Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of Wicker Willow Cultivation as a Sustainable Livelihood Activity of Its Cultivators and Handicraft Makers in Ganderbal District of Jammu and Kashmir

Mudasir Rashid, Sajad A. Saraf, S. Maqbool, K. R. Dar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730368

The present study was carried out in four blocks, viz., Ganderbal, Sherpathri, Lar and Kangan of district Ganderbal of the Kashmir valley owing to the majority of wicker willow cultivators and handicraft makers in these blocks of the district. A total number of 120 respondents, i.e., wicker willow cultivators and handicraft makers were selected for the study. Data derived from the respondents were analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Three main varieties of wicker willow species were determined in the study area, i,e., Salix triandra, Salix dickymat and Salix viminalis, with Salix triandra being the most prominent among the three as almost 53.33% of the respondents were cultivating this specie of wicker willow followed by Salix dickymat and Salix viminalis. During the cultivation of wicker willow, costs on preparation of land, planting material, fencing, FYM were applicable during the first year only, whereas, costs on fertilizer, weeding/cleaning were applicable throughout the crop life. During this study it was found that the inputs like planting material, fertilizers and weeding/cleaning had a direct impact on the total output of wicker willow. The study reveals that the average production of wicker willow was 768 kgs/kanal. The average cost of production was Rs 1170/kanal/year, whereas the average gross return stood at Rs 8256/kanal/year. The average net returns were estimated to be Rs 7086/kanal/year. Almost 44% of respondents were involved in making wicker handicrafts, which indicates that 44% of the respondents were accepting it as their main source of income. During this study, it was calculated that the payback period in case of wicker willow cultivation was 3rd year, whereas per rupee return was estimated to be Rs 3.19 and the ratio of benefit and costs was estimated to be 2.48, thereby making this practice as a profitable one when compared to other crops in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Towards Studies on Current Scenario in Export and Import of Silk Goods in India

D. Elumalai, K. Uma, P. Balaji

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 9-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730369

The present study an endeavor export and import silk goods data collect and analysis of annual compound growth rates.  China is the biggest consumer of silk in the world next to India second consumer of raw silk and silk fabrics. The study area covers whole country. The analysis was carried out for the period from export and import of silk goods during 1985 to 2017. Compound growth rate of quantity of export silk commodities for significant was 31.66 per cent during the period I (1985-86 to 1987-88). For overall period (1985 to 2016) moderately significant growth in quantity (2.44%), but the growth of value (10.02%) was significant. In import, highest CGR was 29.39 per cent in quantity and 32.02 per cent in value during the period IV (1997-98 to 2001-02). Overall Period (1985-6 to 2016-17) revealed that, highly CGR of quantity and value. In import, the significant and CGR was Uzbekistan, Japan, Korea RP and others during the period II (2007 to 2011). The overall period (1980-81 to 2016-17) there was a negatively significant in the country like China, Brazil and Japan, while, Uzbekistan, Korea RP and Others. The study finally indicated, the significant growth of export and import in all the country viz. USA, HK, UK, UAE, Germany, Spain and others  during from 1985-86 to 2016-17. The overall period (1985-86 to 2016-17), growth rate was found in significant like scarves, Dress materials, and others (spun silk).

Open Access Original Research Article

Data Envelopment Analysis Approach to Estimating Economic and Scale Efficiency in Processing Cassava into Gari in Ankpa Local Area, Kogi State, Nigeria

Ezekiel O. Haruna, Elizabeth E. Samuel, Blessing Amechima

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730371

This study examined the economic and scale efficiency in processing cassava into gari in Ankpa Local Government, Kogi State. Data were collected from 120 cassava processors through a multistage sampling technique in 2019 using questionnaire as the instrument for data collection. Data collected were analyzed through the use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), ordinary Least squares regression analysis and simple descriptive statistics. The result of the study revealed that about 8.33% and 63.33% achieved full technical efficiency (TE = 1) under the CRS and VRS respectively while 12.50% achieved both full allocative and economic efficiency. About 8.33% achieved full scale efficiency. These efficiency scores revealed the presence of considerable level of inefficiency and room for improvement in order to become fully efficient. The returns to scale analysis revealed that majority of cassava processors (about 90%) are operating under increasing returns scale implying that most of the firms in the sample are too small and therefore would benefit from an increase in scale. The OLS result showed that household size, experience and education are the most important and significant factors affecting both technical and economic efficiency of the processors in the study area. We recommend that processors should be encouraged to form and join viable cooperatives where they can access credit, information, training and processing facilities in order to improve their efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Adaptation Strategies of Eggplant Farmers to the Effect of Bacterial Wilt Disease in Nsukka Agricultural Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria

