Open Access Short Research Article

Pro-Agripreneurial Factors for the Formation of Agri-startups in India

Bhagya Vijayan, P. Sethuraman Shivkumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830381

India has one of the largest Startup ecosystem in the World catering to approximately 10,000 Startups spanning from IT, finance to services. Since 2015, India’s startup ecosystem has steadily matured with the startups diversifying their focus across a myriad of economic segments and has embraced technological innovation to meet the country’s unique challenges. Indian ease of doing business ranking is 63rd in the World Bank Ease of Doing Business Index Report 2020. The Agriculture in India is witnessing a massive transformation with the focus on shifting to  creating sustainable businesses to support the farmers. With the business focus, the agri-startups are leveraging opportunities in areas such as increasing crop production, improving the  nutritional value of the crops, reduction in input prices for farmers, improving the overall process-driven supply chain, and reducing wastage in the distribution system, among others.                 They are also creating market linkages through retailing, B2C (Business to customer) and B2B (business to busines) market place management. This work reflects upon the deciding or the proactive factors contributing to the formation of Agri-startups spearheaded by youth in India.

Open Access Minireview Article

Agricultural Credit, A Critical Input on Farmers Income: A Study From Nayagarh District of Odisha

Surya Sidhant Rath, Rajkishore Mishra, Upasana Mohapatra

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830382

In order to protect agriculture and other allied sectors, credit is indispensable for a farmer to expand and run his business more efficiently and properly which may not otherwise be possible on his savings. In this perspective, an investigation was made to show the weightage of farm credit on the farmers’ income which was designed through a random sample survey of hundred credit availed farmers in the diverse agriculture terrains of Nayagarh block of Nayagarh district and analyzed by statistical tools like regression analysis and descriptive statistics. The statistical analysis indicated that the farm credit per household, land holding have positive and significant relationship with the household income while family size and farm expenditure are negatively related to the household income. The R2 value is 0.74 that indicated 74 per cent of the variation in dependent variable is explained by the independent variables. There is decreasing returns to scale (0.766). The average per acre farm expenses and income from sale of the crop of a sample respondent of the pooled category was Rs 15753 and Rs 31606 respectively. The farmers efficiently utilized the agricultural credit, but at the same time there should be provision for procurement of perishable goods by the government or bank agencies that would secure the income of farm borrowers. In addition, a timely and need based support in creation of quality asset will lead to the overall economic growth of the block as well as the district and ramify business of the banks.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Search for Suitable Growing Environment for Sesame Production in Nigeria

A. Hussaini, M. Usman, J. Y. Falgore, S. S. Sani, Y. Zakari, H. D. Muktar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 18-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830383

The economic relevance of farm management practices to the production of sesame crops in Nigeria includes preventing and combatting food crises, actualization and realization of national food security as well as enhancing gross domestic product. This research seeks to examine the edaphology of some soil types in relation to the productivity of sesame crops in Nigeria. The experiment was conducted in statistical farm of Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria during 2019 growing season. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design with one hundred replications. There were three types of soils investigated; Clay, Sandy, and Loamy were compared with one another. The soils were made free of any nuisance factors effects. The chlorophyll content of the plants was read using Konica Minolta chlorophyll meter SPAD-502 plus, and the data analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The result of the analysis indicates a higher significant effect of Sandy soil (M = 11.20, SD = 2.37) on the yield of sesame crops in this region as compared to the effects of the Clay (M = 3.60, SD = 0.89), and Loamy (M = 6.86, SD = 3.39) soils. The overall ANOVA test indicates that growing environment does have effect on sesame production, F (2, 27) = 6.70, p = 0.00. However, the result indicates insignificant chlorophyll mean difference between Clay and Loamy soils. It is therefore evident from these results and the reviewed literatures that the suitable growing environment for sesame production in Nigeria is fertile Sandy soil that is deep, light textured, well-drained and that is exposed to an average temperature of 25oC to 37oC. The crop is also tolerant to draught, but not at the germination and seedling stages, water logging, and excessive rain fall while it requires 90–120 frost-free days to achieve optimal yields in cold regions. The challenges which stand in the way of increasing the productivity and quality of sesame crops need to be overcome. As with other crops, which is a major export crop in many countries, these crops should be given more research attention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study the Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Funds of Usha Martin for Socio-economic Development in Ranchi District of Jharkhand

