Open Access Original Research Article

Level of Information Accessibility and Adoption of Improved Irish Potato Production Technologies by Farmers in the Northern Agricultural Zone of Plateau State, Nigeria

E. S. Salau, Y. M. Darason, A. A. Girei

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430330

The study assessed sources of information and Level of Adoption of recommended Irish Potato Production Technologies by Small Scale Farmers in the Northern Agricultural Zone of Plateau state. The multistage sampling procedure was used to draw 150 farmers as study sample. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics used were percentages, mean scores and ranking while the inferential statistics were multiple linear regression models. Results showed that the major sources of information used by farmers were; from Co-farmers, friends/relations (100%) which ranked (1st), extension agents (98.0%) ranked 2nd and mobile phone (58.0%) ranked 3rd. The result of level of adoption revealed that 98.0% adopted cold room system technique, 96.7% adopted the use of herbicides for weeding and 94.0% adopted the fungicide application technique. The factors limiting the adoption of recommended Irish potato production technologies in the study area ranked in order of severity includes; high incidence of pests and diseases  (91.3%)  ranked 1st, lack of clean and certified seeds (89.3%) ranking 2nd, high cost of fertilizers and herbicides represented 88.7% and ranked 3rd. The farmers were found to engage in high level of adoption of recommended Irish potato production technologies like; Cold room system, use of herbicides for weeding and fungicide application among many other technologies. It was recommended that farmers in the study area should be assisted by the government and relevant stakeholders in the control of pests and diseases, provision of clean and certified seeds at affordable rate and subsidizing of fertilizers and herbicides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dryland Farmer’s Knowledge towards Climate Change and Constraints in Adoption of Climate Resilient Practices

D. Alagu Niranjan, Dipak Kumar Bose

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430331

Aims: To understand the dryland famer’s knowledge towards climate change, its causes and its impacts. And to find the constraints associate in adoption of climate resilient practices in the region.

Study Design: For the present descriptive study, cross-sectional survey design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad during the year 2018.

Methodology: Climate change study in dryland region is very relevant; so a study was conducted at Sivakasi (a highly industrialized taluk) of Tamil Nadu which falls under dryland region. The data collection was done using structured interview schedule with 120 farmers. Method of data collection is face to face interview.

Results: The study revealed that the level of knowledge towards climate change is medium and it is influenced by various factors like education, mass media exposure, extension contacts, innovativeness, risk orientation, scientific orientation and social participation positively. The major constraints in the adoption of climate resilient practices are high cost, lack of awareness and lack of adequate infrastructure. Some of the suggestions expressed by the farmers to improve adoption for the open ended questions are categorized as, improving advisory, strengthening infrastructure and extending policy support.

Conclusion: The results of the research would help the extension workers to understand dryland farmer’s needs for effective programme implementation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Assessment of Farmers Regarding Sericulture Based Dairy Farming in Karnataka State

C. E. Girish, K. S. Kadian, B. S. Meena, Kalyan Mandi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 16-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430332

Sericulture and dairy farming play synergistic role in the livelihood of farmers particularly in Karnataka state. It provides assured income and employment to the farmers. Karnataka is the highest silk as well as 11th topmost milk producing state in India. The study was conducted in Kolar and Chikkaballapura district of the state. A total of 180 respondents were selected for the study. Semi-structured interview schedule was used for field investigation. Result reveals that, about 49.44% of sericulture based dairy farmers belongs to medium knowledge category, whereas about 30.56% of respondents belongs to low knowledge category and only 20% belongs to the high knowledge category of sericulture based dairy farming. Therefore, knowledge of farmers about sericulture based dairy farming practices need to be given special emphasis with various effective extension approaches.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Tea Export Potentiality from Bangladesh in the World Market: An Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Approach

