Open Access Original Research Article

The Long Run Relationship between Economic Growth and Environmental Quality

Redwan Ahmed, Gabriela Sabau, Morteza Haghiri

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v32i330153

One of the controversial debates in environmental economics, which began in the 1980s, is the relationship between environmental pollution and economic growth. The study investigated the relationship between per capita carbon dioxide emissions and gross domestic product per capita in 63 countries over 51 years during 1960 to 2010. Using a graphical analysis approach, the results of this study showed that the relationship between per capita carbon dioxide emissions and gross domestic product per capita amongst the sample data followed a sigmoid curve indicating that the per capita carbon dioxide emissions of a country increased when its economy transitioned from a labor-intensive technology to a capital-intensive one caused by an increase in the rate of economic growth. The results also showed that the amount of relative emissions varied amongst the countries. The variability could be imputed to the following reasons: (i) the heterogeneity in the structure of the economies, and (ii) the disparity in the mode of production used in the countries’ manufacturing processes.     

Open Access Original Research Article

Empirical Analysis on the Impact of Poverty Alleviation by Rural E-commerce on Farmers' Income

Zhen Qin, Yan Ni, Fenxiao Zhu, Junhui Han

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v32i330154

According to the data of 200 valid questionnaires collected in 11 poor villages of 7 townships, 5 counties in Zhumadian region, this paper use the Difference-in-differences(DID) model to calculate the change difference of the per capita net income, per capita agricultural operating net income, and per capita non-agricultural net income between the farmers who have participated or so. After that, this paper used the fixed effect model to analyze the effect of other control variables on the farmers’ income. The research results are as follows: The rural E-commerce poverty alleviation policy has a significant positive impact on per capita net income, per capita net agricultural operating income, and per capita non-agricultural net income of farmers, and the income structure of the farmers’ family can be changed in the short term through poverty alleviation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Economic Determinants of Organic Manuring Practices by Farmers in Southern Agricultural Zone, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

A. A. Girei, E. G. Luka, M. S. Jatau, H. M. Turai

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v32i330155

The study analyzed the socio-economic determinants of organic manuring practices by farmers in Southern Agricultural Zone of Nasarawa state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of respondents in the area; identify the type of organic manure used by the respondents; determine the effect of socio-economic characteristics on the use of organic manure. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in the selection of samples for the study. Fifteen farmers from each of the six selected villages were purposively selected on the basis of their use of organic manure for a total of 90 respondents for the study. Data were obtained from primary sources. The primary source was by personal interview and discussion using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression model was used to analyze data collected for this research. The first, second and fourth objectives were achieved using simple descriptive statistics such as frequency, percent and mean, while the third objective was achieved using multiple linear regression analysis. The study revealed that majority or 61.1% of the respondents were in the age bracket of 20-39 years old, which indicates that they were young and active who could engage in organic manure practices. The result on the type of organic manure indicated that cattle dung and green manure representing 48.9% and 38.9% were the major source of manure used by the respondents. The result of socio-economic determinant further revealed that about 69% of the variation in use of organic manure, while the significant determinants were age and membership of cooperative society both at 10% and 5% respectively. Therefore, the study recommend that Enlightenment campaigns should be done through change agents to sensitize farmers in the study area about the benefit of using organic manure for crop production as this will improve farmer’s attitude towards the adoption of sustainable land management practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cognitive Abilities of Urban and Semi-Urban Pre-School Children of Dharwad, Karnataka, India

D. Mounika, B. Kasturiba, Manjula Patil

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v32i330156

Aims: The study has conducted with the objective to assess the demographic profile and cognitive abilities of urban and semi-urban pre-school children of Dharwad District, Karnataka, India.

Study Design: Demographic information was collected from the parents by using questioner. Kaufman assessment battery for children, second edition (KABC-II) was used to assess the cognitive abilities of children.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Community Science, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. The experiment was conducted between July 2017 and July 2018.

 Methodology: A sample size of 100 preschool children (3-6 years) were randomly selected, where 60 children from the age group of 3-4 years, 20 children from 4-5 years, 20 children from 5-6 years from urban and semi-urban pre-schools. Kaufman assessment battery for children, second edition (KABC-II) was used to assess the cognitive abilities of children, it is a theory based clinical instrument. It is an individually administered tool, which measures the processing and cognitive abilities of preschool children and adolescents from 3-18 years.

Results: With respect to cognitive abilities, in urban group, 12 per cent of children belonged to upper extreme, only 2 per cent of children belonged to below average group and none of them belonged to lower extreme group. However, in semi-urban group only 8 per cent of children belonged to upper extreme, 8 per cent were in below average and two per cent were in lower extreme group.

Conclusion: Urban pre-school children cognitive abilities was higher than the semi-urban pre-school children, in terms of cognitive subsets, cognitive process and cognitive indices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Agricultural Sector Expenditure on Nigeria’s Economic Growth

O. O. Akanbi, E. G. Onuk, H. S. Umar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v32i330157

The study examined the Effect of Government Agricultural Expenditure on Nigeria’s Economic Growth. Time series data (1981–2015) were generated from the Central Bank of Nigeria and the National Bureau of Statistics. Descriptive Statistics and Vector Error Correction Model were used for data analysis. A unit root test was carried out to ascertain the stationarity of the series. Johansen co-integration test was also carried out to establish co-integration status of the variables in the model. For valid inference, estimated coefficients were subjected to normality, autocorrelation, heteroskedasticity and dynamic stability tests. The null hypotheses in relation to the respective tests statistic could not be rejected at 5% level of significance. The negative sign and statistical significant of Error Correction term of the VEC model, further confirmed the existence of co-integrating relationship among the variables in the model. The descriptive statistics result shows that, for almost a decade, public spending on agriculture consistently decline and was below the 10% benchmark of the Maputo declaration. The estimated VECM results showed that on the long-run, only the coefficient of Government Agricultural Expenditure variable influenced the economic growth, which was proxy by National GDP. This influence was positive and statistically significant at 5% probability level. However, on the short run, the result showed that both coefficients of Government Agricultural Expenditure variable and that of agricultural output were both positive and statistically significant in influencing the economic growth (GDP) at 5% probability level. Hence, since government expenditure has positive and significant effect on economic growth both on the short run and long run, it is recommended that government should review upward agricultural expenditure to stimulate growth in Nigerian economy, which could trigger more employment opportunity, increase per capita income, improved agricultural sector infrastructural deficit  and reduce poverty.