Mayur Gauta, Virendra B. Shahare

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 34-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830384

The impact of Corporate Social responsibility (CSR) funds was studied in Hutup village in Ormanjhi Block of Ranchi district of Jharkhand, where CSR sponsored project was implemented by KGVK under the guidance of Usha Martin Ranchi for improving the quality of life of the work fore and their families as well as of the community and society at a large. Out of total 270 beneficiaries 30 farmers were selected as respondents in the study. It was observed that 27.40 percent of farmers come below the socio-economic status group, whereas 61.1240 in medium and 11.48% comes from a high socio-economic status group. Due to the creation of water harvesting structure in the village overall 38.21% assured irrigation has been increased. The productivity of cereals, pulses, oilseeds and vegetables has been increased 76.47, 116.66, 125 and 88.23 percent respectively, resulting thereby 24.56, 52.94, 60.86 and 83.33 percent income of farmers has been increased through cultivation of Cereal, Pulses, Oilseeds and vegetables respectively. Result reveals that development of water harvesting structure is an important intervention for enhancing production and productivity of agricultural crops in Jharkhand. The results also suggested that demonstration of improved production technologies coupled with capacity building of farmers through trainings of improved package of practices of different crops and vegetables as well as timely input support services increase the production and availability of local market for selling of produce at remunerative price enhance the income of farmers. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Farmers’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Sesame Seed Driller Machine Rental Service in Kafta-Humera District, Western Tigray, Ethiopia

Yemane Hailu Gebre

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 51-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830386

The use of row planter in Ethiopia for sesame production is almost at the infant stage, and most seeds were typically sown through manual broadcasting as the tariff of imported agricultural machinery (row planter) is high. This shows that poor and small-scale farmers are unable to purchase row planter/sesame seed driller machine/ as its cost is expensive and their land is small. Hence, this study has assessed farmers' willingness to pay to rent sesame seed driller machine service by conducting a survey of 124 farmers in Kafta-humera district, western Tigray, Ethiopia. A survey questionnaire related to CVM was designed and face-to-face interviews were made to collect the data. The descriptive result showed that 85.48% of the farmers were willing to rent the Sesame seed driller machine with a mean of ETB 911.37 per hectare. The Probit regression results confirm that the educational level, access to extension service, the income of the household, and access to credit were the factors that affecting the farmers’ level of willingness to pay positively. However, the cultivable land size was negatively influencing willingness to rent sesame seed driller machine by the farmers. Regarding the perception of farmers, majority of the respondents were perceived positively particularly with the statements of “sesame seed driller machine decreases weed occurrence and makes easy to control weed, increases sesame grain yield and it makes farmers financially profitable". However, they perceived negatively on that it drills a higher seed rate and missed plant to some extent. The study, therefore, recommends encouraging well educated and better off people to engage in sesame farming, overhauling agricultural extension services. Moreover, it is suggested that investors, cooperatives or private companies should introduce sesame seed driller machine not only for themselves but also to rent service at a fair price.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Status of the Livestock-rearers in the Flood-prone Districts of Odisha

Jeebanjyoti Behera, Sujeet Kumar Jha, Maneesha Bhuyan, Aditya Kumar Malla

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830388

Flood has been found to be the most frequent to Odisha among all-natural calamities. Flood affects in same way to both humans as well as animal’s life. Animals, those who survived from these floods are threatened by the non-availability of feed and shelter. Fodder fields are also completely destroyed like other agricultural crops. These feed deprived and shelter less animals are stressed and immune-suppressed, thus become susceptible to contagious diseases. The present study was conducted to know the socio economic status of the livestock-rearers under the given resources viz. demographic, physical, economic, flood-related information and social. Ex-post Research Design was followed for the present study.A total of 120 livestock-rearers were selected, using simple random sampling method from 8 villages of 4 blocks from the 2 Districts of the Odisha for the purpose of the study. The respondents of the study area were marginal farmers having average operational land holding of 0.11 hectare. It was found that 31.74 percent of the average income of respondents was earned from crop cultivation, 26.00 percent from livestock. All the respondents of the studied area had experienced flood events during the last 10 years, which means the flood is a regular annual event in studied district. This study throws light on the existing conditions of the farmers of the flood-prone districts of Odisha, which is very fragile and needs immense care.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing the Buying Behavior of Hybrid Paddy Seed Growers