A. U. Noman, S. Majumder, M. F. Imam, M. J. Hossain, F. Elahi, K. Akter

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430333

Export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development. The study is conducted to make an efficient forecasting of tea export from Bangladesh for mitigating the risk of export in the world market. Forecasting has been done by fitting Box-Jenkins type autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. The best ARIMA model is selected by comparing the criteria- coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute error (MAE) and Bayesian information criteria (BIC). Among the Box-Jenkins ARIMA type models for tea export the ARIMA (1,1,3) model is the most appropriate one for forecasting and the forecast values in thousand kilogram for the year 2017-18, 2018-19, 2019-20, 2020-21 and 2021-22, are 1096.48, 812.83, 1122.02, 776.25 and 794.33 with upper limit 1819.70, 1348.96, 1862.09, 1288.25, 1318.26 and lower limit 660.69, 489.78, 676.08, 467.74, 478.63, respectively. So, the result of this model may be helpful for the policymaker to make an export development plan for the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable Development of the Steppe in the Region of El Bayadh, Approach to a New Fattening System

Mekhloufi Moulay Brahim, Mohamed Khader, Tayeb Nouri, Mahari latifa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430334

The objective of this research is to follow the evolution and sustainability of the natural resource management systems adopted by different breeders found in the Al Bayadh region in Algeria. Using a stratified sampling method, 52 farms were surveyed between 2010 and 2015 to capture the diversity of farming systems and identify changes in land use patterns. The findings of the research reveal a predominance of sedentary and semi-transhumant farming systems with a sharp decline in nomadism. This study enabled us to identify three types of breeding: sedentary breeding systems with short-term fattening (type 1), semi-sedentary systems with medium-term fattening (type 2), and transhumant/nomadic systems with long-term fattening (type 3) that therefore reflect a diversity of actions in the management of the risk that threaten livestock production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct and Indirect Effect between the Antecedent Characteristics of Women Self-help Groups of Gujarat and their Group Dynamics

N. D. Chethan Patil, J. K. Patel, Naveen Kumar Gattupalli, Rahul Dundesh Bellagi, G. Manunayaka

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 38-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430335

Self-help groups are informal associations of people who choose to come together to find ways to improve their living conditions. This paper presents the results of a study conducted in Ahmedabad district of Gujarat, India during the year 2018-19 to determine the direct and indirect effect between the members of women self-help groups and group dynamics effectiveness. The Direct and Indirect effect of antecedent characteristics of women Self-help groups and their group dynamics effectiveness was calculated with the help of path analysis. The path analysis of group dynamics effectiveness revealed that attitude towards SHG, annual income and market facility had exerted a positive and direct effect on group dynamics, while, mass media exposure, age and education had exerted maximum negative direct effect. Whereas economic motivation, social participation and market facility exerted maximum positive indirect effect and age, farm size and mass media exposure exerted an indirect negative effect. Attitude towards SHGs and economic motivation routed maximum times in the maximum substantial indirect effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extent of Adoption of Tomato Cultivation Practices among Farmers under Shade Nets in Kolar District of Karnataka

N. Harisha, J. Tulsiram, Amrutha T. Joshi, D. M. Chandargi, S. K. Meti

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 43-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430336

Indian agriculture is severely affected from climate change, fragmentation of cultivable land, water scarcity, rapid urbanization, declining crop production and productivity, crash in market price, declining biodiversity and ever-increasing population, demand for food, especially vegetables has increased manifold. Protected cultivation has offered a new dimension to produce more in a limited area. The study was undertaken during the year 2016-17 in the Kolar, Malur and Mulbagal taluks of Kolar district based on the maximum number of shade net structures growing tomato. From each taluk, respondents were selected by using purposive sampling procedure to constitute a sample size of 80 for the study. The study found that no one respondent raised nursery for seedlings. The probable reason might be lack of extension functionaries’ effort from respective departments. In the case of cultural practices, concerning ploughing, nearly two-thirds (62.50%) of the respondents partially adopted the recommended number of ploughings (2-3times). On the other hand, 100 per cent of the respondents didn't adoptthe digging practice, whereas more than half (53.75%) of the respondents had partially adopted the recommended size of the bed (1-meter width, 15 cm height and 0.5 meters between the rows) and nearly half (48.75%) of the respondents belonged to partial adoption category of bed treatment @ 4% formalin for tomato cultivation. The findings of Karl Pearson correlation coefficient showed that variables such as annual income, extension participation, exhibited a positive and significant relationship with the adoption behaviour of respondents at 1 per cent level of significance. Concerning the relationship of independent variables with the adoption of tomato, variables like annual income, extension participation, exhibited a positive and significant relationship with the adoption behaviour of respondents at 1 per cent level of significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Biophysical Stresses Confronted by the Farm Women: The Socio-economic and Ecological Interpretation

