Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Local Communities of Southern Ethiopia in Curbing Irregular Migration

Eyob Acha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330318

Ethiopia has been an origin, destination and transit country numerous types of migration particularly for irregular migration. This study mainly aimed to assess the impact of integrated regional efforts to deter irregular migration in the selected zones of South Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, Ethiopia. These zones include Wolaita, Hadiya, Kambata-Tambaro, Gurage and Siltie. The study employed purely qualitative approach through the course of stages of the evaluation process raging from data collection, analysis, discussion and interpretations. The tools used for collecting data were focus group discussions, key informant interviews and life history narratives. Secondary data were obtained through review of institutional documents and facts and figures. Findings of the study showed that different stakeholders are working with regional Labour and Social Affairs Agency to deter irregular migration. The key stakeholders were local community, educational institutions, Bureau of women and children affairs, media and religious organizations. Labour and Social Affairs Agency adopted three measures to control irregular migration: prevention, protection and prosecution. Therefore, attitudes of the community as well as leaders of religious organizations have to be reshaped by continuous public discussion and awareness creation programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Scale of Operation and Farmers’ Risk Aversion on Sugarcane Productivity in Nandi County, Kenya

Joseph Kipkorir Cheruiyot, Nelly Sang

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 14-26
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330319

Aims: Sugarcane ranks among top ten commercial crops grown in Kenya, but its productivity has been on the decline. This study investigated influence of scale of farm operation and farmers’ risk aversion on productivity. Risk aversion was based on farmers’ perceived risks associated with new high yielding, early maturing varieties.

Study Design: The survey study adopted an ex post facto research design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Nandi County, Western parts of Kenya along a sugarcane growing belt. Data was collected between April and September, 2019.

Methodology: An enumerator-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 198 respondents. Purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select participants. Data was analyzed with the aid of SPSS Version 20. Chi square test and its related measure of strength of association; Cramer’s V, were utilized to estimate relationships between variables. Welch’s ANOVA (W-test) was run to test for yield differences between groups. Significant differences were subjected to post hoc tests using Games-Howell test to separate the means.

Results: There was a significant association between farmers scale of operation and productivity;

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical Study on Crop Status and Farmers’ Preference towards Crop Varieties and Hybrids in Namakkal District of Tamil Nadu

S. Elakkiya, M. Asokhan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 33-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330321

Tamil Nadu is one of the pioneer states in India, which is Farmer centric and has brought revolutionary initiatives in Agriculture to propel the productivity and production of major crops. The use of good quality seeds of improved high yielding varieties and hybrids is the master key for productive agriculture. Hence, the study was taken up in Namakkal district with an aim to assess the preference of using the varieties and hybrids and to identify the constraints of in adopting it. In Namakkal district, Thiruchengode block was purposively selected based onarea of cultivation. A sample of 30 respondents were selected using simple random sampling method and Participatory Rural Appraisal method was used for data collection. Percentage analysis and Cumulative frequency methods were used for data analysis. The study revealed that, the most of the farmers cultivated varieties like Sorghum (CO 30), Ragi (GPU 28), Blackgram (Vamban 4), Greengram (Vamban 2), Groundnut (TMV 7), Tapioca (MVD 1), Pomegrante (Bhagawa), Guava (Lucknow 49).The preferences expressed by the farmers for cultivating the above mentioned varieties and hybrids were high yield, highly suitable for all season, drought tolerant and less water consumption. In general, the farmers  faced few constraints like, lack of awareness and knowledge about recent varieties, hybrids and technologies, monsoon failure, high labour cost, dry land area, lack of storage go-down facilities and farmers are not getting real returns of the crops due to climatic factor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Value Chain Analysis of Delivery of Artificial Insemination Services in Kenya: A Case Study of the Western Kenya Region

S. Makokha, J. O. Onono, E. J. Mukhwana, H. Atsiaya, R. N. Wambugu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 39-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330322

The aim of the study was to map out value chains for transmitting genetic material, estimate gross margins and value added by each artificial insemination (AI) service providers, and recommend ways of improving AI services. Regulators, agents, trainers in artificial insemination and dairy farmers were interviewed in nine counties, namely Kisii, Nakuru, Uasin Gishu, Nandi, Kakamega, Bungoma, Nyamira, Bomet and Trans Nzoiafor three weeks in the year 2017. Ninety AI inseminators, 32 regulators, 18 distributors, 6 trainers, 10 para-veterinary officers and 10 importers of genetic material were interviewed through key informant interviews. A total of 114 farmers were interviewed through a semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics (percentages, means) were used for data analysis. Results show that the Kenya Animal Genetics Resource Centre (KAGRC) handled 70% of the genetic material. Bull service had about 16% of the market share. The main challenge for farmers was repeat cases of insemination thus questioning the quality of artificial insemination. The AI trainers with better technical skills such as KAGR Conly trained 1% of the farmers interviewed. Gross margins for inseminators were Kenya shilling (KES) 163/dose for local semen and KES 660 for imported semen, thus making it difficult to earn a decent living from distribution of local semen. Transport cost was 37% of the total cost. To increase gross margins, inseminators should give veterinary services andencourage farmers to use AI services. County governments should reduce cost of transport. Traceability of inseminators and of semen distribution should be done to reduce exploitation of farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Socioeconomic Profile of Paddy Farmers Adopting Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) Technology in Odisha, India

