Open Access Opinion Article

Effect of Covid-19 Lockdown on Farmers in Rivers State, Nigeria: Positive Perspective

F. I. Anagah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 56-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530347

The fight against Covid-19 has so far become tight with more strict policies to curtail the spread of the virus across the state and Nigeria at large. This review was done with the sole aim of determining the effect of Coronavirus lockdown on few active farmers in Rivers State, Nigeria as a state which less attention is payed to farmers and farming because of crude oil and its exploration. 20 farmers and 10 market women were interviewed in few villages and markets (Rumuokoro, Slaughter, Oil-Mill) between April and May, 2020 in Rivers state respectively, which showed that few active farmers were positively affected as they sold out their produce with high profit and low to zero loss.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Constraints Faced by Tribals in Availing Benefits from Different Tribal Development Schemes in Jammu and Kashmir State

Tariq Iqbal, Rakesh Nanda, Rajinder Peshin, Shazia Paswal

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530342

The study was conducted to find out the constraints faced by gujjars and bakerwals in availing the benefits of tribal developmental schemes in Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed for the selection of districts, blocks, villages and ultimate respondents. The total sample size was 112. Pretested interview schedule was used for the collection of data. The major finding of the study revealed that lack of proper awareness followed by lack of knowledge of government intervention (66%), adequacy of funds (41%), High illiteracy rate among the respondents and living in the far-flung area are the major constraints which are faced by tribal in availing the benefits from Tribals developmental schemes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Corollary of Migration of Tribes in Tamil Nadu, India: Boon or Bane?

J. Ana Raj

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 5-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530343

Migration is a global issue that is rightly attracting more and more global attention. In the context of migration in India, internal migration is far greater than international migration. India’s total population, as recorded in Census 2011, stands at 1.21 billion. Internal migrants in India constitute a large population. Of these, the tribes occupy a significant proportion. The consequences of migration of tribes are innumerable when compared to others. Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu was sampled for the study owing to its enormous migration rate. Four forest ranges, inhabited by the Kanikaran tribes were considered for the study. From each forest range, the tribal settlement with maximum tribal population was sampled and the respondents were selected by adopting proportionate random sampling technique. The sample for the study consisted of 100 respondents. The data were collected with a well-structured and pre-tested interview schedule and examined using factor analysis. It was evident from the results that though moving out from their locality is positively influencing the development of tribes, it is also severely affecting the forest resources. The tribal migrants were recorded higher in socio-economic indicators than the non-migrants. The policy implications drawn out of the findings of the research study such as fencing of tribal settlements, encouragement of self-employment among tribes, introduction of successful agricultural technologies, implementation of forest act, 2006 and formation of migrant labour unions can be considered for limiting the distress migration of tribes and hence retain them for the betterment of traditional agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Provision of Extension Services and Advocacy on Donkey Health and Welfare in Kenya

Joshua Orungo Onono, James Kithuka

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 15-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530344

Aim: To determine type of benefits from keeping donkeys, challenges facing donkey farmers and how to streamline supply of medicines for treatment of donkeys in Kenya.

Study Design: A descriptive study conducted in selected regions where donkey welfare projects are implemented and other regions without these projects between the months of May and August, 2018.

Methodology: Data collected from donkey owners and users, animal health service providers, regulatory body, and agro-vets using semi-structured and check list questionnaires. A total of 156 questionnaires administered to donkey owners and users and 87 animal health providers.

Results: Benefits of keeping donkeys included income obtained from transportation services, sale of surplus donkeys in a herd and hiring them out for a fee, such income are used for paying school fees for children and medical care. On average donkeys contributed about 20% of household incomes from livestock. Donkeys often suffered from myriad of challenges: infestation with endoparasites, wounds, colic, fractures, lameness, pneumonia, babesiosis, trypanosomiasis and zoonoses including tetanus and rabies. Sale volume for medicines used to treat donkey diseases in agro-vets (shops selling agricultural inputs including veterinary drugs) was approximately 15%, while percentage of donkey cases treated by animal health providers was about 7% of total caseload. Level of need for response to donkey cases by animal health providers was ranked 4th on a priority scale of 1-5. Furthermore, agro-vets did not stock medicines for pain relief. Moreover, differences exist between regions where donkey welfare projects are implemented as compared to other regions on level of knowledge of animal health providers on type of medicines used for treatment of clinical cases in donkeys, requirements for regulation of veterinary practices and types of veterinary providers (P = 0.05).