Riti Chatterjee, Sankar Kumar Acharya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 51-63
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430337

The impact of the green revolution in India has got a dichotomy of both achievements as well as failure. The four pillars of green revolution have contributed to accentuating the productivity level from 55 MT to 120 MT, on the other hand, the fall out of green revolution started eliciting the pernicious effect by increasing heavy metal load in the food chain, drifting of manual labours off the field and the creation of chasms between marginal and rich farmers. The worst victim of these is farm women. A study was conducted with objectives to generate classified information on the occupational hazards of farm women. A study was carried out at Boinchigram village under Pandua Block in Hooghly district of West Bengal with one hundred twenty farm women as respondents. Family income, B.M.I., functional literacy, total calorie consumption used etc variables were taken for collecting data. Farm women are mainly suffering from fever, stomach problems, skin abnormalities, weakness, gynaecological problems, respiratory hazards, kidney malfunction, spinning head, increased heartbeat etc. Total calorie consumed per day and family income plays an important role in this. So, both preventive and curative measures should be taken immediately, otherwise, it will affect the future workforce of Agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Networking of the Farm Women by the Farm Science Centre of North Bengal

Ganesh Das, Sarthak Chowdhury

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 64-74
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430338

Agricultural extension organizations of developing nations confronted numerous limitations in their activities of information age and use. Farm Science Center or Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) assumes a significant job in giving information to the farmers and farm women in India. Rural women structure a huge portion of the agricultural workforce. They likewise need proper and usable information that would assist them with their cultivating exercises. Farm women will, in general, get recycled information from their spouses and companions if they are not the leader of their family. They are less intrigued to go to training activities because of family obligations or versatility imperatives. Thought of the above circumstance, an investigation (by gathering information) was directed on "Networking of the Farm women by the Farm Science Centre of North Bengal". The investigation was directed from March 2018 to April 2019 in North Bengal. The information was gathered from the optional sources. It was found from the examination that participation of farm women in extension activities was nearly higher than in training activities. Farm Science centre dispersed agricultural information through the arrangement of various grass root level extension organisation, for example, Farmers Clubs and Self Help Groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Survey of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Maharashtra States of Indian Continent

V. V. Potdar, Y. S. Gaundare, J. R. Khadse, Sachin Joshi, Marimuthu Swaminathan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 75-81
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430339