Bibhu Prasad Dutta, Amit Mishra, Aditya Prasad Kanungo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 51-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330323

The study was conducted in Puri District of Odisha, India along with the introduction of a new technology Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) in Rabi 2015. AWD was a very low cost water saving technology and farmers were made aware about it in the selected study area in nine villages, three in each three blocks of Puri district. The selected 144 farmers, 16 from each village who had adopted AWD were interviewed through a pretested interview schedule. 15 variables were taken to assess the socioeconomic profile of the farmers. The variables were quantified in terms of frequency and percentage. Respondents were categorized with respect to variables like social participation, cosmopoliteness, mass media exposure, extension participation, extension contact, progressiveness and scientific orientation on the basis of mean score and Standard Deviation The study revealed that majority (57.63%) of respondents belonged to middle aged category, maximum of 44 respondents (30.5%) having primary level education, majority (68%) of the respondents were marginal farmers, majority (78%) of respondents had high level of social participation, there was homogeneity among extension participation, average annual income, extension contact, mass media exposure, social participation and heterogeneity among all other variables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Chakma Women on Shifting Cultivation: A Comparative Study between Bangladesh and India

D. Bhattacharjee, A. A. Barau, M. E. Haque, M. E. Haque, M. S. I. Afrad

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 57-66
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330324

Shifting cultivation is the primary livelihood of the Chakma people where women participation is visibly prominent. Hence, this study comparatively examined the knowledge of Chakma women participating in shifting cultivation in Bangladesh and India. Three hundred respondents were selected following stratified disproportionate random sampling. Data were collected using interview schedule and analyzed through descriptive statistics. Majority of respondents were middle age, illiterate, had medium-sized families with small sized farms and an annual income below their expenditure. Most of them have good knowledge on primitive shifting cultivation, but possessed poor knowledge on modern agricultural practices like IPM/ICM and balanced use of fertilizer. Fruit gardening, banana and turmeric cultivation were the key promising alternatives in Bangladesh, but in India; rubber plantation, fruit gardening, turmeric cultivation and lemon plantation were the main alternatives to shifting cultivation. Land scarcity, rodent attack, insect infestation and disease outbreak were the major problems in shifting cultivation in Bangladesh, whereas low price of products, lack of irrigation facility and land scarcity were the major problems in shifting cultivation in India. Thus, awareness campaigns on scientific use of land and need based skill training addressing gender issues may be designed for alternative livelihood promotion in both the countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Price Transmission and Factors Influencing the Price of Onions in Tanzania

Yohana James Mgale

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 67-76
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330325

This article analyzes the transmission of prices between marketing agents and the factors affecting onion prices at the consumer level. The Error Correction Model-Engle Granger (ECM-EG) was used to test the price transmission by including the impact of the rise and fall of producer, wholesale and retail prices in past periods. The Error Correction Model (ECM) was applied to the factors affecting onion prices. The test results showed that price transmission was asymmetrical in the short and long-run. With regard to factors, the results show that consumer price in the short-run was influenced by wholesale prices, producer prices and the price of fuel while in the long-run it was influenced by wholesale prices, producer price, price of fuel and consumer prices in the previous period (t-1). These results suggest the existence of a short-term adjustment cost and a long-term market power which distorts price transmission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Benefit Cost Analysis of Ugu (Telfaria occidentalis Hook.F.) Marketing in Bauchi, Nigeria

U. K. Iroegbute, A. J. Nandi, J. Moses, D. A. Olaleye, I. M. Jibo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 77-82
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330326