Conclusions: These results support prioritization of training on early recognition for conditions which compromises wellbeing of donkeys and access to pain relief medicines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Smallholder Farmers’ Choice of Climate Smart Agriculture Practices to Adapt to Climate Change in Masaba South Sub-County, Kisii, Kenya

Jared O. Nyang’au, Jema H. Mohamed, Nelson Mango, Clifton Makate, Alex N. Wangeci, Stephen O. Ahenda

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 29-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530345

Aims: This study evaluated determinants that influence choice of Climate-Smart Agricultural (CSA) practices among smallholder farmers in Masaba South sub-county, Kisii, Kenya.

Study Design: This study used a multivariate probit model to evaluate determinants that influence farmers’ choice of CSA practices.

Place and Duration of Study: Masaba South sub-county, Kisii, Kenya between the second week of April 2019 and the last week of May 2019.

Methodology: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire from 196 households, 3 focused group discussions and 7 key informant interviews. Information such as socio-economic, land ownership, climate change perception, crop production practices and institutional characteristics were collected from the households.

Results: The results showed that crop diversification, change of crop varieties and crop rotation and/or mixed cropping are the dominant adaptation strategies in the study area. Access to credit, farm income, climate change perception and household size have a significant positive influence on adoption of most CSA practices. Small-sized farms, lack of access to extension services, level of education and inaccessibility to weather and climate information were major barriers influencing adoption of CSA practices.

Conclusion: To reduce vulnerability of smallholder farmers to impacts of climate variability and change, the study recommends the need to enhance increased access to extension services and timely dissemination of climate information to farmers in the form they can easily understand and decode.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farm-level Determinants of Farmers’ Adaptation Decisions to Climate Variability and Change in Didessa Basin, Ethiopia

Chala Dechassa, Belay Simane, Bamlaku Alamirew

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 42-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530346

Ethiopia has been identified as one of the sub-Saharan African countries, expected to suffer the most from negative impacts of climate change and variability due to its high reliance on climate variations. This study examines the determinants of farmers' adaptation decisions and constraints to long-term changes in climate variability and change using data collected through semi-structured questionnaires, focused group discussions and field observations from a survey on 450 farm-households in three agro-ecological zones located in Didessa sub-basin. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Farmers noticed a decrease in precipitation and an increase in temperature over the past 20 years.  In response, it was found that the common adaptation options include: planting, Soil and water conservation, improved technology, use of different crop varieties, and a combination of strategies. However, the remedial actions to the changes are less. The main barriers to successful adaptation cited by farmers were Shortage of land (21.78%), lack of credit/ money (19.11%), lack of information (13.56%), and shortage of farm inputs (17.56%) and other institutional and cultural beliefs. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine the factors influencing farmers' decision to adapt to changing climatic conditions including socio-economic, demographic; farm characteristics, institutional and climatic variables. We conclude that concerned bodies need to create empowering environment which can promote adaptation options and support constraints farmers face in taking up adaptation to climate change. Also, the government needs to create access to socio-economic and institutional variables appropriate to reach small scale farmers, with limited resources to confront climate change and enhance the livelihood of the households in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Indebtedness and Liquidity in Agriculture: A Long-term Sectoral Evidence from Turkey

Celal Demirkol, Ali Faruk Acikgoz

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 60-73
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530348

Being indebted and the liquidity shortfalls could be the base for recreating debt in the circumstances of unavailable trade credit. Accessing to bank credit or other liabilities is rather a function of liquidity for all types of businesses. Excluding equities, we hereby aim to reveal a sectoral evidence by the help of other liabilities side contributors and liquidity indicators on to what extend a firm regenerates debt in the long-run depending on the general liquidity criteria. Therefore, we try to explore a sector specific long-term evidence on the agriculture sector in Turkey. The real sector statistics feed the study in terms of data. Data curation consists of calculating data series as averages of three years aggregate balance sheet totals in the agriculture sector of Turkey for the time span of 1996 and 2016. The methodology follows a path as testing regressions for the variables, presenting interchangeably significant results, affirming the assumptions of the regressions, tests on unit root and cointegration along with causalities. The findings of the study confirm self-creating reasons of being indebted with the impact of liquidity. The study represents three models which have total debt to total assets ratio, short-term bank credits to short-term liabilities ratio, and long-term bank credits to total assets ratio as dependent variables respectively. We have analyzed the effects of current ratio, acid-test or quick ratio and cash and cash equivalents ratio which are listed as leading liquidity indicators. Cash and cash equivalents and current ratio have been found significant on the liabilities in the early trials of regressive test models. However, except current ratio liquidity indicators all together failed in predicting. The results eventually confirm the importance of eminent liquidity criteria, both current ratio and acid-test ratio are significant on the selected variables of liabilities as an evidence for the agriculture sector of Turkey in the long-run. Nevertheless, acid-test ratio has rather strong and enduring effects. Since cash and cash equivalents have been determined as stationary at a different level, they could therefore have insignificant impact on being indebted for longer periods than time span of the study. Yet the creditors would better not to directly add a liquidity indicator in their decision process of creditability in a sector. Nonetheless, the novelty of the study also ensures that predicting total debt and bank credits of both short and long run might require the same liquidity indicators along with other liability side contributors which do not necessarily or directly consider the shareholders’ equities in a sector specific atmosphere. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of ICTs by Farmers: A Study in Odisha

