Open Access Original Research Article

Impact Assessment of National Food Security Mission (NFSM) on Pulses Production in Karnataka, India - An Economic Analysis

Vinod R. Naik, K. R. Nethrayini

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v33i130163

The present study was conducted to examine the economic impact of NFSM on pulses economy in the selected districts of Karnataka state. The study period was divided into Period-I (Pre NFSM) from 1998-99 to 2007-08, Period –II (Post NFSM) from 2008-09 to 2015-16 and Period-III (Overall period) from 1998-99 to 2015-16. Primary data for Pigeonpea and chickpea crops were collected from Kalaburagi and Vijayapur districts of Karnataka respectively. The results of the compound growth rate analysis showed that during Period-III both area and production of selected pulses exhibited significant positive growth. The sources of change in the variance of selected pulses production revealed that the change in residual and change in area variance contributed the major share towards destabilizing the production of Pigeonpea and chickpea respectively in the state. The results of the budgeting technique revealed that the profit per rupees was more in beneficiary farms as compared to non-beneficiary farms in the cultivation of both the selected pulses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Farmers Knowledge and Climate Change on Yields of Crop in the Saline Prone Area of Bangladesh

Md. Wali Ahad Setu, Md. Ekramul Hosen, Mohummed Shofi Ullah Mazumder, Sk. Md. Nur-E-Alam, A. F. M. Mahbubul Hasan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v33i130165

Southern part of Bangladesh is one of the most affected areas confronting the effects of climate change especially in agricultural sector. The study was planned to examine effect of climate change on agriculture in the saline prone areas, and estimate the level of contribution of the selected characteristics of the farmers to the effect of climate change on agriculture. For this reason, data were collected from 88 farmers under study group and 30 farmers under control group from 16 March, 2017 to 15 April, 2017. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression, t-test were used for data analysis. There was a negative effect of climate change on agriculture comparing the study and control group changed score from 2015 to 2017. In case of study group, 61.4 percent of the farmers had medium effect, 17.0 percent had low effect and 21.6 percent of the farmers had high effect of climate change on agriculture. It was also found that out of eleven factors, seven namely age, level of education, annual family income, farming experience, training exposure, agricultural knowledge and knowledge on climate change had significant contribution to the effect of climate change on agriculture in the saline prone areas. It is concluded that climate change may play a significant role in decreasing the yield of cereal crops, yield of vegetables, yield of pulses and increasing number of adopted new varieties of agricultural crops by the farmers. It is recommended that the Bangladesh government and NGOs should take initiative for reducing effect of climate change on agriculture for a sustainable agricultural development.

Open Access Original Research Article

India's Export Performance of Animal Products under New Food Safety Law Regime

Sarvesh Kumar, Harsh Kumar Gautam, Shailendra Vikram Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v33i130166

The study attempts an appraisal of the effectiveness of India’s new food safety regulation on animal products exported to various countries.  The study is based on data (quantity) of exports of different animal products exported from India collected for period 2005-06 to 2016-17. The mean of and variability in exports (quantity) of animal products were compared for pre and post FSS regime to assess the magnitude and stability in the exports of animal products after implementation of India’s new food safety law. The result shows that most of the animal products, except sheep and goat meat, animal casing and caseins, exported from India were stable as CV values significantly decreased during Post-FSS Regime as compared to Pre-FSS Regime. It indicates that new food safety law (FSS Act) of India addressed the food safety issues in the sequence of the global demand. The country-wise quantity of export of animal products was analyzed and found that natural honey, caseins, buffalo meat and poultry products were main animal products exported to the USA as well as EU except for buffalo meat, as indicated higher mean value.  Similarly, most of the animal products exported to the USA were higher in post-FSS regime in comparison to the pre-FSS regime as a significant increase in the mean value of said products during the post-FSS regime. However, the export quantity of sheep & goat meat, dairy products, caseins exported to USA decrease drastically in the post-FSS regime. Contrary, quantities of all animal products exported from India to EU were decreased in the post-FSS regime. Further, import procedure/ border check in the developed countries have made differences and restricts the import of animal products exported from India in its geographical boundaries. The shipments refusal of most of the agricultural commodities including animal products exported from India were increased in post FSS regime. The study found that imposing new food safety standards by India tend to have a positive impact on the export of animal products but food safety standard still a trade barrier for developing countries like India because of insufficiency of harmonized food safety law at a domestic level across the articles.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Overview of Upcountry Cut Flower Industry, Sri Lanka

Sanduni Rathnayake, Shamila Rathnayake

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v33i130167

Floricultural products exports bring a considerable amount of income to Sri Lankan economy and there is a huge development potential. Upcountry is a main cut flower production area in the country. This study’s focus is to identify the general information on cut flower production, marketing, problems and suggestions for the improvement. This is a descriptive study where field survey was conducted in three districts in Sri Lanka. Primary data were collected through face to face and telephonic interviews with 58 flower growers by using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Discussions were held with flower exporters, flower sellers and personnel from Department of National Botanical Gardens and Export Development Board. Snowball sampling methods were used to select the flower growers. Secondary data were collected from the books, research articles, institutional publications and internet. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17). Majority (79.2%) of the respondents were females and mean age of the respondents was 51 years. Cultivation of food crops and flowers was the main source of income of the majority (74.5%). Asetermaria, Desi, Gerbera, Chrysanthemum, Rose and Lilies were the main flowers cultivated and the average monthly income received from flowers was LKR 28,250.96. Selling to the wholesalers visiting the village is the most prominent local marketing method for the growers. A continuous demand exists in the international market for cut flowers. Even though flower exporters are willing to buy flowers from the area, continuous and quality supply of flowers is a problem. Unavailability of proper market alone was identified as the main problem by 42.3% of respondents. It is recommended to motivate farmers for production planning. Export quality flower production at the village level, more tailor made trainings to growers, integrated approach to provide inputs, market and information in one package will provide solutions for the issues encountered in the sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS) in Input Delivery in Southwest Nigeria

Ibitunde Ibidun Olatohun, Farinde Akinloye Jimoh, Adereti Francis Oke

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v33i130169

The study identified the problems of access to inputs by the small-scale farmers; and analyzed the structure and operations of the Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS) on input supply to small-scale farmers in Southwestern Nigeria with the view to investigate the effectiveness of GESS in South western Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting 420 GESS farmers. The interview schedule was used to collect data which were subjected to descriptive and inferential analysis to test the hypothesis. Results showed that the mean age of the small-scale farmers was 49.57±10.49 years and a high level, 75.70 per cent were males. A higher percentage (55.80%) showed a high level of identified problems of access to inputs. Analysis of the structure and operations of GESS on input supply showed that GESS was structured and operated by the government among the various stakeholders using the top-down approach. Out of the nineteen GESS effectiveness indicators, none was effective at solving the problems of inputs delivery to the respondents. Chi-square analysis showed a significant association between the effectiveness of GESS and respondents' sex (χ2=46.159; p≤ 0.01). Correlation analysis showed a negative and significant relationship between the effectiveness of GESS and identified problems of access to inputs (r=-0.214, p≤0.001). It was concluded that GESS recorded a low level of effectiveness of GESS in the study area as a result of the high level of identified problems of access to agricultural inputs through GESS. The study therefore recommends that there should be better orientation for future likely programmes and a reorientation of the farmers about the GESS in which there will be more extensive sensitization and enlightenment, especially at the grassroots level, also that quantity of input supply be increased and that more inclusive participatory approach instead of top-down approach should be adopted for planning, execution and evaluation of the GESS programme.