Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Institutional Factors Influencing Adoption of Zero-grazing Dairy Farming Technology among Smallholder Farmers in Bondo Sub County, Kenya

G. O. Okello, E. Saina, L. Ngode

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v36i330243

Adoption of zero-grazing addresses challenges faced by smallholder farmers. In Bondo Sub-County adoption of zero-grazing technology has remained low at 4-8 percent despite its introduction in the area in 1990s. No in-depth analysis has ever been conducted on the factors responsible for low adoption of this technology. The purpose of this study was to analyze institutional factors influencing adoption of zero grazing dairy farming technology. The study was carried in Bondo Sub-County, Kenya between February to November 2018. A study was conducted on a sampled population of 279 from a target population of 4253 smallholder farmers. These consisted of adopters and non-adopters of zero-grazing dairy technology. Purposive, proportionate, simple random and systematic sampling techniques were used to select households. Structured questionnaire was administered during primary data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The double hurdle model was used in the study to measure the adoption and performance of zero grazing dairy technology. Institutional factors that had significant (p-value 0.000< 0.05) influence on adoption of zero-grazing dairy technology were access to extension services, frequency of extension officer’s visits, group membership and distance to nearest market. In conclusion access to extension services, frequency of extension officer’s visits, group membership and distance to nearest market influenced adoption of zero grazing farming technology in Bondo sub County. Platforms for farmers’ training should be enhanced through employment of more extension workers. The institutions supporting dairy farming should be strengthened.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions of Climate Change and Adaptation of Climate Smart Technology by the Tea Smallholders: A Case Study of Ratnapura District in Sri Lanka

N. W. M. G. S. Navaratne, W. A. D. P. Wanigasundera, P. C. B. Alahakoon

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v36i330244

Climate change impacts such as rainfall variability, rise in ambient temperature, extreme dry spells and excessive wet periods cause low productivity and quality of tea. Ratnapura District in Sri Lanka, having the largest number of tea smallholders, is highly vulnerable to natural disasters and other negative impacts of climate change. This study was conducted to assess the status of climate change using long term meteorological data, to determine the perception of tea smallholders on short term changes in the climate and to assess the level of adaptation of climate-smart technologies by tea smallholders. Four Divisional Secretariat Divisions were selected for the study. Using multistage sampling, a hundred farmers were selected for the social survey. Meteorological data for 42 years was collected from the Department of Agriculture Sri Lanka. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis. Results showed that there was a significant (p<.05) increasing trend in daily maximum temperature. A slightly increasing trend in consecutive wet days was also observed. The perception of the majority of smallholders about changes in daytime temperature, number of wet days and rainfall distribution was in line with actual changes. Further, the overall level of adaptation to climate-smart technologies was at a moderate level. Shade management practices were at a higher level while moisture conservation practices were at a lower level. It was pivotal to make people aware of the severity of the impacts of climate change on their livelihoods and introduce climate-smart technologies to manage the consequences of extreme weather events.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Market Structures and Credit Services for Small Scale Almond Producers in the Samangan and Balkh Provinces, Afghanistan

Ahmad Jawid Abdul Khaliq, Ismet Boz

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v36i330245

The objectives of the study were to investigate market price structure, market information systems, and credit services for smallholder almond producers around the Samangan and Balkh provinces of Afghanistan.  A sample of 125 almond producers were the participants of the study. The primary tool for data collection was a questionnaire conducted by face to face interviews, and the secondary data of the survey collected from various sources, (CSO, FAO reports, government publications, USAID reports, NGOs reports, journals, and websites). Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. Results of the study showed that there were significant fluctuations in the average price of different almond varieties between 2014 and 2018 period. Exporters and local traders have the most influence on price determination. According to the study on the market information; 41.6% of producers acquired market information regularly, and 58.4% of them did not receive market information regularly. The research concludes that Afghanistan has a high potential and many opportunities to produce good quality of almond not only for domestic use but also for export to neighbors and more distant countries. This will help the country to take steps towards sustainable horticulture and the improvement of a viable economy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Fresh Catfish Marketing among Natural Fishpond Users in Ogbaru Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria

M. N. Okeke, I. I. Nwoye

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v36i330246

The study analyzed fresh catfish marketing among natural fishpond users in Ogbaru Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample size of 120 respondents and analyzed using mean score, frequency, percentage and enterprise budgeting. The result indicated that 49.2% of the respondents fell between the age of 25 and 40 years, 65.0% were females while more than half (63.3%) of the respondents were married. The mean household size of the respondents was 6.15 persons while 57.5% of them had household size of between 6 and 10 persons. Majority (67.5%) of the respondents had secondary school education while the majority (50.8%) of the marketers had 11–20 years of marketing experience. More so, majority (75.8%) of the marketers financed their business with their personal savings. On the costs and return analysis, the total revenue realized by the marketers was ₦3,998, 200 while net return on investment was 1.3. Majority (75.8%) of the marketers identified that the major distribution channel for fresh catfish in the area was from the suppliers to the retailers and then to the consumers. The marketers identified inadequate credit facility (x̄=3.00), inadequate fishpond (x̄=2.86), high cost of fish due to high cost of feed (x̄=2.81), unorganized market (x̄=2.75) and price instability (x̄=2.69) as the major constraints. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the government should make provisions for agricultural incentives such as short and long-term loans, with a single digit interest rate for the marketers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coherence, Specification and Effectiveness of Agricultural Innovation Systems in Benin

Ismail Moumouni-Moussa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2019/v36i330247

Aims: This paper explores possible approaches of assessing the effectiveness of AIS with the main hypothesis that ex ante analysis of advisory service systems integrating local perspectives can help for early evaluation of their chance of success.

Study Design: The AIS developed by the Cotton Boosting Project and the District Center for Agricultural Promotion were selected as case studies in Bembereke District in Northern Benin. We focused on advisory services provided by these institutions to farmers to better cope with soil fertility decline and the mortality of small ruminants.

Methodology: We constructed an analytical framework based on organizational theories of agricultural services, structured around the concepts of level of (i) intern and extern coherence, (ii) specification and (iii) effectiveness of AIS. We conducted systematic field observations and semi-structured interviews with farmers and agricultural projects leaders to collect qualitative data on the components of AIS, their level of accuracy, the relations between these components, their appropriateness with the intervention contexts, farmers’ perceptions and satisfactions.

Results: The AIS we investigated displayed lack of coherence between objectives, services provided, human and material resources deployed and assets of targeted groups. Specific characteristics of the intervention environment such as rick factor were not often sufficiently considered by project leaders. Objectives and target groups were the less specified components. The low levels of harmony and accuracy between/of the components of the AIS were proportional to their unsatisfactory level of achieved performance, displayed by the persistence of soil degradation and the mortality of small ruminants.

Conclusion: The levels of coherence and specification between/of the components of AIS can tell a lot about its probable level of effectiveness. Such an ex ante analysis may complement usual approaches used to assess the effectiveness of AIS.