Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Management Practices, Challenges and Coping Strategies Adopted by Public Agricultural Extension: A Case of Nandi-Hills Sub-County, Nandi County, Kenya

Joseph Kipkorir Cheruiyot, Nelly Sang, Festus Ng’etich

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230304

Aims: Knowledge Management (KM) in agriculture is a core aspect of agricultural productivity and profitability, but is one area with scanty literature. The aim of the current study was to determine the knowledge management practices, challenges and coping strategies adopted by public agricultural extension agents in Nandi-hills Sub-county, Nandi County, Kenya under a fairly new devolved system put in place by the constitution of Kenya in 2010.

Study Design:  Descriptive cross sectional case study survey design was adopted for the study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Nandi-hills Sub-County, Nandi County, Kenya. Data were collected between January and April, 2019.

Methodology: All the Extension agents in the Sub-county were targeted. A questionnaire with closed and open ended questions was used to collect data from the 32 participants in the Sub-county and the data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Descriptive statistics were utilized to document the practises based on their frequencies and associations. 7% of the respondents were certificate holders, 37% were diploma holders while a majority; 56% were degree holders. Associations between attributes was analysed by running Goodman and Kruskals’ gamma.

Results: Findings indicated that lack of organized knowledge sharing fora, poor ICT infrastructure, lack of budgetary support and transport were the major challenges facing knowledge management. There was strong negative correlation between education levels with rating of knowledge storage (Gamma = - 0.647, p = 0.001) and with access to stored information (Gamma = - 0.824, p = 0.001).

Conclusion: Diverse methods of knowledge capture and storage were utilized and faced varied challenges mostly attributed to inadequate facilitation to support knowledge capture and storage in modern forms such as ICT. Cooperation and collaboration with private sector players was adopted as a strategy to cope with the challenges.

Open Access Original Research Article

Marketing Chain and Structure, Conduct and Performance of Sesame: The Case of Kafta Humera District, Western Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

Desale Gebretsadik

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 14-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230306

This study analyzed marketing chain and structure, conduct and performance of sesame in Kafta Humera district of Tigray region, Ethiopia; using primary and secondary data obtained from field survey and desk review using a semi-structured questionnaire. Multistage random sampling technique was used to draw 128 and 126 small and, large-scale sesame producers, respectively. Also, a total of 44 assemblers, 5 cooperatives, 13 exporters and one processor were interviewed. Applying the descriptive statistics method and market observation of the researcher; the major sesame market chain actors were producers, assemblers, cooperatives, exporters and processors. The concentration ratios of the first four and eight large local assemblers and exporters indicated that there was a weak oligopoly market structure. It is also found that there were entry barriers, information asymmetry and collusion in price-setting; indicating that sesame market was deviating from the norms of competitive market structure. Considering free on board of hulled sesame price; the gross marketing margins of 5%, 12% and 45% and net marketing margins of 1%, 3% and 17% obtained by assemblers, exporters and processors, respectively. But, Considering the free-on-board price of raw sesame; the gross marketing margins of 7%, 18% and about 75% and net marketing margins of 1.13%, 4.41% and 4.85% obtained by assemblers, exporters and producers, respectively. All these indicating that the sesame market was being poorly performing. Depending on the results found this study recommends, it will be better if the focus is given to value-added product export, securing competitive market through minimizing entry barriers, strengthening timely updated market information and formal credit access, hiring marketing experts at market centres to control collusion of traders in price setting.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Attitude of Vegetable Growers towards Mitigating the Adverse Effects of Agricultural Chemicals

G. Manunayaka, S. Ganesamoorthi, N. D. Chethan Patil, Rahul D. Bellagi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 37-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230307

India is the world's second-largest producer of vegetables next to China, but the annual loss of fresh vegetables on an average is about 12 per cent in India which is significantly affecting the agricultural economy. Thus, crop protection is very much essential to prevent losses and feed the growing population. Chemical crop protection in India began in the year 1947-48 with the introduction of Benzene Hexa Chloride (BHC). Today India is the fourth largest producer of pesticide in the world. But over the years pesticides are being used more indiscriminately and unscientifically which has led to a negative impact on humans, soil, water and the environment as a whole. Due to the unscientific pesticide application, the pests gradually develop resistance to the poison that normally kills them. Even with all these ill-effects, it is inevitable to use pesticides to grow the crops and therefore they can be called as a necessary evil. The present study was conducted in Kolar district of Karnataka state in India during 2018-19 to ascertain the attitude of vegetable growers towards mitigating the ill-effects of agricultural chemicals. The data was collected from 120 vegetable growers using a pretested interview schedule. It was found that more than half of the vegetable growers (52.50%) had highly favourable attitude towards mitigating the ill-effects of agricultural chemicals; sixty per cent of the vegetable growers were undecided whether to spray pesticides in the opposite direction of the wind or along the direction of the wind. The study facilitates the agriculture and horticulture departments to train farmers enabling them to safely use, handle and store the agricultural chemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Explorative Study on Access to Print and Electronic Information Resources among Journalists in Mysore and Mandya District of Karnataka

