Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Loan Repayment among Small-scale Cassava Farmers in Akpabuyo Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

O. O. Kuye, T. O. Edem

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v35i330221

This study investigated the determinants of loan repayment among small-scale cassava farmers in Akpabuyo Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 160 randomly selected farmers. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics, multiple regression and likert scale. Results showed that males were dominant (56.6%) in cassava production and majority (37.5%) were between 41-50 years. About 50% had farm income of less than N100,000.00 while about 46.3% had less than N50,000.00 as their off-farm income. Also, the results found that majority (44.4%) obtained loans from informal sources. Factors  that significantly affected loan repayment include off-farm income and interest rate (p ≤ 0.05) and farm income (p ≤ 0.05). The major causes of loan diversion were seasonal activities  in the agricultural sector (66.9%) and inadequate sustainable income (65.6%) among others. The major constraints faced by the farmers in terms of loan repayment were high interest rate and short period of repayment among others. Government should encourage the formal loan sources to open branches in the rural areas for easy loan accessibility by farmers and to obtain loan with moderate interest rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Farmers' Gender on Factors Affecting Maize Production among Small Scale Farmers in the Agricultural Reform Era: The Case of Western Region of Kenya

Adijah M. Ali-Olubandwa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v35i330223

The introduction of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) and trade liberalisation resulted in agricultural reforms in Kenya and other developing countries. Hence the Kenya government no longer gives incentives to small scale farmers. Therefore, the small scale farmers, extension service and the government at large have to look for all ways to increase maize production in the country, hence the study. Men and women both make significant contributions in maize-based farming systems and livelihoods, although gender roles in maize cultivation vary greatly across and within regions. Their contribution to agricultural work varies even more widely, depending on the specific crop and activity. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of Farmers' Gender on Factors Affecting Maize production among Small Scale Farmers in the Agricultural Reform Era: The Case of Western Region of Kenya. This is because maize is the main staple for most of the Kenyan population and Western Region is the food basket.  The study used Ex-post facto research design via cross sectional survey. Busia, Bungoma, Mt. Elgon and Lugari Counties were purposively selected to represent the Western Region of Kenya. Two sub-counties from each of the four Counties were selected by simple random sampling. For uniformity purposes 200 small scale farmers were selected from focal areas through systematic random sampling hence ensuring that they all had been exposed to extension staff. Four key informants were sampled purposefully based on their positions of authority. In addition, 52 extension staffs were sampled through systematic random sampling. The small scale farmers were interviewed with the help of interview schedule containing open and closed ended questions. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results of the multiple regression illustrated that there was a statistically significant relationship between factors affecting maize production among small scale farmers (adoption of improved agricultural practices, attitude towards maize farming attitude towards farmer organizations and attitude towards opinion leaders) and farmers’ gender. The results showed that the adjusted R2=0.090, F=3.830 at p <0.01 and df=8. The study recommended that the Kenya government, extension service and researchers should pay more attention to the women small scale farmers, who form a large percentage of the small scale farmers in the western region, yet produce less bags of maize in order for Kenya to be food secure. There was therefore need for further research to find ways of motivating women small scale farmers to increase maize production in the Western Region of Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Economic Study on Shrimp Production and Value Chain System in Khulna District of Bangladesh

N. I. Toma, M. S. Islam, M. A. Islam, R. Sultana, S. Islam, M. N. Alam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v35i330224

Shrimp farming and related activities contribute significantly to the national economy of Bangladesh. Per hectare half yearly average yield of shrimp was 350 kg and its money value was Tk. 1, 07,900. Variable cost is 61.29% and fixed cost is 38.71% of the total cost (Tk. 92,190). Among the various variable cost items of shrimp production, maximum cost Tk. 20,000 was found on human labor which was about 35.40% and Tk. 14,770 was found on feed which was about 26.14% of the total variable cost. Again among the various fixed cost items of shrimp production, maximum cost (Tk. 24,375) was found on human labor which was about 68.30% of the total fixed cost. Net returns were estimated at Tk. 1, 49,710 and benefit-cost ratio of shrimp farming was 2.62 which indicates that shrimp production is profitable business for the shrimp farmers. The value chain system continues by the active involvement of farmer, faria, aratdar, bepari, retailer, consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring Gender Issues and Challenges Faced by Women Bank Employees in Work and Family of Sylhet City, Bangladesh

Modhumita Bhattachirjee Pia, Mitu Chowdhury, Indrajit Kundu, Eshita Deb, Khadija Akter

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v35i330225

The study was conducted to evaluate the gender related issues and challenges of women bank employees both in work and with family in Sylhet city in Bangladesh. Data were collected through structured questionnaire from 120 respondent’s sampled using simple random sampling. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics through SPSS software and ranked the challenges using Garrett ranking method. In case of work, problems regarding management of overtime periods were ranked as first where average Garrett score was 64.87 and the majority (36.7%) of the respondents strongly agreed while (10.8%) strongly disagreed with this problem. The lowest average Garrett score was 77.88 for sexual harassment and majority (49.2%) strongly disagreed while (2.5%) strongly agreed with this problem. On contrary, the highest problem in family was long working hours which had an average Garrett score of 57.26 and majority (50.0%) strongly agreed along with (5.8%) of respondents disagreed with this problem. The lowest problem was pressure from family to leave the job which occupied 75.50 average Garrett score and (49.2%) of respondents strongly disagreed whereas (3.3%) strongly agreed with this problem. Besides, they faced other problems like lack of leave facilities, lack of hygienic toilet facilities, problems in balancing family and job and problems of child rearing. It can be concluded that the challenges they faced in working place were less than they encountered in family. It is recommended that several coping strategies must be implemented by authority and government such as developing day care facilities in every branch of banks which might ensure better childcare and reduce the tension of working mothers, adequate maternity leaves in different private banks, area based job posting and limit long working hours by enacting protective laws in order to ensure their proper development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability of Charcoal Production and Marketing in Ibarapa Zone of Oyo State Nigeria

Babatunde, Taiye Oluwasola, Kehinde Abiodun Solomon, Kehinde, Olujide Johnson

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology,
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v35i330226

This study analyzed the profitability of charcoal production and marketing in Ibarapa zone of Oyo state using a structured questionnaire. A multistage sampling technique was adopted to select one hundred (100) respondents for the study. The descriptive statistical method and budgetary analysis were used for data interpretation. Charcoal marketing is dominated by middle or old age mostly females (71.7%), the business are funded from personal saving and support from cooperative society. The finding reveals that 48.5% of respondent had no formal education and economic analysis showed that marketers require ₦50,000-₦500,000 as working capital with a resultant profit of ₦300,000-₦500,000 per annum and charcoal marketing efficiency was 1.32. In Conclusion, charcoal marketing is profitable with net returns of ₦58,000 on 200 bags sold.