Juliana Chinasa Iwuchukwu, Gift Nwakaego Arihi, Sunday Alagba Obazi, Charles Ekene Udoye, Violet Amara Ohagwu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730372

Aim: To ascertain knowledge and adaptation strategies of eggplant (Solanum melongena) farmers to the effect of bacterial wilt disease in Nsukka Agricultural zone of Enugu state, Nigeria.  

Study Design: Multi-stage and Simple Random Sampling Design/Technique were used in the study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Enugu State, Nigeria. The study took place between October 2017 and September 2018.

Methodology: One hundred and eight eggplant farmers were selected from three blocks and nine circles for the study. Percentage and mean scores were used to present the data.

Results: Findings reveal that the majority (96.30%) of the respondents had high knowledge on eggplant bacterial wilt disease. Some of the major effects of bacterial wilt disease on eggplant as perceived by the respondents were reduction in yield/output (x̅=2.84) and reduction in quality of harvested eggplant (x̅=2.81). Some adaptive strategies employed by the respondents to the effect of bacterial wilt disease were use of fertilizer (97.20%) and early planting of eggplants (96.30%). Constraints to egg plant farmers’ adaptation to bacterial wilt disease were: drudgery involved in controlling the disease (x̅=2.83) and high cost of good/disease free planting material (x̅= 2.80). Proper weeding (84.30%) and fumigation of the entire farmland before cultivation (79.60%) were some of the possible solutions to the destructive effects of bacterial wilt diseases.

Conclusion: The respondents had high knowledge on bacterial wilt disease, which helps them to adapt to the deleterious effects of the disease on their eggplants. 

Recommendation: The study recommends that governments and non-governmental organizations should invest in eggplants research in order to solve farmers’ problems; through evolvement and provision of resistant variety, recommended agronomic practices and agrochemicals of eggplants to farmers. Dissemination of output of the research through extension will boost the capacity of the farmers in order to adapt and overcome the disease.

Policy Implications: The investments on eggplants should be innovative and it should explore possible production and management strategies that not only boost but also, make eggplant enterprises sustainable. Policy must be focused on educating eggplant farmers on improved production and management practices on eggplant enterprises. This can be disseminated by agricultural extension workers and other relevant institutions. Policy must also focus on specific and pragmatic programs such as input supply programs (improved seeds, resistant varieties, fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides etc.) at affordable or subsidized prices. This must be designed in such a way that it identifies the right pathways to get to the eggplant farmers on appropriate time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Altitude on the Livelihood of the Tea Garden Workers of North Bengal

Dristika Jairu, Sankar Kumar Acharya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730373

A spectrum of variance has been observed in the dynamics of ecology, economy and sociology, while perceiving the difference in altitude of Himalayan terrains. Every level of elevation and slope, it has got its distinctive narratives and demeanor that shapes its economic progress and social interventions. The tea industry is sensitive to climate and geography, and with every drop in the elevation from the high-altitude Darjeeling district tea garden (2042 m) to the mid-elevation Kalimpong district tea gardens (1247 m) to the foothills of the Dooars tea garden (90 -1750 m), each has a distinctly unique story to unravel. The present study takes a look into the socio-ecological aspects along with climate change to observe the topographical terrains in the 3 distinctive altitudinal zones of Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Dooars, beyond its structural aspects thereby offering a cluster interpretation on its pattern of change in livelihoods by selecting the operating variables: Age, Family size, Formal education, Status of home, Nutritional status, Wage, Income, Per capita income, Diet, Mobile use, Interaction with office personnel, among other things, as variable of interest. It is observed that the wages, diet, status of home are the governing factors affecting the livelihood choices at most of the altitudinal zones. Therefore, the study shows the effect of these variables on each of the zones uniquely to understand the grave issues of the tea gardens concerning the livelihood of the garden workers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Financial Performance Analysis of Shivamogga Milk Union Limited (SHIMUL)