Rashmi Pandey, Senthil Vinayagam, M. Krishnan, K. Akhila

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 68-77
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830389

This study was on factors influencing buying behavior of the hybrid paddy seed growers among selected districts of Bihar with following objectives source and level of awareness, buying behavior of farmers and promotion of sales at retail level. The 155 farmers were selected from 27 blocks of six sample districts of Bihar state which includes Banka, Bhagalpur, Katihar, Munger, Purnea and Samastipur. Structured interview schedule was used for collection of data. The Ex-post facto research design was used in this study. By using frequencies, percentages, garrets ranking and factor analysis, the results was carried. Majority of the farmers were aware of hybrid paddy seeds due to promotion of dealers/retailers. Promotional events and trainings were conducted by the company personnel to spread awareness among farmers about hybrid seeds. Plant height, grain size, water logging tolerance are the important factors to influence the farmers for purchase of hybrid paddy seeds. Due to loyalty of dealers they purchase from same outlet and the farmers expect provision of credit facility from the companies. ‘6444’ brand was chosen by the farmers due to better grain quality among all the brands from same outlet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical Study of Plastic Mulching in Tuberose and Melons in Dharmapuri District of Tamilnadu

K. Indhumathi, P. S. Shanmugam, M. Sangeetha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 78-86
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830390

Dharmapuri is a versatile district with a wide variety of crop diversity from millets to vegetables under protected cultivation. Tuberose and melons are livelihood crops for small and marginal farmers with limited irrigation water source. About 80% of the cost of cultivation is spent on weed management in tuberose. Productivity in melons is affected due to soil-borne diseases and fruit flies.  Front line demonstrations for the use of plastic mulching was conducted to address the issues. The demonstrations were conducted in farmers’ fields and each farmer field is considered as one location. Results of the demonstrations were analysed in various perspectives including economic benefits so as to showcase the positive outcome of the plastic mulching technology.  There was about 15 – 20% increase in the melons and 18 - 22% in the case of the tuberose. Though the increase in productivity cannot be correlated only to plastic mulching, the improvement in the fruit quality (95% of first grade fruits) attributed by plastic mulching especially in melons. Weed management cost was reduced in tuberose by 80%. In melons the reduced crop duration by 6 – 8 days indirectly reduced the cost of cultivation and added to the net returns of the crop. The economic benefit of the technology were realised by farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Technology and Yield Gap of Chickpea in Bundelkhand Region of Uttar Pradesh, India

M. P. Singh, Mukesh Chand, B. K. Gupta, B. P. Mishra, Amit Mishra, . Gaurav, Sunil Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 87-93
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830391

Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India is a major pulse producer in the Indian subcontinent. The agriculture production, particularly, pulses have been playing a great role in strengthening the economic conditions and are the source of livelihood of Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh state. The productivity of chickpea crop is low due to lack of adoption of best management practices of chickpea by farmers Keeping these constraints under consideration the yield gap and technology gap assessed of the region by conducting Cluster Front Line Demonstrations on best management practices of chickpea during Rabi seasons in the year 2015-16 to 2018-2019, respectively. The demonstration was carried out in six villages of Mahoba district. The results revealed that the full technological gap in 5 practices (variety, seed treatment, seed inculcation with Rhizobium, weed management practices and plant protection), a partial gap in 3 practices (seed rate, fertilizer management and irrigation) and Nil gap in 2 practices (land preparation and sowing methods). Further, Average grain yield of chickpea showed a remarkable increase (32%) in CFLDs compared to Farmers practice (check). However, it is still behind to potential yield. The average technological gap, extension gap and technology index were 8.10 q ha-1, 3.30q ha-1 and 36.6% respectively. The study recommends the improvement of productivity of chickpea may be achieved through fulfilling the gap between demonstration yield and farmers practice yield. Therefore, more effort requires to determine the socio-economic factors for practicing age-old practice and extension efforts needed to the rapid diffusion of best management practices. Further, The future study on variable climate conditions and edaphic factors requires to determine the gap between potential and demonstration yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foundation of Addis Ababa and the Emergence of Safars

