Open Access Short Research Article

Economics of Moringas Marketing in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria

P. C. Uke, G. C. E. Okechukwu, M. N. Mgbakor

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 29-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130295

This study assessed the economics of Moringa marketing in Enugu metropolis. It is an obvious truth that agricultural production and other agricultural business are never completed without getting to the final consumers (the primary target) thus, the importance of marketing is to make these products available to the final consumers and improve access to food consumption. This study was carried out in Enugu Metropolis. Eighty (80) respondents were purposively selected from two local government areas of the study using descriptive sampling techniques. A questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The result showed that the majority (75%) of marketers of Moringa products in the areas were females. About 47.5% were within the age of 31-40 years, 50% attended secondary Schools, 81.25% were married, 90% were Christians and 62.5% had 1-5 years of experience. The two intermediaries in the marketing system are the wholesaler and retailer. The major forms in which moringa products are marketed are the Moringa powder, seeds, oil and herbal tea. The monthly costs and returns from moringa marketing showed gross margin to be N 43,400, net profit to be N 22,800 and benefits cost ration BCR) to be 1:16 indicating that moringa is profitable in the study area. Despite the profitability of Moringa, marketers identified their major constraint to be low demand as a result of difficulties in convincing people to buy. It is therefore recommended that extension agent and processors should help in enlightening people on the multifarious benefits of Moringa by organizing programs on Moringa.

Open Access Short Research Article

Socio-economic Analysis of Kalyanipuram Village of Pudukkottai District Using Participatory Rural Appraisal by RAWE (Rural Agricultural Work Experience) Programme Students, ADAC&RI (Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute), Trichy

P. Karuppasamy, Mandava Sai Aravind, G. Velmurugan, M. Selvakumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 45-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130297

Participatory Rural Appraisal as an approach and methods for learning about rural life and conditions from rural people. Due to many revolutions held in the field of agriculture, it changed its way of doing practice into a more scientific way. The technology of doing agriculture was improved from its conventional way. Many challenges have been noticed and they have been suppressed at its best. But even though some problems are raised at farmer's field which is unable to reach brainstorming desk of scientists. This is because the real need of farmers is very minimally noticed and ground-level exploration is lacking in this due to many reasons. The suggestions and remedies to their problems should be at their frequency of understanding. In this process, we have achieved a model problem shooter and its way of solving the farmer's problems at ground level and helping the farming community more understandably. This model can be practised for having a lively experience of getting infiltrated into the village activities and rural routine.

Open Access Short Research Article

Analysis of Green and Non-green Energy Poverty among Rural and Urban Households in Oyo State, Nigeria

O. A. Ajetunmobi, J. O. Oladeebo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 87-101
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130301

In rural and urban areas of Nigeria where alternative fuels were available, shift away from domestic wood fuel use were not taking place on a very large scale. The urban dwellers that normally use kerosene and gas were now systematically shifting to using charcoals. If energy situation should continue this way, economic growth and human development will be hampered in Oyo State. This study therefore, analysed the green and non-green energy poverty among rural and urban households in Oyo State of Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select samples of two hundred and forty (240) respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire. The result showed that the mean age of all the respondents was 49.3 years while 66% of them were women. The average household size was 5 and 39% of the respondents attended tertiary institutions. Their primary occupation was farming (57%). The major energy sources available to the respondents were kerosene and charcoal (54%). The energy expenditure approach result showed that, 55% of the rural respondents were energy non-poor, 58% of the respondents in the urban areas were energy poor. The relative measure of energy poverty result revealed that 70.8% of all the respondents were energy poor. The logistic regression results showed that household size (p≤0.01), education (p≤0.01), expenditure on food (p≤0.01) were variables which positively determined energy poverty of the rural households; age (p≤0.01), household size (p≤0.01), education (p≤0.01) and expenditure on food (p≤0.01) were positive significant variables which determined energy poverty of the urban households and household size (p≤0.01), expenditure on food (p≤0.01) were positive significant variables that determined energy poverty of the pooled data. In conclusion, there should be an awareness, affordable prices of various energy types, advancement in technology, maintenance practices and revitalization of energy projects in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Perception and Adaptation of the Farmers toward Climate Change in the Western Region of Nepal

Parmita Poudel, Sittal Thapa, Sarthak Ghimire, Elina Sen

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130292

Aims: This study was undertaken to identify the perception of farmers towards climate change and their adaptation towards the change. The study also identified the sources of climate change information at the local level and their expectation from concerned authorities regarding the agriculture-related issues pertaining to climate change.