Dairy farming plays a very important role in improving the economy of rural India. The study was conducted to explore the socio-economic profile of dairy farmers and farmers feedback about dairy development project. The survey was conducted to study the education status, family structure, education status and management of animals, different patterns of rearing of dairy animals and status of milk production. Data was collected from the 3000 dairy farmers of three states namely Maharashtra, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh during year  2016 .Concentration of poor farmers was relatively high in Bihar (35.5%), followed by Uttar Pradesh (30.9%) and 16.3% in case of Maharashtra. Average family size show 8.74 members per household in Bihar, 6.76 members in  Uttar Pradesh  and 6.17 members in Maharashtra. Results revealed that majority of the families were nuclear families. Main source of income was agriculture which includes livestock farming. As regards to the size of land owned, nearly 56% of the landowners were Marginal farmers (owning 0.1 -1 ha of land), 23% were small (1.1-2 ha) landowners while about 12% farmers owned above 2 ha of land. Literacy level was higher among farmers of Maharashtra (71.6%) as compared to Uttar Pradesh (65.8%) and Bihar (65.4%). Majority of the farmers followed mixed cropping system, Maximum number of cows and buffaloes were owned by the farmers of Maharashtra i.e. 3.37 cows and 1.42 buffaloes, followed by Uttar Pradesh (1.60 cows & 1.42 buffaloes) and Bihar (1.75 cows & 0.24 buffaloes).Farmers of Maharashtra owned maximum percentage of crossbred cows (90.97%), followed by Uttar Pradesh (83.4%) and Bihar (75.9%).Maharashtra farmers  possessed maximum number of upgraded buffaloes (79.4%), followed by Bihar (55.7%) and Uttar Pradesh (51.5%). In study of average quantity of milk produced by cows was higher among the crossbred cows (10.18 litres), in indigenous cows it was (4.47 litres) and 4.23 liters in Non-Descript cows. The data shows the same pattern of milk produced across the three states with slight variation. In buffaloes, the average quantity of milk produced was observed to be higher among the upgraded buffaloes (8.42 litres) as compared to Non-Descript buffaloes (5.17 litres). Respondents appreciated the fact that due to dairy development project by BAIF their family and social status have increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Climate Variability and Adaptive Strategies of Rural Household: The Case of Abobo District and Itang Special Districts, Gambella Region State, Ethiopia

Mabiratu Dangia, Prem Kumar Dara

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 82-93
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430340

Many low-income regions are largely affected by climate change impacts as a result of their relatively low adaptive capacity as pointed out by IPCC. Particularly, the change of climate has adverse implications to the Ethiopian economy with connection to different climatic parameters. The main objective of this study was to examine climate variability and its effect on rural households in Abobo District and Itang Special District. Both primary and secondary data were collected during the study. For this study, 240 HHs were interviewed from both Abobo District and Itang Special District while FDGs and KII were collected qualitatively. Relevant secondary data were also obtained from the National Meteorology Agency of Gambella station. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the characteristics of sample households and farmers' perception of climate variability. Moreover, multivariate probit model was employed to identify the determinants of smallholder farmers’ choice of adaptation strategies to climate variability. The result indicated that the major adaptation strategies applied by smallholder farmers in the study area including the use of improved crop varieties, adjusting the planting date, planting trees, crop diversification and using drought-resistant crop. Multivariate Probit model result shows that age, education, farm income, extension contact and access to credit significantly affect HHs choose of improved verity as adoption strategy; total land hold, farm income and extension contact significantly affect HHs choose of adjusting planting date tree as adoption strategy; farm income is the only factor significantly affect HHs choose of planting tree as adoption strategy; age, education, farm income and access to credit significantly affect HHs choose of crop diversification as adoption strategy and education and access to credit significantly affect HHs choose of improved verity as adoption strategy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption Level of Animal Welfare Practices among Dairy Farmers in Central Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh

Jagdeep Gupta, S. Subash, M. C. A. Devi, Kalyan Mandi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 94-100
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i430341

Animal welfare assumes much significance in the era of dairy commercialization, both for health of the animals as well as to improve the farm productivity. Although animal welfare scores, scales and modules have been developed and implemented at developed countries, the outreach of animal welfare and awareness about the same has not been given due importance in developing countries including India. In this context, the present research study was designed to make an attempt to find out the extent of adoption of animal welfare practices by the dairy farmers at field level. The study was conducted in the Central plain zone of Uttar Pradesh State. Four districts (Hardoi, Auraiya, Allahabad and Kaushambi) were selected purposively. One block from each district and from each block two villages and from each village 15 farmer-respondents were selected randomly. A total of 120 respondents were finally approached for the primary data collection. The salient findings revealed that, in case of overall adoption of animal welfare practices, more than half of the dairy farmers (55.83%) had medium level of adoption, whereas remaining 23.34 and 20.83% respondents had high and low levels of adoption, respectively. Hence, majority of the farmers were adopting the dairy management practices which met the welfare protocols of the dairy animals.