Endalew Djirata Fayisa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 103-120
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830392

The main purpose of this study was to reveal the impact of the eviction of the Oromo from their hereditary land of Finfinne and their possession by Menilek in the late 19th century. The study deals with the history of the transformation of Finfinne to Addis Ababa and the eviction of the Oromo from the area which followed by the emergence of different Safars. In this study, the socio-economic and political conditions of Finfinne Oromo and the surrounding are explored. After the eviction of the Oromo from Finfinne area, the settlement of different ethnic groups in the areas was also discussed. In this study the researcher attempted to employ both primary and secondary sources. The secondary data sources were collected through a brief review of related literatures by assessing published materials. The primary and unpublished data sources were collected through oral interview based on focused group and questionnaire. All these data were carefully analyzed and critically interpreted qualitatively according to the standardized rules and disciplines of social sciences. Even though some earlier attempts have been made by scholars to write the history of Finfinne, most of the areas have received only very minimal attention. Therefore, this article is an attempt to fill the gap that has been created so far by other scholars and something to contribute to the history of the foundation of Safars in Addis Ababa. The study, hence, tried to highlight the history of the foundation of different Safars until the dawn fall of the imperial regime. Certainly this study is far from being exhaustive. However, the researcher hopes it can at least serve as an introduction to give clue to the study of Finfinne history and the eviction of Oromo from the area which later on its name was changed by the imperial rule unjustifiably to Addis Ababa “New Flower”.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Effects of House Rodents among Farmers in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria

P. G. Kughur, E. T. Yanjoh, T. E. Ogbu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 94-102
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830393

The study analyzed the effects of house rodents among farmers in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. Data were collected from primary source through the administration of structured questionnaire on 190 farmers' selected using a purposive random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Logit regression. Results revealed that females were 66.3%, 61.6% aged 20-30 years, 51.1% were married, 47.7% had the household size of 6-10 people, 53.3% had an estimated annual income of < ₦100,000.0. The results further indicated that 46.3% were civil servants, 49.5% occupied 4 rooms apartment, 84.2% furniture was destroyed, 76.3% used rodent glue pad for control, inconveniences (  = 3.04) was one of the major factors that influenced the method used for control of rodents and lack of finance (  = 3.15) was one of the major constraints faced in controlling house rodents. The results of Logit regression showed that sex (4.216) and major occupation (3.328) positively and significantly influenced the choice of method used for control at p < 0.005 and p < 0.010. It is recommended that public  enlightenment on proper sanitation and methods of control should be carried out regularly to reduce the menace.   

Open Access Original Research Article

The Most Important Agricultural Products that Sudan Exports and the Mechanisms to Develop

Adil Hassan Ibrahim, Eko Priyo Purnomo, Ajree D. Malawani

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 121-133
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830395

