lack of information on climate change, lack of technology necessary for adaptation, lack of necessary inputs, lack of climate forecasting technology, limited knowledge on adaptation to climate issues, poor financial resource, lack of government policy on climate change, poor potential for irrigation, difficulty in shifting from cropping patterns in short duration, and lack of infrastructure. This study concludes that various socio-economic and personal attributes had strong impacts on arable farmer's choice of adapting to different adaptation measures available in the study area. Government should place priority on determining factors of adaptation and barriers to adaptation measure into climate change-related policies.
Open Access Original Research Article
Peasant association plays a central role in climate change adaptation. Farmer-based associations serve as a conduit for the implementation of climate change adaptation practices by contributing to knowledge sharing and assimilation. In Ghana, the role of peasant associations in climate change adaptation is unnoticed. Employing a mixed research approaches the procurement of data, this study gives a deeper understanding of peasant associations and their activities of two regions in the country. It also examines the contributions of peasant associations to climate change adaptation. It was established that peasant associations promoted understanding and implementation of climate change adaptation strategies including preparation and application of compost, residue management, row/distance planting, use of drought tolerant seeds, afforestation and crop rotation which benefited farmers in getting more yield and by extension being able to reinvest in their farms and venture into other livelihood strategies. The study concluded that Non- Governmental Organizations interested in climate change adaptation should target and build the capacity of farmer peasant groups for appropriate climate change adaptation and achievement of poverty alleviation and long-term food security.
Open Access Original Research Article
The importance of agricultural surplus for the structural transformation accompanying economic growth is often addressed by development economists. In view of this, the study empirically assesses the impact of agricultural finance on the growth of Nigerian economy.
This paper employed secondary data and econometric techniques of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) of multiple regression estimates. The result of the model used suggests that the productivity of investment will be more appropriately financed with resources administered by the commercial and specialized financial institutions. And also, that there are an urgent and sincere needs to expand the credit size to the agricultural sector in order to enhance the productivity growth of the sector. It is recommended that maintenance of credible macroeconomic policies that is pro-investment in overhauling the Agricultural Sector and debt-equity swap option are necessary for an agricultural-led economic growth.
Open Access Review Article
In the northern part of Ghana, about 97.9 percent of households are engaged in crop farming such as maize, rice, sorghum, soy beans, cowpea, cassava, yam, cotton and vegetables, with few households engaging in poultry, livestock and pig rearing. Agricultural production is therefore the main activity in the northern sector of Ghana and is practiced mainly on seasonal and subsistence level. The Gross Domestic Product of the country has recorded an annual growth rate of about 4 to 8 percent within the past decade. Agricultural growth has been the major driver of poverty reduction. The agriculture sector is the largest source of employment for the people of northern Ghana, and is dominated by smallholder farmers. The challenges in the agriculture sector include human resource and managerial skills, natural resource management, technology development and food insecurity. Food security is a phenomenon resulting from multiple causes which are food availability, food accessibility, food utilization and food stability. About 5% of Ghanaian populace are food insecure. Additionally, about 2 million Ghanaian people are vulnerable to become food insecure. Growth in the agricultural sector has been more rapid as compared to that of the non-agricultural sectors in recent years, expanding by an average annual rate of 5.5%, compared to 5.2% for the economy as a whole. Agricultural growth however, depends mainly on rainfall patterns and land expansion. The objective of this paper was to review literature on food security in Ghana, agricultural contribution to food security in northern Ghana and some policy measures put in place by successive governments to reduce food insecurity in northern Ghana.