Study Design: The study was conducted in two different geographical region Arghakhanchi (hilly) and Kapilvastu (terai) to represent the major farming region of the country.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in two districts which are Arghakhanchi and Kapilvastu, of western Nepal. A total of 120 samples such that 60 samples each were taken from both districts in the month of September and October of 2018.

Methodology: A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data from participants.

Results: The study has revealed that the majority of the farmers have perceived an increase in temperature, a decrease in rainfall and late on-set of the rainy season. Similarly, radio was found to be the primary source of climate change information, followed by television. Change in planting season and decrease in the farm size under cultivation were found to be the most adapted practices among farmers against climate change. Furthermore, it was found that majority of the farmers expect to have crop insurance and availability of improved variety seeds as support from government and concerned authorities.

Conclusion: Most of the respondents made the accurate assumptions regarding climate change. Understanding the relationship between the climate change and agriculture and perception of people towards those changes is essential. It helps to evaluate possible impacts that may result from further changes in climate and plan suitable adaptation practices. Knowledge about these findings can be useful for making various plans and policies for mitigating the impacts of climate change on agriculture in the studied area. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers Perception on the Communication Behaviour and Usefulness of Farmer Producer Organizations in Namakkal District of Tamil Nadu

N. Kathiravan, T. Senthilkumar, G. Senthilkumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 9-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130293

Agriculture is the main occupation of the vast majority of the population of India. Producers companies can help smallholder farmers participate in emerging high-value markets, such as the export market and the unfolding modern retail sector in India. Farmer producer organizations (FPO) need to strengthen support service for small farmers developing a link between farmers and purchasers of agricultural produce. The study was conducted among four assisting FPOs with 45 respondents in Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Data were collected through a well-structured interview schedule among the respondents of four farmer producers companies select randomly. The data collected were coded, tabulated, ranked and the result was interpreted worked out. Overall the respondent's member perception score was ranged between “good” to “excellent”.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Analysis on Marketing Efficiency of Raphia and Oil Palm Wine in South East, Nigeria

Temple Nwankwo, Uche Okeke

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 14-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130294

The study compared the marketing efficiency of oil palm wine (OPW) and raphia palm wine (RPW) in South East, Nigeria. The study specifically described the marketing channels of OPW and RPW, determined the market structure, and ascertained the profitability and efficiency of OPW and RPW marketing by the intermediaries. It also estimated the determinants of profit realized by OPW and RPW marketers; and identified the problems of palm wine marketing in the area. Multi-stage sampling method was used to select 240 respondents. Primary and time series data were collected using structured questionnaire administered to the respondents by personal interview. Descriptive and parametric statistics involving enterprise budgeting and multiple regression techniques were used for data analyses. Results identified five marketing channels for palm wine in the area. Gini coefficient analysis gave concentration ratios of 0.19 and 0.44 for OPW and RPW wholesalers; 0.48 and 0.08 for OPW and RPW retailers respectively, implying a fairly competitive market. Palm wine marketing was profitable in the area given the positive values of gross margin, net marketing income, mean net marketing income, and net return on investment of N5,025,872, N4,980,976.03, N41,508 and 0.37 for OPW; N3,640,020, N3,614,966.88, N30,124.72 and 0.96 for RPW. RPW was more profitable than OPW because it returned 96 kobo against the 37 kobo returned by OPW for every N1.00 investment. Purchase and selling prices, transportation cost, and marketing cost statistically and significantly influenced pooled OPW and RPW marketers' profit; marketing cost, purchase and selling prices were common significant determinants of profit realized by the wholesalers of OPW and RPW while selling price was the only common significant determinant of profit realized by the retailers of OPW and RPW. The constraints to palm wine marketing arranged in descending order of seriousness were high cost of transportation, scarcity of modern storage facilities, low shelf life of the product, seasonality of supply, poor patronage, high cost of palm wine, adulteration, and price instability. The establishment of small scale palm wine bottling industries through private initiatives would extend the products' shelf-life, and make it available all year round. Government in collaboration with private initiatives should provide modern transportation, and market infrastructural facilities as well as soft loans, to enable the marketers operate at minimal cost, earn more profit in conducive environment and good health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers and Pastoralists Participation in the Elaboration and Implementation of Sustainable Agro-pastoral Resources Management Plans in Northern Benin