G. Kiran Kumar, Chikkamanju .

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230310

This explorative study focuses on access to print and electronic information resources among journalists in Mysore and Mandya district of Karnataka, India. The researchers tried to analyze frequency of library visits, average time spent, use of print and electronic information resources, criteria for evaluation of information resources, usage of social networks for accessing and sharing information, rating of online resources based on its features, preferred format of information resources, factors influencing for use of e-resources and to know the importance of e-resources for journalistic tasks. For this purpose the researchers prepared a well structured questionnaire as a tool for data collection and the collected questionnaire has been analyzed and presented with useful percentage analysis, Anova, Mean, Standard Deviation and suitable tables for presentation of data. It has been found form the study that the journalists prefer both print and electronic format of information resources. Hence, the libraries should maintain both formats of information resources till the users inculcate the habit of using information resources available in electronic format. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Agroforestry Practitioners Income in Semi-Arid Region of Nigeria

B. D. Zira, M. A. Gupa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 67-72
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230311

This study examined the determinants of farm income among Agroforestry Practitioners in Semi-arid region of Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling technique, 300 Practitioners were randomly selected from six purposive selected semi-arid region of Nigeria. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The study revealed an income of between N301,000 and N400,000 among the Agroforestry Practitioners in the study area. Result on the linear regression analysis revealed that the coefficients of Agroforestry farm output (p<0. 01), farm size (p<0. 01, household size (p<0. 05,) and education (p<0. 05,) were found to positively and statistically influence Agroforestry farm income in the study area. It is recommended that multifaceted interventions through infrastructural development that supports access to education and land, skill acquisition and empowerment program should be implemented in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio Economic Features and Poverty Status of Livelihood Diversifiers in Marginal Communities of Ekiti State Nigeria

Ajiboye Abiodun, A. O. Adekunmi, S. O. W Toluwase, F. M. Oluwatusin, F. O. Osundare, A. O. Awoyemi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 73-79
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230312

The paper investigates the socio-economic features and poverty status of livelihood diversifiers in marginal communities of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 80 respondents’ from three communities selected from three Local Government Areas. Descriptive and Hosmer and Lemeshow test were used to analyse the data. It was found that those engaged in livelihood diversification were predominantly male while few of them were female. Over 70 percent of them were still in their active age. Only a handful of them could be outright concluded in illiteracy which reveal how ekiti state people cherish education. In all, 71 percent of them were married which explained the difficulty for such families to relocate to urban centers. Household size was fairly large with 60 percent having between 5-10 household members. This further makes it pretty difficult to relocate to urban centers for greener pastures. Only 21 of them operated fairly large farm holdings of more than 4 ha. The result of the Hosmer and Lemeshow test showed that all the respondents have high degree of susceptibility to change their poverty status. The paper justified that livelihood diversification still remains one of the potent tools of dealing with abject poverty and inability to make ends meet among the rural households in a country where government has nothing or little to offer as safety nets for the vulnerable of the society.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Farmer Organizations in the Reinforcement of the Economic Capacities of Farmers in Mezam Division, Cameroon

Kenette Fru Mbangari, Mathias Fru Fonteh, Guillaume Hensel Fongang Fouepe

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 80-91
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230313

This study was carried out from February 2018 to June 2019 in Mezam Division-Cameroon, under the auspices of the Program for the Improvement of Competiveness of Family Agro-pastoral Farms (PCP-ACEFA) and the North West Farmers’ Organization (NOWEFOR). The objective of the study was to assess the role of FOs in the reinforcement of the economic capacities of farmers in the region. Secondary sources data were reviewed while primary source data were gotten directly from farmrs in the field. Two hundred and eighty (280) farmers’ members of these FOs were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire and 7 leaders were interviewed using an interview guide. In addition, direct observations were made. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS. The findings show that, 18.57% of the respondents who possessed agricultural equipments in their farms  from the support of SOS Faim/EC, 17.14%  as a result of MINADER  support, 20% as a result of ACEFA support and 44.28% coming from the farmers own capital. Beneficiaries of the aid hired 30% of workerss compared to 12.8% the non beneficiaries. The contribution of FOs in the development of the economic capacities of farmers was overall positive as 48.57% of the beneficiary farmers had a higher income than non beneficiaries. The beneficiaries’ respective mean annual gross margin for market gardening (263, 863), poultry (375,343) and piggery (64,615) are statistically higher than that of non beneficiaries. Conclusively FOs are pivotal for famers in the development process and the strengthening of the economic capacities of farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assess the Rural Youth Extent of Participation in Rural Developmental Activities Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu - An Overview

P. Radhakrishnan, M. Asokhan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 92-96
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230314

