Open Access Original Research Article

Housing and Management System Practiced by Tribal Farmers in Rajasthan

P. C. Regar, M. L. Kamboj, Manish Sawant, S. N. Ojha, B. L. Roat

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v32i230148

The aim of the study was to assess the floor, feeding and watering space(s) and other housing management practice of goats followed by farmers in Rajasthan. A total of 120 tribal goat farmers were selected from 12 villages from 6 blocks in 3 tribal dominated districts viz., Banswara, Dungarpur and Udaipur. Ten farmers from each village were selected purposively based on the number of goats. The selected goat farmers were grouped into three categories based on flock size as small (<25 goats, N= 60), medium (26-50 goats, N = 36) and large (>50 goats, N = 24). The floor space and other housing practices at the farmer’s flocks were recorded in-situ. The average flock size for small, medium and large categories of the farmer was 22.63± 0.210, 33.72± 1.05 and 58.54 ±1.28 respectively. The overall proportion of milking goats, dry goats, goatlings, kids and bucks were 12.52 ± 0.31 (32.63%), 8.62 ± 0.30 (22.50%), 6.64 ± 0.27 (17.33%), 9.52 ± 0.29 (24.85%) and 0.79 ± 0.06 respectively. Across flock size categories most of the large farmers and a sizable majority of medium and small farmers (75, 66.67 and 60 per cent respectively) housed their goat in one shed, whereas rest of the farmers in all three categories housed their goats in different sheds. It was observed that a huge majority of farmers (82.50%) did not have separate managers for the feeding of goats. The available managers were made of either mud (11.6%) or cement concrete (5.8%). The roof in case of a large majority of farmers across flock size categories was made of thatch (61.67%) followed by iron sheet (21.66%) and asbestos sheets (16.67%). There was no major variation in the type of roofing material among the three flock size categories of goat farmers. The average floor space available for milking goats, dry goats, goatlings, kids and breeding bucks were 1.68 ± 0.02, 1.58± 0.06, 0.97± 0.07, 0.50± 0.05 and 2.79± 0.39 sq meter respectively. The average floor space was significant (p<0.05) higher in small flock size category of farmers followed by medium and large farmers among milking goats, dry goats and goatlings. Overall floor space available for milking goats, dry goats, goatlings, kids and breeding bucks were 1.68 ± 0.02, 1.58± 0.06, 0.97± 0.07, 0.50± 0.05 and 2.79± 0.39 respectively. It was concluded that housing practices were mostly traditional without much regard to scientific recommendations.  However, these management practices, in general, were better in the case of small farmers as compared to medium and large farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Farm Mechanization on Cropping Pattern and Cropping Intensity - A Case Study from Assam, India

Sinki Barman, Nivedita Deka, Pallavi Deka

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v32i230149

Farm mechanization is considered as important pathways of agricultural development. A farming system cannot sustain with the traditional system. The mechanization of farm is also inductive to the diversification of the cropping pattern as it enables farmer to raise a second crop or multi crop ultimately raising cropping intensity. The study was conducted in Central Brahmaputra Valley and Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam, India. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of mechanization on cropping pattern and cropping intensity .Primary data were collected with the help of specially design pretested schedule by interview method. Thus, a sample of 240 farmers had been taken for the study. Cropping intensity was higher in case of all mechanize farm than bullock operated farm not only individual size groups but all farm size taken together. Tractor Hired Farm had the highest cropping intensity (162.21 per cent) followed by Power Tiller Hired Farm (161.49 per cent) and Tractor Operated Farm (152.00) per cent) and Power Tiller Operated Farm (154.62 per cent), respectively. In case Bullock Operated Farm  cropping intensity showed positive relationship with farm size but reverse was the in case of each  mechanized farm. Mechanized farm had higher cropping intensity which was confirmed by regression analysis that in all the categories of farm had positive significant relationship with cropping intensity but farm size and cropping intensity had highly significant inverse relationship. Cropping pattern of different categories of mechanized farms slightly shifted to high valued crops while in case of Bullock Operated Farm it was remain sali rice biased as usual. Mechanization showed an impact on increasing cropping intensities in the study area where Tractor Ownership Farm by hiring appeared to be the most important form of mechanization as it depicted a very high significant relationship with the cropping intensity in the study area. Cooperative management of farm machinery, financing of second-hand tractors for small farmers should be given for strengthening mechanization amongst the small farmers in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Issues and the Resulting Cultural Changes – A Study in the Hilly Tribal Ecosystem

R. Sasmitha, R. Arunachalam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v32i230150

Tribal communities have deep connection to environment because they have a greater dependency on natural resources. When the natural environment is altered, it disproportionately affects the tribal life. Overburdened with the environmental issues, they have problem of change in culture and further facing lot of health hazards. Hence, the present study was taken up to document the cultural changes occurring due to the changes in natural environment and to identify the probable causes of factors responsible for each issue. For documentation of the issues, the Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu was selected considering the highest proportion of tribal population in the district. Ex-post facto research design was used. Totally there were seven major cultural changes have been identified viz., changes in the regular food habits, changes in the health management practices, changes in the dressing pattern, remarkable changes in the celebration of family festivals and ceremonies, changes in the housing pattern, disappearance of traditional utensils and changes in the water use tradition.  For the above identified cultural changes, probable responsible factors were also identified and ranked by employing Garrett ranking method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role Play as an Innovative Teaching Technique: Attitude of Agri Students

P. Anbarasan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v32i230151

The objective of this study is to assess student’s attitude towards role-playing in agricultural sciences. For the purpose, an initiative was taken to develop an attitude scale using Likert’s summated rating method. Twenty one (21) statements were selected by consulting the specialists and by reviewing literature and were given to the non-sample students of B.Sc. Agriculture who were exposed to the role-playing technique. Using Likert’s Summation formula, the t- value of each statement was analyzed. From the t- value, 8 statements were retained for the final scale. The reliability and validity of the scale indicate its precision and consistency of the results. This scale is the first of its kind and can be used in future to measure the attitude of the students of various disciplines towards role-playing with suitable modifications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Farm Management in Jorhat District of Assam

Raktim Ranjan Lahan, Nivedita Deka

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v32i230152

Information Communication Technology (ICT) provides an opportunity for farmers to increase their farm production.ICT is a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, disseminate, store and manage information. Different tools of ICT like television, radio, newspaper, mobile phone, etc were used by the farmers to get information. The demand for agricultural crops increasing day by day to feed the people. Proper information about weather, plant disease, soil, the post-harvesting technique can increase the productivity of the farmers. In the present study, all the sources were divided into four groups accordingly their characteristics. The four groups were face to face, other farmers, traditional media, modern ICT etc. Different factors were affecting in the use of modern ICT like age, education, farm size, traditional media, mobile phone. Some factors were affecting more in the use of ICT while some factors affecting less. Old age farmers relied more on traditional media than modern ICT. Farmers those who had large farm size were using more traditional media and modern ICT. Various problems were faced by farmers while using ICT. The present study tries to know the use of ICT and factors affecting in the use of ICT.