Latifou Idrissou, Léonce Sacca, Hakimou Imorou, Morrisson Gouthon

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130296

Benin like many other West African countries has its economy mainly based on agriculture and livestock. These activities development depend heavily on natural resources in these countries. In the extreme northern part of Benin in Karimama district, farmers and pastoralists are constrained by the presence of the W park and the Niger river that occupy most of the grazing and arable lands. In order to sustainably manage these resources, the district and the W park management authorities decided to set up these resources’ management plans. This study investigated the involvement of farmers and pastoralists in the elaboration and implementation of the agro-pastoral resources management plans for their sustainable use. Therefore, 40 farmers and 40 pastoralists randomly selected in two villages of the Karimama district and several authorities were surveyed. Results show that both farmers and pastoralists recognized that Karimama district still has agro-pastoral resources for farming and livestock. However, they mostly stressed that they were not sufficiently involved neither in the elaboration nor in the implementation of their management plans. They also perceived negatively the plans set up because according to them beside their low implication, the facilities necessary for a good management of the buffer zones of the park and the Birds Island are not put in place, they are still unfairly arrested and fined and the areas delimitated for their activities is insufficient for them. The study concludes that the main challenge in the elaboration and implementation of agro-pastoral resources management plans is the genuine involvement of the different stakeholder categories in the process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Livestock Sector in India: A Critical Analysis

K. P. Sonavale, M. R. Shaikh, M. M. Kadam, V. G. Pokharkar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 51-62
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130298

India has the world’s largest livestock population accounting for over 37.28 per cent of cattle, 21.23 per cent of buffalo, 26.40 per cent of goats and 12.17 per cent of sheep. The study examined the growth and export dimension of livestock sector in India, the factors affecting livestock output and the trends, performance and determinants of the livestock sector in India. Secondary data for years (1951 to 2016-17) were collected. Besides, Regression analysis, the Markov Chain analysis and Coppock’s Index were computed to achieve the stipulated objectives. The results revealed that India’s total livestock population increased from 289.4 million in 1951 to 529.70 million in 2007 but plummeted to 512.06 million in 2012, while total poultry population increased consistently from 73.5 million in 1951 to 729.21 million in 2012.

In livestock composition, the ovine share was increased but the bovine share was decreased. Buffalo, goat and pig share in livestock population was increased but the cow, cattle and sheep share to total livestock population was decreased. The instability was observed to be highest in poultry, remaining livestock animals also shows instability in its population growth. India’s milk, meat, egg and wool production increased at the rate of 4.18, 2.74, 6.02 and 0.81 per cent per annum respectively during the study period. In India production of milk increased rapidly after the year 1970 while production of meat and egg increased rapidly after the year 1980. In past India’s trade balance for livestock and livestock products was deficient, now it has been shifted to a positive balance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges of Poultry Farmers at Ejisu Municipality, Ghana

Margaret Aba Sam Hagan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 63-77
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130299

The objective of the study was to identify the main marketing challenges that confront poultry farmers in Ejisu Municipal in their attempt to sell poultry products. Data collection was by questionnaires and interviews and data collected was analysed by using descriptive statistics. The result showed that marketing strategies employed include sales promotion, branding and personal selling. Marketing channels include local market and retail shops. The main challenges faced by the farmers included high cost of feed and medicine. Based on the result it can be concluded that the farmers used limited market channels and sales promotion strategies. The key challenges faced by the farmers are the high cost of farm inputs. It is therefore recommended that farmers in the study area should intensify the use of the other marketing strategies such as free delivery service and/or door-to-door sales to organisations and institutions. In addition, government should subsidize poultry farm inputs for farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Farmers’ Level Crop Productivity at Dumki Upazila under Patuakhali District

