Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Migration on Agricultural Productivity in Rural Mali

Moussa Diallo, Babacar Sene

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v34i130187

The paper employed a national survey data of agricultural production in rural Mali. The study aimed at estimating the effect of migration on the technical efficiency of agricultural households. Therefore, a theoretical model was developed to investigate the fact, which showed that the more the migrants deliver insurance, the less incentive their behind families have to work. A production function-using cross sectional data with household-specific fixed effects was ran to test this assumption. Probability of being financially supported by migrants is found to significantly contribute to technical inefficiency. This result should help decision makers especially agricultural policy makers formulate more efficient development strategies in agricultural production sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Agricultural Practices on Soil Organisms: Lessons Learnt from Market-gardens

Coraline Moulin, Victor Vaillant, Jean-Louis Diman, Valérie Angeon, Fred Burner, Gladys Loranger-Merciris

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v34i130188

Intensive agriculture practices have an important impact on soil biota, which can affect dramatically soil quality. In order to limit this impact, alternative agricultural practices are more and more applied. However, these practices are still in progress and thus, it is necessary to investigate their impact on soil activity. In this context, we studied the impact of agricultural practices (intensive and agroecological) in vegetable cropping systems in Guadeloupe. The first aim of this study was to identify practices developed in vegetable cropping systems and explain their level of eco-agriculture. We conducted a survey on the whole territory which gave us a better understanding of vegetable cropping systems in Guadeloupe. We selected a representative subset of 18 farms located on vertisols. The second aim of the study was to establish a typology of cropping practices in these vegetable cropping systems in vertisol. We performed a PCA and a HCA on the 18 farms. These methods allowed us to build a typology in which farms were distributed between two types. In type A, farmers are using intensive agricultural practices while in type B, farmers are using alternative agroecological farming practices. Then, we collected soil fauna, during the rainy season in type A and type B farms in order to demonstrate the relationship between cropping systems and the quality of soils proxied by biological indicators. We hypothesized that the use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides in intensive agriculture affected soil fauna activity. The results showed no significant difference between soil fauna abundance in both types. However, the taxonomic richness and the abundance of litter transformers were higher in type B. Taxonomic richness and soil fauna functional diversity thus strongly depend on agricultural practices in vegetables cropping systems in Guadeloupe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption of Recommended Fertilizer dose in Farmer’s Field of Bangladesh

Tamanna Haque Mou, Md. Matiul Islam, Mohammad Bashir Ahmed

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v34i130189

The study was conducted to explore the farmer’s level of adoption of recommended fertilizer dose in the field. A survey was conducted at Batiaghata upazila of Khulna, Bangladesh during January to February in 2019 on purposive randomly selected 120 respondents in respect of selected twelve variables. The selected variables (characteristics of the respondents) were age, educational qualification, family size, farming experience, annual family income, farm size, organizational participation, agricultural training, cosmopolitanism, extension contact, attitude and practice. Two aspects of adoption i.e., innovativeness (time dimension) and extent of adoption (spatial dimension) of recommended fertilizer dose were considered as the focus variables. Data analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software version 20.0. To explore the relationship between the concerned variables Pearson’s Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation (r) for ratio data and Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (ρ) for ordinal data were employed. The result showed that majority of the  respondents were old aged (41.7%), had secondary level of education (56.70%), belonged to small family size (50%), had high annual family income (66.7%) and high farming experience (40%) with small farm size (76.67%). Majority of the respondents had low organizational participation (44.16%), low contact with extension agent (57.5%) and medium cosmopolitanism (57.5%) and had no agricultural training (59.2%). Findings also revealed that majority of the respondents (62.5%) showed high positive attitude towards adoption of recommended fertilizer dose. About half of the respondents (43.3%) belonged to medium practice category of recommended fertilizer dose in the field. Considering the innovativeness still 45.83% of the respondents belonged to late majority to laggard category of innovation diffusion, and still 36.66% land is not under recommended fertilizer dose application which significantly differ from the amount of land under recommended fertilizer dose application. Among 120 respondents there was no innovator. Among twelve variables age and farming experience had significant positive relation with their innovativeness, and educational qualification, annual family income, farm size and extension contact had significant positive relation with their extent of adoption of recommended fertilizer dose. Thus, it might be concluded that, the remaining farmers should be motivated to adopt and the remaining land should be practically taken under proper application of recommended fertilizer dose to sustain agricultural production in the field. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Capabilities for Use of Improved Catfish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

M. N. Okeke, E. N. Mbah, D. O. Enibe

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v34i130192

The survey was conducted to assess use of improved catfish production technologies among fish farmers in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 50 different fish farmers in Delta State using questionnaire. Frequency, percentage and mean score were used in analyzing data for the study. Results indicated that majority (70.0%) of the respondents were male, 40.0% were between  the ages of 25 and 34 years, 72.0% were married, 60.0% had a household size of 6-10 persons, 50.0% got an annual income of above ₦300,000 with 92.0% having formal education. Sources of funds for the respondents were personal savings (60.0%), friends/relations (20.0%), cooperative society (12.0%) and loans from banks (8.0%). Findings showed that improved catfish production technologies used by the respondents included fortification of cat fish feeds using root and tuber crops (M= 2.2), improved techniques in pond construction and maintenance (M= 1.7), non-conventional feed stuff for catfish (M= 1.6), fertilization and liming of catfish pond (M= 1.6), improving water quality in catfish culture (M= 1.3), prevention and control of catfish diseases (M=1.0), among others. Also, constraints to use of improved catfish production technologies were inadequate processing and storage facilities (M= 2.5), disease infestation (M= 2.3), high cost of feeds (M= 2.2), high cost of inputs (M= 2.1), inadequate funds (M= 2.1), poor market network (M= 2.0), etc. The study recommended that financial institutions should ensure timely availability of credit facilities to enable catfish farmers make provision for improved processing and storage facilities in order to boost their productivity. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Technical Efficiency of Women Self Help Groups (SHG) Generating Poultry Activity in Amravati District of Maharashtra

K. D. Chopde, Mahesh M. Kadam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v34i130193

Women are a vital part of the Indian economy and employment to build their empowerment by the provision of loans and financial services is an important aspect of any economy. Rural women of India have been benefited by the Self Help Groups (SHG). The SHG can approach any bank for availing loan facility to undertake any suitable earning activity. The loan is repaid out of the profits earned. A study was carried out for the year 2016-2017 for Amravati division, 50 SHGs, which were engaged in selected agriculture, poultry-based activity. The objectives for the study were to analyze the technical efficient self-help groups and identify the possible determinant of technical efficiency of self-help groups; Primary data was collected with the help of personal interview of self-help groups. Those Self-help groups were selected for the study which has activity in existence of at least 10 years, In poultry SHGs the elasticity of a cost per borrower and subsidy variables were a positively significant contribution in the gross loan. Negative Marginal value productivity of assets, Loan per member and net returns are determined to know the contribution in the gross loan Among selected SHGs, the variations in technical efficiency was 0.7632-0.9966. The study concludes that it is necessary to increase the assets and borrow per member for SHGs income generating activities which will be the make the  SHGs members to increase the net income to refund, therefore assets, borrow per member and net returns are the possible determinant of the gross loan portfolio.  The amount needs to be fixed according to the income generating activities and borrow per member increases contribute more to their family income.