The extent of participation in rural developmental activities of rural youth in the development process is essential in order to bring the changes in socio-economic structure and improving the quality of life. The place of rural youth class is more peculiar and important for the future of country. Rural youth are the precious human assets who can play an important role in the development of agriculture and other allied activities. Youths can make their productive  contribution to national development and through which society can benefit from the idealism and the sense of dedication of youth at the same time, they also occasionally involved in extent of participation in rural developmental activities in a village side like village sanitation, construction of youth club building, afforestation activities and natural calamity relief work etc., Since such a kind of rural developmental activities are increases their self-esteem, self-confidence, motivation and aspiration to give them a sense of identity and of being needed by the society. India has rich rural youth potential. The population of rural youth in developmental activities contribute to national development. Hence, the above facts revealed that the participation of youth in rural development activities is very significant and essential phenomena. Therefore, this attempt was made in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu with the 200 sample size of rural youth respondents. Cent per cent of the respondents have taken up activities related with adult literacy programme, construction of school building, afforestation activities and other social cultural activities. With regard to the adult literacy programme most of the respondents (93.00 per cent) stated that they have regularly participated in the related activities. Almost a similar percentage of the respondents have also regularly participated in the activities related with social cultural programme (94.50 per cent), construction of school building (89.50 per cent), afforestation activities (87.50 per cent), whereas the other respondents have participated in the above activities either occasionally or rarely.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Production and Marketing of Rice Cultivation in Vizianagaram District of Andhra Pradesh, India

S. Shrine, G. Sunil Kumar Babu, R. Asha, A. Pavani

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 97-101
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230315

The production and marketing of rice cultivation have been studied in Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh during 2018-19. Tools such as costs and returns, marketing margins, input use efficiency, marketing margins and price spread were used for the study. The results have shown that the Benefit-Cost ratiois 1.05. The input use efficiency has shown a negative significance for chemical fertilizers,pesticides and seed rate. The price spread analysis has shown that the producers receive 27% of the consumer price. Marketing margin for the adopted marketing channel was worked out by comparing the prices prevailing at each stage of marketing. Since used prices were related to a particular point of time and as small concurrent margins were also worked out.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use and Role of Mobile Phone for Information Services in Agricultural Activities

M. R. Karim, M. A. Meem, M. S. Rahman, M. R. F. Noman, S. Huda

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 102-110
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230316

The main purpose of this study was to determine the use and role of mobile phone for information services in agricultural activities as well as to explore the relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of women farmers and their use of mobile phone in agricultural activities. Data were collected using pre-tested interview schedule from a sample of 85 women farmers during the month of August 2018. Besides descriptive statistics, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) was used to explore the significant influencing factors. Ten (10) different android mobile phone apps were identified which are most frequently used by the women farmers in the study area. Among the mobile apps, ‘vutta or maize app’ was found as the top used mobile app for information services in agricultural activities. This might be because of rapidly spreading of maize cultivation as a highly benefited cereal crops against the climatic change situation in the study area. Findings indicated that among the women farmers, majority (64.7 percent) of the women farmers used mobile phone moderately for information services in agricultural activities followed by 23.5 percent high and only 11.8 percent low used of mobile phone. Among ten socio-economic characteristics of the women farmers, education, annual income, organizational participation, training received and ICT self-efficacy had positive significant relationship and influence of the use of mobile phone in agricultural activities. ‘Insect and disease control measures’ was found the 1st ranked agricultural activities in which mobile phone played highest role for information services. It suggests that issues related to economic impact or effect of mobile phone on sustainable livelihood could be considered for future research to be undertaken.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Intensity of Burundi’s Rice Imports from Tanzania

J. C. Ndayisaba, J. K. Lagat, W. M. Ndayitwayeko, S. K. Kiprop

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 111-119
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230317

Neighboring countries usually exchange goods and services, taking advantage of proximity and other shared socio-economic characteristics among citizens. This study explored the intensity of Burundi’s rice imports from Tanzania. First of all it determined and analyzed the evolution of the intensity of rice imports. Secondly, it estimated the factors which influence the intensity of rice imports. The results indicated that Burundi’s rice imports from Tanzania remained more intensive over 2003-2018. However the financial crisis which slapped the world in 2007-2008 harmed Burundi’s rice imports from Tanzania probably due to lack of finance to import. Moreover, the results revealed that the Burundian national income, its exchange rate and its trade openness significantly had a positive effect on the intensity of Burundi’s rice imports from Tanzania.

Open Access Review Article

Usage of Social Networking Tools by Rural Youth in Transfer of Technology - An Overview

P. Radhakrishnan, N. Sriram, N. Manivannan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 44-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i230309

The utilization of social media tools is an integral part of rural youth lives today. Over some time utilization of social media has been changed the attention of rural youth. The development of rural youths on social media has reached at a different level, without social media, every individual of rural youth cannot think about the direction of their respective growth and futures. The research studies on the utilization of social media conducted across the world by different authors and review extensively for drawing constructive inference for future study and reference. The development of rural youth on social media is now leading to addiction. The major sources and several studies reported that it is widely accepted the overutilization of social media has a profound negative influence on the rural youths. This study highlights the main purposes of utilizing social media by rural youth and to attempt have been made to find out the time spent on surfing the various social networking sites. This study focuses on the major and the positive and negative effects of utilizing social media on the life of rural youths.