The study examined the economic analysis of “Ugu’’ marketing in Bauchi metropolis. The study was done by purposively selected four markets based on their popularity and availability of ‘’Ugu’’. A simple random technique was used in selecting the respondents and data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and gross margin analysis. The result revealed that the purchasing cost for “ugu” was 22,000 per head (bunch) and after incurring other cost components the BCR was 1.14 kobo indicating that the business was a profitable venture with a return per naira invested as 0.14 kobo. The result also revealed that most of the marketers were women (64.28%) with majority of them within the active age of 31-39 with a mean age 41.2 years. The majority (66.10%) of the marketers are married with (55.40%) having household size 1-5 persons. The marketers had one form of education or the other with majority (69.64%) having secondary education and 60.71% having marketing experience of 6-10 years. The major constraints encountered by the marketers were perishability and insufficient capital which accounted for 57.14% and 32.16% respectively. Therefore our technology incubation centers should work on a better means of preserving our vegetable. The government and financial institutions should devise means of extending soft loans to the marketers so as to improve their marketing activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Understanding the Effects of Climate Change on Crop and Livestock Productivity in Nigeria

Opeyemi Gbenga, H. I. Opaluwa, Awarun Olabode, Olowogbayi Jonathan Ayodele

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 83-92
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330327

Aim: Agriculture entails majorly crop and animal production. Crop and Livestock production provide the major human caloric and nutrition intake. Assessing the impact of climate change on crop and livestock productivity, is therefore critical to maintaining food supply in the world and particularly in Nigeria. Different studies have yielded different results in other parts of the world, it is therefore, very important to examine the linkage between climate change and agricultural productivity in Nigeria.

Study Design: The study utilized secondary data. The study utilize climate data from Nigerian Meteorology Station and Carbon emission, Crop and Livestock production data from FOASTAT.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried in Nigeria and it covers the period between 1970-2016.

Methodology: The data were used to estimate the empirical models. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, trend analysis, stationarity, Co-integration and Fully-Modified Least Squares regression.

Results: The result of the research reveals that there is variation in the trend of the climatic factors examined and also variation in crop and livestock production over the period covered by the study in Nigeria. The finding also shows that rainfall, temperature and Carbon emission are the climatic factors that significantly affect crop and livestock production in Nigeria. Long term adverse impact of climate change on crop and livestock production index indicates threat to food availability to the country.

Conclusion: The study concluded that climatic variables have significant effect on agricultural productivity in Nigeria. The study recommended the need to put in place measures that will reduce the negative effects of climate on agricultural production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Technical Efficiency of Women Cassava Farmers in Ankpa Local Government Area, Kogi State, Nigeria

S. I. Audu, A. A. Girei, H. S. Umar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 93-101
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330328

The study was about technical efficiency of women cassava farmers in Ankpa Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. A simple random sample of 120 women cassava farmers were interviewed with a structured questionnaire and information concerning their socioeconomic attributes, revenue realized and cost incurred in cassava production were obtained. The data were analysed with the use of stochastic frontier Cobb-Douglas production function and the inefficiency model. Results indicated that farm size, family labour, hired labour, equipment depreciation, cassava stems, fertilizers and transportation had positive coefficients and thus influenced cassava output positively.  Education, household size, farming experience and extension visits increased farmers’ technical efficiency. Many farmers had high technical efficiency. The mean technical efficiency was 76 percent with a maximum of 98 percent technical efficiency. Recommendation made to improve cassava production were making farm inputs available at affordable prices, review of land tenure system, opening up of more credit agencies and increase extension visits among others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Rural Finance Institution Services and Standard of Living of Rural Farming Households in Anambra State, Nigeria

Chizoba P. Anunobi, Nneamaka O. T. Nwankwo, Cynthia Obi-Nwandikom

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 102-109
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330329

This study aimed at examining the relationship between Rural Finance Institution (RUFIN) services and standard of living of rural farming households in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study specifically ascertained the RUFIN credit services rendered to the rural households, compared the rural households’ standard of living before and after accessing RUFIN credit services and identified the challenges faced by the rural households in accessing the services of RUFIN. The method of judgmental sampling technique was used in selecting 367 farming household heads that benefitted from RUFIN credit services in Anambra State. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics while ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis. Results showed that majority of the RUFIN services were accessible to rural farming households, the rural households were operating at a very high extent and high extent in almost all aspects of their livelihood after benefitting from RUFIN credit delivery services. It is recommended that Rural Finance Institution services should give more attention to monitoring and supervision of credit utilization among farming households.

Open Access Review Article

Diverse Role of Women for Natural Resource Management in India

Surabhi Singh, Sunita Dixit

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 27-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i330320

Natural resources are means to satisfy human wants which exist in natural environment and which are available without any type of human endeavour. The degradation of natural resources such as land, water, forest etc. may have an adverse impact on livelihood of rural people. The present review paper determines diverse roles of women for management of various natural resources in India. Vigorous participation of women in decisions and activities related to conservation and well-organized utilization of renewable and non-renewable natural resources is solution of this world wide issue i.e., natural resource degradation. Over exploitation and botched utilization of natural resources can be protected in India through involvement of women in policies and programs made for natural resource management. They will also serve as a treasure of indigenous information for conserving natural resources.