Suprava Sethy, Siddhartha D. Mukhopadhyay

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 74-86
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530349

Harnessing advantages of Information and Communication Technology (hereafter to be mentioned as ICTs) for changing the face of agriculture, in terms of production and productivity and farmers’ wellbeing; calls for a separate set of knowledge, skill, ability and higher (if possible fullest) extent of use by the farming communities. There are physical, economic, logistic, perceptual as well as behavioural problem, experienced by the farmers in harnessing the advantages of ICTs. In this context the present study has been conducted in Khurda district of Odisha with the broad objective to enumerate the level of knowledge, skill and extent of use and perception of different ICTs among farmers those are actively engaged in agriculture and having access to at least one ICT. In the present study, being an original empirical research work, data were collected from 120 farmers of two Blocks of Khurda district of Odisha by pretested structured interview schedule. Blocks were selected randomly and respondents were selected by following the criteria of being engaged in agriculture actively as well as using at least one ICT tool. Statistical tools like, percentage, ranking, index value calculation, ranking, correlation, regression and step wise regression were used for fruitful analysis of collected data. The results of the study revealed that socio-economic orientation of the respondents was centring on semi-medium to poor level. The study also revealed that radio was ranked first by the respondents for getting market information while TV was ranked second. The study also revealed that respondents were having high perception about appropriateness of different ICTS, usefulness of different ICTs and also, they have perceived high level of constraints in using different ICTs. The study also revealed that independent variables like, age, education, family education, social participation, cosmopoliteness, land holding, visit outside own village, level of knowledge of devices, knowledge of service providers, extent of use of devices and extent of use of ICTs for different purposes had significant and positive correlation with many of the dependent variables like, level of knowledge of devices, level of knowledge of service providers, extent of use of devices, extent of use for different  purposes, appropriateness and usefulness. Further, results of multiple regression showed that, education, visit outside own village, level of knowledge of devices and extent of use of ICTs for different purposes had significant and positive association with the extent of use of ICT devices. Results of step-wise regression showed that, level of knowledge of devices, education, level of knowledge about service providers and extent of use of ICTs for different purposes had significant and positive association with the extents of use of ICT devices by the respondents and the model explained 68% of the total variance (Adjusted r2).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge Co-production in Adaptation to Rainfall Variability in Kitui South Sub-county, Kenya

Morris M. Mwatu, Charles W. Recha, Kennedy N. Ondimu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 87-97
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530350

Aims: This study tried to investigate the extent of knowledge co-production between indigenous farmers and agricultural extension in dry lands.

Study Design: The study adopted survey research design where both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Kitui South sub-County in the semi-arid Southeastern Kenya. Data was collected between June 2019 and August 2019.

Methodology: An enumerator-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 311 household heads. Purposive and proportional sampling techniques were used to select households which participated in the study. Data was analyzed with the aid of SPSS Version 20. Percentages and proportions were used to establish instances of knowledge co-production between indigenous and modern scientific methods of farming.

Results: The study established that all households used both indigenous and scientific methods of farming except in irrigation and crop harvesting methods. The highest co-production was between use of locally preserved seeds and use of modern seasonal climate forecast (71.4%), use of traditional seasonal climate forecasts and use of modern seasonal climate (64.6%) as well as use of traditional crop storage and use modern seasonal climate forecast (59.2%). Seasonal climate forecasting was the leading corresponding method of knowledge co-production in the study area.

Conclusion: The study concludes that use of both indigenous and modern methods of farming can improve adaptation to rainfall variability. The study recommends access to adequate water to promote knowledge co-production on irrigation which was lacking yet very critical in dealing with rainfall variability in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Differentials in Technical Efficiency among Small-Scale Cassava Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria

E. S. Yisa, M. I. Nwojo, A. A. A. Coker, A. Adewumi, F. D. Ibrahim

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 98-109
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530351

