Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Microprojects Program on Poverty Alleviation in Rural and Peri-urban Eswatini / Swaziland

Marietta P. Dlamini, Welcome M. Mkhaliphi, Sibusiso T. Mbingo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v33i230171

The aim of the study was to determine the variables explaining and predicting the impact of Microprojects Programme (MPP).  Purposive stratified samples of infrastructure projects target beneficiaries were drawn. A descriptive-correlational survey was conducted in the four administrative regions of Eswatini whose projects were within 2009 to 2011. Four different projects (cattle dip tanks, rural electrification, water supply schemes, and neighborhood care points) of the MPP were used in the study. A questionnaire containing both ratings and factual items was developed, validated and pretested before collecting data. The analyses used were percentages, means, standard deviations and multiple linear stepwise regression. Results showed that the MPP infrastructure projects made impact towards poverty alleviation on five of eleven measures but with high response variance: Human rights, basic needs, quality of life, access to public goods and services, and on consumption and diet. Most substantial amount of funding was invested on water supply schemes. The importance of knowledge and skills from MPP project development trainings were very highly rated with low response variance in: MPP procedures; group dynamics; project sustainability; and project management. Knowledge and skills attained through MPP trainings were found very effective especially in project planning and management. Beneficiaries’ attitudes were described by them with semantics: valuable, beneficial, successful and effective. Positive attitudes developed from MPP training, project type - rural electrification, and administrative region - northern Hhohho, explained the impact of MPP in descending order; while project type had the highest impact weight followed by positive attitudes developed and the administrative region. The MPP infrastructure projects have had some forms of impact but overall, only slightly positive. In order to improve service delivery, MPP has to decentralize its services and advertize its programs through radio, TV, and printed materials for better information reach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Challenges in Agriculture Markets

Bankim L. Radadiya, Parag C. Shukla

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v33i230172

Agriculture market provides more scopes and benefits to the farmers. By using emerging technologies and using internet and online facilities, now farmers can directly participate in the auction and they can bid the same. Here, in this research paper we discuss about the SWOC (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Challenges) analysis of agriculture market. Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Challenges in Agriculture. Strength covers the points like Strong links with the government providing subsidies. Nationwide presence. High control over all the operations within the production process. Even government vision is to encourage the consistency, standardization in agriculture marketplace by restructuring the measures between consumers and suppliers. [1] Actual value sighting is constructed on demand and supply. Weakness covers the points like Farmer already have strong attachment to existing local marketers. Lacks of confirmed market positioning. Opportunity covers the points like Farmer will get the benefits that whole process of auction will be based on quality of product and it will be totally transparent. Farmer will get the timely payment through online. All the APMC in the countries will come under the joint online marketplace. In APMC farmer will get the benefit by the state government, but in eNam is a national agriculture market in which farmer will get the exposure of nationwide. Challenges cover the points like Participating all the APMC’s through one joint connected marketplace. Already too much competition within the market is there. So many current participants are already contributing the undistinguishable products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Value Addition to Beans: The Case of Bean Balls “Akara” Production in Idemili South Local Government of Anambra State, Nigeria

T. N. Nwankwo, T. O. Okoli, C. O. A. Ugwumba

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v33i230173

Aims: The study examined socio-economic characteristics of the bean balls producers, the profitability of production, determinants of profit, reasons for starting the business and constraints to production of bean balls in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. The great need to help homemakers in Nigeria better appreciate and prepare cowpea bean balls as snacks for income generation and women empowerment in Nigeria informed this study.

Study Design: Multi-stage, purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select 50 respondents. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: Findings on socio-economic factors of the respondents gave mean age, education level and years of experience of 42.4years, 13.5years and 8.9 years respectively; the majority (92%) of the respondents were females, the majority (60%) married and most (70%) had a household size of 4-6 persons. The enterprise proved profitable with monthly mean net income and net return on investment values of ₦75,990 and 0.39 respectively. Significant determinants of net production returns were gender, educational level and costs of inputs. Main reasons for starting the business were a scarcity of job, profitable nature of the business, high demand and small start-up capital. Serious constraints to production of bean balls in the area were conjunctivitis due to emitted smoke, high and unstable price of raw materials and high cost of production. Policy measures such as bulk purchasing of beans, regulation of market prices of the product, provision of infrastructures (water, electricity), use of cooking gas as a source of heat would mitigate the problems, improve productivity, output and enterprise profitability.

Conclusion: The bean ball production proved to be a profitable enterprise in the study area. Nevertheless, the efficiency and profitability would be improved if the constraints identified by the study are addressed as it will encourage many more people especially young, active and viable individuals, to venture into the enterprise.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of the Performance of Nigeria Agricultural Insurance Scheme in Kogi State, Nigeria

S. J. Ibitoye, O. J. Saliu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v33i230174

The study evaluated the performance of Nigeria Agricultural Insurance Scheme in Kogi State, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 300 insured farmers. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The services provided by the scheme include; subsidized livestock, subsidized crops, commercial livestock, commercial crops, multiple cover, motor liability, fire, and special peril, general accident, engineering and bonds, and special risks. However, the study showed that insured farmers in the state were only engaged in subsidized crops (94.7%), subsidized livestock (44.3%), multiple covers (17.7%), and commercial crops (1.7%). The findings further showed that 92.7% of the insured farmers used the scheme occasionally. Commercial banks (99.3%) and cooperative societies (92%) were the major sources of information on agricultural insurance among the insured farmers. The study showed an improvement in the income of insured farmers after the scheme, though the marginal increase was not significant. Conclusively, the insurance scheme has not brought about the desired increase in farmers’ income.

Open Access Review Article

The Contribution of Agro-ecology as a Solution to Hunger in the World: A Review

M. W. Adidja, J. Mwine, J. G. M. Majaliwa, J. Ssekandi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v33i230170

Evidence from different studies has revealed a great contribution of agro-ecology in solving the world hunger sustainably. Agro-ecology addresses the problems and limitations of industrial agriculture such as inequalities, increased poverty and malnutrition rate, and environment degradation especially climate change; which are the roots causes of hunger in the world and hinder its eradication. In meeting these goals, agro-ecology raises the availability of food by augmenting yields considerably and increasing urban agriculture; it rises the accessibility of food by decreasing poverty; and upsurges the appropriateness of food by offering a food which is of high-quality nutritional, healthy and socially accepted or adopted. This farming system also contributes to water security and to the respect of the right to water and hygiene by lessening the pressure on water resources, growing the flexibility to water shortage and diminishing the frequency of battles among conflicting water uses; and therefore, enhances food security and the apprehension of the right to adequate food. Agro-ecology contributes in conserving biodiversity and natural resources, in increasing resilience to climate change and combating the extenuation challenge, in growing control of peasants upon agricultural and food systems, and in empowering Women as well.