K. M. Santhosha, G. M. Gaddi, C. P. Gracy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 45-54
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730374

The rapid growth in milk supply of India and modernization of dairy is largely credited to the contribution of dairy co-operatives. Karnataka is the ninth largest milk producing state in the country and contribute for about 4.1 per cent of the total milk production in the country. Among the 30 districts of the state, Shivamogga ranks ninth in milk production with a contribution of 3.81 per cent to the total state milk production in the state. The study analysed the business performance of Shivamogga Milk Union Limited (SHIMUL) in Karnataka state in terms of physical and financial indicators using the data pertaining to the decade period ending 2017-18. Data were analysed using the standard descriptive statistics and financial ratios. The results of the study indicated positive annual compound growth rate (CAGR) for all the physical and financial performance indicators. The liquidity ratio of the Union revealed sufficient liquid assets to meet its current obligations as revealed by current ratio (>2) and quick ratio (>0.95). The inventory turnover ratio (39.93) and the gross profit ratio showed satisfactory turnover and profit on every rupee worth of its sales.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Discrimination of Tribal Agricultural Labourers of Wayanad District: A Critical Gender Analysis

J. Pooja Krishna, A. Anil Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 55-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730375

This investigation has been done on the basis of qualitative and quantitative data collected from primary sources and explored the social discrimination experienced by tribal agricultural labourers and differential perception of social discrimination by men and women tribal agricultural labourers in a descriptive manner. Tribal agricultural labourers, especially women, fall prey to high order of discrimination by the rest of the society. Tribal communities face socio-cultural, economic, political and gender discrimination from others. Among the tribal communities, Kattunaikans experience a high level of social discrimination than the Paniyas and Kurichiyas. Kurichiyas, who enjoy a better socio-economic status among the tribal communities, could defend the discrimination from others, while, Kattunaikars and Paniyas, who are considered as down-trodden, fall behind the mainstream society. While comparing the tribal men and women, the women experience a higher order of social discrimination, owing to their lower self-confidence, educational status, mass media exposure, political orientation, health and nutrition status and in addition to these, a lower level of awareness about the development programmes. Even though many government initiatives are taken for the welfare and upliftment of tribal people, the reality is that the benefits of these programmes do not reach the intended population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gap Analysis of Higher Agricultural Education Competencies among the Students for Industrial and Farmers’ Needs

Manmeet Kaur, Anupam Anand

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 75-83
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730377

The study was conducted to outline competencies relevant to the need of farmers and industries present in an agriculture graduate for carrying out their assigned duties. As inferred by mean score of the desired status, the managerial competency was identified to be the most needed one among the agricultural graduates as perceived by the students followed by entrepreneurial, extension skills, technical, market/understanding government policy, communication/ICT and personal competency. The findings of the study will aid higher education planners in India to develop curriculum to prepare and train future agricultural graduates to educate, inform and entertain farmers in an efficient way and fulfil the requirements of the job as required by the industries in an agriculture graduates. Specifically, the research sought to determine students and farmers perceptions of essential competencies needed by agri-graduates enrolled in the agriculture curriculum. The study provides for an initial attempt to gain insight into how higher agricultural education institutions can revitalize their curricula to better prepare their students for the market place and to keep pace with the changing nature of the environment around them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting the Adoption of Fuel-efficient Stove in Dessie Zuria Woreda, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

Sosina Kassa, Wondiye Admasu, Shegaw Yesgat

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 84-97
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730378

The three-stone fire stove is inefficient in converting solid fuels to energy and, it only yields 5 up to 20 per cent of the overall thermal efficiency. Fuel-efficient stoves are expected to contribute to the environment, economic and health sectors by achieving sustainability in the energy sector. Therefore, due to the benefits of the fuel-efficient stoves, the need to study factors influencing the adoption of these stoves are becoming more important. The study aimed to assess factors influencing the adoption of fuel-efficient stoves in Dessie Zuria Woreda. Both qualitative and quantitative approach was used. Data was collected through questionaries’ in 166 households and interview from 10 key informants. The collected data from questionaries’ was analysed by descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, one sample t-test and binary logistic regression. One sample t-test result showed that the perception of peoples is significantly different from neutral. The independent sample t-test showed that the average time taken to collect fuelwood is significantly different between adopters and non-adopters.  Educational level, family size, distance from the city, awareness, access to training, the time is taken to collect fuelwood and membership of social organization group were found to be significant in determining the probability of fuel-efficient stove adoption positively at p<0.05 level of significance. The main barrier for not adopting fuel-efficient was found to be a lack of awareness about the benefit of the stove and the cost of the stove.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Large-Scale Agricultural Investment in Ethiopia: An Analysis of the Disconnects between Expectation and Reality