This study is dealing with the most essential agricultural products that Sudan exports them abroad and looks for the mechanisms of developing and improving for those products. The purpose of this paper is to find out the agricultural products that Sudan should depend on them as alternative export goods (instead of petrol which has gone with South Sudan after the separation), also this research aims to discover the mechanisms that used in increasing and expanding the production of those products. This paper is depending on the literature review and uses descriptive approach in order to describe the most substantial agricultural products that Sudan exports as alternative goods. The paper selected this method, because it is suitable. Data and information of this work have been gathered from different sources such as books, journals, newspapers, websites, government reports and other documents that are relevant to the title. The findings of this study are: the results indicates that, more than 65% of the population of Sudan depend on the cultivation, also, it shows that oil seed such as sesame seed, Cotton and Gum Arabic are the most substantial farming products that supply Sudan with hard currency, after the secession of South Sudan which was very rich part of Sudan with petrol. In addition to that, the paper has come out with the mechanisms that will be used in improving and increasing those products, these tools are; implementation of genetic engineering system in the areas of agriculture in Sudan, application of cultivation without tillage system and choosing the suitable time of agriculture. Cultivation development is one of the sustainable development goals, which targeting the increasing of productivity in rural areas, countryside is suffering from the lack of fresh water and the negative effects of climate change. Agriculture in Sudan, particularly Darfur and Kordofan regions is seasonable system that depend on the rain in autumn specifically the growing of millets, sorghum, oil crops for instance sesame seeds and water-melon. In Sudan, 80 percent of nonpatrol exports are from the agriculture and its derivations, therefore it contributes in narrowing the gap of unemployment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Climate Smart Agriculture in Preventing Post Harvest Loses: Instant Fufu Powder Production among Rural Women in Oyo State, Nigeria

F. I. Olagunju, R. O. Babatunde, R. J. Adeojo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 134-145
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830396

This study focused on creation of market opportunities of instant fufu powder for smallholder women farmers in Oriire local government, Oyo state, Nigeria. The purpose of the project at the rural level was to ensure creation and encouragement of more of off-farm activities like processing, storage and marketing. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted to select 240 farmers/processors involved in development of value chains for Cassava flour to improve their livelihoods and incomes as direct beneficiaries. Demonstration /training were done with the assistance of trained personnel for better understanding. Physical and live practices were used for the demonstration. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics.

The result of the study showed that 90.8% of the farmers take their products to the market with the enthusiasm of selling all, but often these products are not fully sold due to higher supply of the same products with lower demand in the market places. The adoption of fufu powder processing by the rural women did not result in acquisition of new assets although 88% of the beneficiaries reported increase in their capability to meet expenditure on food, children education, and meeting social obligations like naming ceremonies. Currently a 1 kg of mechanically processed odourless powder ‘fufu’ retails for N250 in Nigeria.

The study concluded that, the powdered cassava ‘flour’ packaging business is a potentially acceptable business that prevents post-harvest losses. It is still calling for massive investment by aspiring entrepreneurs. This will ensure capabilities to meet food requirements of a growing population by eliminating losses, making more nutritive food items from raw commodities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Test to Measure the Knowledge Level of Small Tea Growers on Scientific Tea Cultivation Practices

Suman Parasar, Pabitra Kumar Das, Indrajit Barman, Kangkana Borah, Shabnam Sultana

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 146-151
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830397

The present study was conducted to construct and standardize a test to measure the knowledge level of small tea growers on scientific technology on tea cultivation. The major steps followed for developing the test were construction of items, primary and final selection of items through difficulty index, discrimination index and biserial correlation. The final test comprised of 24 objective questions, referred to as items. The procedure adopted in the study can also be followed for developing knowledge test on any other aspect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Economic Status of Pineapple Growers in Moulvibazar District of Bangladesh

Tumpa Datta, Jiban Krishna Saha, Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Muslima Akter, Md. Rashid Ahmed

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 152-161
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830398

Socio-economic indicators are significant for determining the overall lifestyle of the Pineapple Growers. The study examines the different socio-economic variables of the pineapple farmers. The researchers selected the Sreemangal upazila of Moulvibazar district purposively and primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire during 2017-2018 cropping season from one hundred pineapple growers (small, medium and large) following simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics include frequency, sum, average, percentage and ratios were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that majority of the farmers were in small (44 percent) and medium (30 percent) categories and average farm size was 2.130 ha. Most of the pineapple growers were middle aged (31-40 years old) while a little portion of them were older aged (greater than 60 years).  It was found that 81 percent of the respondents were married in the study area.  In addition, almost all farmers (95 percent) were literate and more than sixty percent of them had primary education. Averagely, a family consists five members and above three members are dependent to their family in the study areas.  Majority of the respondents had 11-20 years of farming experience and the primary occupation of them (91 percent) was agriculture including pineapple cultivation. Moreover, a significant portion of farmers received training from government agricultural extension office whereas around one sixth of pineapple farmers received credit from both public and private banks as well as from NGOs. However, Extension office need to provide more and effective training facilities to the pineapple farmers for profitable production, simplification of buying, selling, renting and leasing of land to reduce production cost as well as different incentive packages can be introduced by the government for encouraging unemployed youth people to engage in pineapple production.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on the Indigenous Traditional Animal Husbandry Practices among Four Major Animal Rearing Tribal Population of Wayanad District, Kerala