Shekhar Mondal, Md. Golam Rabbani Akanda, A. T. M. Sanaul Haque

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 78-86
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130300

The major aims of this study were mainly to determine and describe the extent of farmers’ crop productivity and also explore the relationship between the 12 selected characteristics of the farmers with their crop productivity level. The study was designed with a mixed-method approach where both qualitative and quantitative analyses are blended in a rational way to have a deeper understanding of research problems. The study was conducted in Dumki Upazilla under Patuakhali district, Bangladesh. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 110 farmers except landless engaged in crop production. Data were collected by face to face interview using a pre-tested interview schedule during the period from March 10 to April 15, 2016. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical measures and computer software like SPSS. Pearson's Product Moment coefficient of correlation results showed that out of 12 independent variables, the correlation coefficients of 7 variables had a positive and significant relationship with their level of crop productivity. The stepwise multiple regression analyses stated that only 4 variables such as communication exposure, innovativeness, risk orientation and training experience had a significant contribution to the farmers' crop productivity level and also accounted for 52.8 per cent of the total variation in productivity index. This study also showed some problems which were faced by the farmers during crop production. If these problems can be solved, the farmers’ crop productivity level will be increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Irrigation Water Shortage on Yield, Income and Employment of Farm Households in Tungabhadra Command Area of Karnataka

Pooja Kori, K. B. Umesh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 102-110
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130302

The study examined the impact of irrigation water shortage on yield, income and employment of farm households in Tungabhadra command area in Gangavathi taluk of Karnataka. Based on the extent of net irrigated area under canal, Gangavathi taluk of Koppal district was selected for the study. A total of 120 households among which 40 respondents from each water access regimes (head reach, mid reach and tail-end reach) were selected. The required field data pertaining to the year 2016-17 was collected through personal interview. The average gross annual household income of head reach farmers before and after water shortage (2015) was INR 6,35,293 and INR 5,59,970, respectively. Whereas, in tail-end reach, the average gross annual household income before and after water shortage was INR 5,66,263 and INR 4,19,895, respectively. The annual household employment in all the three regimes was affected due to irrigation water deficits but it was more significant in middle-reach regime. Bore wells and ponds acted as a supplementary source of irrigation in periods of water shortages. A good coordination should be built between different line departments in managing the water resources in the Tungabhdra basin and it should be coordinated in proper direction. There is a need for common vision and plan for water management based on administrative boundaries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Agricultural Journalism on the Adoption of Agricultural Innovation among Farmers in Etche Local Government Area Rivers State

N. S. Amadi, W. I. Raji

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 111-118
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130303

The study examined the role of Agricultural Journalism on the adoption of agricultural innovation among farmers in Etche local Government Area Rivers State. The population of the study comprised all registered small scale farmers and extension workers in Etche Local Government area. The sample size of the study was 105 small scale farmers and 32 extension workers selected using simple random sampling techniques. The instrument used was a self-structured questionnaire title “Role of Agricultural Journalism on the Adoption of Agricultural Innovation among small scale farmers. The validation of the instrument was done by two experts and the reliability of the instrument was established using Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient. However, the reliability index obtained was 0.86, which is acceptable for instrument consistency. Mean and the standard deviation were used to analyze the responses on each item. Items ≥ 2.50 were accepted, otherwise were rejected. Z-test statistical tool was employed to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study established that creating awareness on modern farming methods, providing information on the effectiveness of crop varieties, establishing the procedure of input combination, communicating the impacts and accomplishment of the innovation, disseminating agricultural research findings to farmers are roles of agricultural journalism on the adoption of agricultural innovation among farmers in Etche. The study recommends that agricultural research institutes should also utilize agricultural journalism to educate farmers on their new development. Agricultural journals should contain detailed information about the use of innovation.