Maru Shete

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 98-113
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730379

This article examines whether expectations held by different stakeholders from Large-Scale Land Acquisition (LSLA) have been realized in Ethiopia. Data were collected from key informants working at different levels in government organizations in Benshanguel, Oromia and Gambella regional states. Primary data were collected from households directly affected by the two large-scale farms in Oromia and Benshanguel Gumuz regional states. The samples were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. The findings indicated that LSLA rarely met prior expectations and highlighted the difficulty in realizing a win-win situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Holistic Adoption of Dairy Farming Technologies on Households Farm Income of Small and Marginal Farmers: A Study of Telangana

Ch. Ramya Sri, K. Suhasini

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 114-122
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730380

Dairy farming provides an excellent opportunity for self-employment of unemployed youth. It is also an important source of income generation for small and marginal farmers and agricultural labourers. Since agriculture is mostly seasonal, there is a possibility of finding employment throughout the year for many persons through dairy farming and landless labourers. Dairy farming in India is more of subsidiary activity represented by plurality of small holder dairy farmers and entrepreneurs. The value of milk alone is well above Rs.35 thousand crores and livestock contributes nearly 5% to National GDP, accounting for more than 25% of agricultural GDP (Planning Commission, 2010). Cluster sampling technique is adopted for identification of three clusters, which are mutually homogeneous but internally heterogeneous. Three clusters included three mandals of Khammam district i.e., Mudigonda, Kusumanchi, Nelakondapalli are selected for the study. The income from dairy farming is surpassing the income from crop production enterprises and the risk is less compared to crop. The dairy animals are not improved breeds, so improved breeds and cross-bred suitable dairy units will enhance the income from dairy. Even though the farmers have both livestock and dairy enterprises, there is a lack of integration to the extent of 50% of the sampled farmers. Such awareness has to be created. There is capital crunch created faced by marginal and small farmers, credit support and technical support would enhance the household income. Need for Government role in improving the supply of inputs and services to dairy farmers/beneficiaries at their doorsteps with minimum cost by promoting milk co-operatives which maintain the milk chilling and processing centres and play a remunerative price within a stipulated time. Developing viable farmer’s cooperatives societies/federations like: milk producers’ cooperative societies at village and district levels, federations, boards and corporations is needed.

Open Access Review Article

Agricultural Financing and Economic Performance in Nigeria

Kelani Fatai Adeshina, Olunlade Yetunde Tomiwa, Olubanwo Mosunmola Eniola

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 61-74
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i730376

The Agricultural sector which used to be the mainstay of the Nigerian economy in the 1950s, 60s and early 70s is now conceived as a risky and unprofitable venture by financial institutions and government. This is because the financial institutions prefer to give funds to other sectors where payback period is short and return rate is high and also because the agricultural sector is inadequately funded by the government due to low budgetary allocation to the Agricultural sector over the years. The study examined the impact of Agricultural Financing on Economic Performance in Nigeria within the sampled period of 1978-2017. The study specifically attempted to assess the impact of Agricultural Financing on Economic Performance in Nigeria. The study which utilizes data through secondary sources from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin were analyzed using the Unit root test, Bound Cointegration test and error correction modelling to empirically estimate the coefficient of parameter estimates. The statistical decision of the analysis is based on 5% (0.005) level of significance. From the result, it was deduced that in the long-run, Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) is the most influential agricultural financing variable (as compared to government expenditure on agriculture and commercial bank credit to agriculture) that contributed to economic performance, as it revealed that (ACGSF) had strong positive impact on the growth rate of the Nigerian economy. The study concluded and strongly maintained that Agricultural Financing contributed poorly to the economic performance of Nigeria within the sampled period basically because of inadequate funding.