This study examined gender differentials in technical efficiency among small scale cassava farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. The profitability of cassava production, technical efficiency as well as the factors influencing inefficiency among the farmers in the study area were determined. Well structured questionnaire and interview schedule were employed to obtain primary data from the 133 male and 147 female cassava farmers sampled from two agricultural zones in Abia State. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, farm budgeting technique and stochastic frontier production function. A total of 73.68% of males and 81.63% of females were married, with an average household size of 6 and 5 persons, mean farming experience of 18 years for males and 16 years for females, and cultivated less than 2ha of land. Cassava production was profitable with a gross margin of ₦140,978.28 per hectare for males and ₦131,070.27 per hectare for females. The maximum likelihood estimates showed male farmers were more technically efficient with mean efficiency score of 0.82 compared to 0.78 for female farmers. Factors affecting the technical efficiency of male farmers included farm size, educational level, extension contact, credit amount while that of the female farmers were age, farm size, cooperative membership, land ownership and off-farm income. High cost of acquiring credit facilities and farm inputs, poor road network, inadequate extension services, limited farmland were the major constraints faced by farmers in the study area. It was concluded that male farmers were more technically efficient and also had higher gross income per hectare than their female counterpart. Policies aimed at improving the female farmers’ access to land and other farm inputs should be established and implemented by the government in order to increase efficiency was recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Livelihood Opportunities in Agri-Allied Sector for Rural Youth: A Case of Bargarh District in Odisha

Dwity Sundar Rout, Bishnupriya Mishra, Avisweta Nandy, Suvangi Rath

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 110-115
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530352

There has been a lot of debate over employment and its opportunities in the recent times. With more number of reverse migrations occurring daily and lack of employment opportunities for the rural youth, there has been increasing concern about the entrepreneurial activities for rural youth and their involvement therein. However, for any agri-allied start-up, the opportunities and options available play a major role. Thus, a study was conducted on the livelihood opportunities available in agri-allied sector in Bargarh district of Odisha and to analyze the constraints faced by the respondents therein. The findings of the study revealed that majority of respondents (mean score=1.30) were engaged in vegetable vending business where as oil extraction unit (mean score=1.03) was least preferred. Dairy unit (mean score=1.19) in animal husbandry based inventories was preferred over others, engagement in forestry based inventories revealed collection of Mahua flower/fruit (mean score=1.09) was ranked first while Lac cultivation and processing ranked fourth (mean score=1.02). Major findings revealed that there was a need to overcome the constraints by access to agricultural implements and equipments at low price followed by  availability of agricultural credit at proper time, correspondence of  right information at right time by extension officers, conduction of extension activities viz, kisan mela, demonstration, exhibition, training, visits, training requirements on improved poultry farming, fish farming and livestock managements, facilitation of crop insurance, recommended information on seed and fertilizer at proper time, herbicides and pesticide in low price and provision of irrigation facility respectively. The study suggests that for effective participation of rural youth in native entrepreneurial activities, motivation is primarily required along with proper training and orientation about self employment programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Differentials in Poverty among Crayfish Harvesting Households in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

E. J. Etim, K. M. Baba, M. A. Ojo, M. A. Ndanitsa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 116-134
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i530353

The contribution of women in artisanal crayfish harvesting and other related fishery products (seafood) cannot be overemphasized, yet they are being un-noticed economically. This study examined empirically gender differentials in poverty among crayfish harvesting households in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A multi-stage and stratified random sampling techniques was employed in selecting a total of 409 (300 males and 109 females) headed crayfish harvesting households. A structured questionnaire and interview schedule survey was used for the study. FGT model was used to analyse gender differences in poverty status of the respondents while Oaxaca–Blinder (O-B) Decomposition Technique was used to decomposed poverty. The result revealed that, female harvesters are more vulnerable to poverty than their male counterparts in the region with their poverty incidence (0.59), poverty depth (0.33) and poverty severity (0.18) being higher than 0.33, 0.32 and 0.17 for males. The aggregate decomposition revealed that gender differentials gap was mostly being accounted for by coefficient component (structural or discrimination effect) than endowment component (characteristics or composition effect) and interaction effect. The detailed decomposition that explained the gender differential gap indicates that marital status, household size and income of crayfish harvesting are the major factors that explained the endowment effect while marital status, labour, income of crayfish harvesting and access to crayfish harvesting net are the factors that explained the structural effect. Additionally, the result of the analysis of poverty coping strategy use index (PCSUI) revealed that spending of saved income (8.16%), children eating first (8.15%), intensifying of the amount of work done on the crayfish fishing to increase output (8.03%), purchasing items on credit (7.98%), diversify off-fishing activities to increase income (7.50%), borrowing money for household upkeep (7.20%), reduction in food consumption (7.20%) among others were the major poverty coping strategies used in the area. The study recommended that gender equality and equity be ensure in the provision, allocation and distribution of productive (harvesting) resources/services. More so, bias and discriminatory laws, norms, belief and traditional restrictions against women should be review and repeal while hidden ones be eliminated among others.