M. J. Abhiram, R. L. Rathish

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 162-172
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830399

Aim: The present study was taken up to gain insights on the husbandry practices of four major animal rearing tribal communities of Wayanad district namely, Adiyan, Kuruma, Urali and Kattunaykka, tribes.

Study Design: Details regarding animals reared method and purpose of rearing, marketing and economy of animal rearing, materials and designs used for construction, of animal houses were collected by visiting the tribal colonies and conducting informal interviews with the village head and other elders in the community. The findings were documented analysed and discussed.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted from to 7th January 2019 to 19th April 2019 in Sulthan Bathery Thaluk of Wayand district, Kerala.

Methodology: The tribal settlements were visited and data collected by conducting informal interviews with the village head and other elders in the community. Structural designs and peculiarities were photodocumented for comparison between communities. The findings were documented, analysed and discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Participatory Livelihood Analysis as an Alternative Method for Agricultural Extension Needs-Assessment: Case of a Rural Community in Kenya

Joseph Kipkorir Cheruiyot

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 173-187
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830400

The well-being of the rural population globally has been associated with the performance and resilience of the agriculture sector. The sector continually requires new needs-based knowledge and technologies. It has become necessary to empower the rural communities through a wider bottom-up system that directly addresses their needs. This paper explores the application of little-used Participatory Livelihood Analysis for the adoption and up-scaling of its use in the assessment of agricultural-extension-needs for disadvantaged rural communities. It presents a case study of a village perceived by Agriculture stakeholders as disadvantaged in Nandi County, Kenya. Using a case study design and a participatory livelihood analysis approach, the descriptive study analyses the pentagon of resources (Natural/Land, human, social, physical and financial) based on the sustainable livelihood framework. It identifies livelihood strategies, constraints and opportunities for improvement on the performance of the livelihood strategies. The study observed that the Participatory Livelihood Analysis approach was an effective method in the assessment of agricultural-extension-needs of disadvantaged communities in relatively remote locations. Further trials of the approach in similar socio-economic contexts for use in needs assessment are recommended.

Open Access Review Article

Exploring Constraints Faced by Women Entrepreneur in India: An Overview

Anjali Chunera

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 46-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i830385

Background: Women entrepreneurship is essential for societal as well as country development. But women entrepreneurs in India come across multiple challenges which obstruct them from working. 

Aims: This study aims to investigate the constraints faced by women entrepreneurs in India. The paper engages in a comparative literature review of constraints from several states in India.

Methods: A cross selection survey.

Results: The major constraints faced by women entrepreneurs in India are the social constraints like gender inequality and discrimination, family discouragement, lack of social acceptance and male dominance, etc. Personal constraints include lack of self-confidence, motivation and risk-bearing capacity, dual role performance at home and job, fear of failure and criticism and many more, financial constraints were inadequacy of working capital, lack of awareness of sources of finance, lack of credit facility and lack of knowledge about finance etc., and environmental constraints like inadequate institutional support, non-availability of good workers/employees, lack of managerial education etc. hamper the pathway of women entrepreneurs.

Conclusion and Recommendation: This study makes certain recommendation such as constraints faced by women entrepreneurs need to be addressed as top priorities to have unhampered women development by conducting gender-specific training, awareness workshops, vocational skill courses, utilization of social media for information dissemination, skill development should be done by government and policymakers should come up with various policies and programmes focusing on creating a conducive environment for the success of women entrepreneurs.