Open Access Original Research Article

Access and Use of Information by Smallholder Dairy Farmers: A Case Study of Meru and Uasin Gishu Counties, Kenya

S. N. Makokha, V. Metto, D. Yongo, D. Nyongesa, M. Mwirigi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030422

Dairy in Kenya is a major source of employment, with smallholders contributing more than 70 percent of gross marketed milk production. Dairy marketing is dominated by the informal sector where raw milk is sold directly to consumers, suggesting low use of technical know-how to improve production as well as quality and safety of milk. The study therefore was conducted to understand the level of information on dairy, as well as determine factors influencing the awareness of dairy standards among smallholder dairy farmers in Meru and Uasin Gishu counties in Kenya.  A random sample of 273 households was selected and personal interviews conducted. Data were entered and analysed by use of the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (version 20). Descriptive statistics by use of percentages, and a logistic regression model were used to analyse data. The results depict a low level of information on quality and safety of milk, and the regulatory institutions in Kenya had limited influence on improved milk production, quality and safety. Farmers with marketing contracts, those with an upgraded value chain were more likely to access information, while older farmers were less likely to access the information. In order to increase complicity with the regulations, regulatory institutions should increase awareness on the potential benefits of adhering to dairy standards. Farmers should be registered and enter contracts with buyers, and older farmers targeted to provide information. Research and development organisations should make farmers aware so that farmers can demand for information and lobby for services from government institutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Financial Returns of Maize and Bean Production under Selected Tillage Practices in Semi-arid Area of Mwala Sub County, Kenya

Anne N. Karuma, Patrick T. Gicheru, Charles K. K. Gachene

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 11-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030424

An on-farm experiment was carried out to assess the short term financial returns over four cropping seasons of selected tillage practices and cropping systems in semi-arid Mwala Sub County of Kenya. The tillage treatments were Disc Ploughing (DP), Disc Ploughing and Harrowing (DPH), Ox-ploughing (OX), Subsoiling – Ripping (SSR), Hand hoeing with Tied Ridges (HTR), and Hand hoeing (H) only. There were three cropping systems of Sole Maize (SM), Sole Bean (SB), and Maize - Bean intercrop (M + B), which were investigated in a Split-Plot Design with four replications. Input and output prices were obtained from the local markets and used to compute the financial returns. Across the tillage practices, higher net returns were realized in DPH (USD 1165), DP (USD 1014), and SSR (USD 866). In the cropping systems, the intercrop (USD 1051) and sole bean (USD 954) reported higher benefits than sole maize (USD 692). Based on marginal analysis, it is economically viable to recommend the SSR with sole bean systems to farmers in Mwala Sub County as it produced the higher BCR (> 2) and an MRR (> 100 %) which is comfortable to most farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Documentation and Analysis of Digital Start-Ups in Agriculture and Improving Public Extension System from Digital Start-Up Experiences

Dadimi Anil Kumar Reddy, Shaik N. Meera, M. A. Khan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030427

Aim: To document and analyze digital start-ups operating in the field of agriculture and suggesting some strategies to improve public extension system.
Study Design: Descriptive was employed for the study.
Duration of the Study: Study was carried out between last quarter of 2018 and first quarter of 2019.
Methodology: Desk study method was adopted to document the start-ups and focus group discussion was carried out with the experts in the field of agriculture extension.
Results: Fifty two digital start-ups were operating in the agriculture sector and these start-ups were placed into different components across agriculture value chain.
Conclusion: Government agencies are rich sources of data and on the other side start-ups lack data and are fully equipped to serve farmers. So, collaboration between the two could be a game changer in revolutionizing the agriculture extension system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Profitability of Agribusiness Activities: A Case Study of Smallholder Pig Farming in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya

P. K. Micheni, I. S. Nyariki, G. K. Kosgei

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 33-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030428

Aims: There have been concerted efforts to commercialize the pig sub-sector so as to make it more profitable to farmers, especially smallholder farmers. Despite the development, the profitability in the sector has not been consistent among the smallholder farmers. Smallholder farmers have been earning varying and dismal profits. The causes of the varying profits have not been empirically established with the influence of institutional arrangements from a transaction cost perspective and management factors contributing to this inconsistency not fully established. The study examined the influence of institutional arrangements and management factors on profit efficiency of smallholder pig farming in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.

Research Methods: A two-stage sampling technique was employed in selection of 80 smallholder pig farmers. Semi-structured interview guides were administered and data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier production function.

Findings: The study revealed that male (75%) respondents dominated were within the active age, had 6 years pig farming experience with basic education. The results of Stochastic frontier production revealed that feed costs (p<0.01) and breed type (p<0.05) negatively reduced profit efficiency of the respondents while herd size (p<0.05) and veterinary and drug costs (p<0.01) positively influenced profit efficiency. Inefficiency was increased by Gender (p<0.1) and Debt Asset Ratio (p<0.01) while information trust (p<0.05) and experience reduced.

Conclusion: The mean profit efficiency was 0.40 exhibiting low profit efficiency in the study area, efficiency level could be increased by 60% through better use of available resources, adoption of modern technology and transaction costs reduction. This would be acquired if good management practices and marketing channels are adopted. The gamma parameter (γ) was 0.63 meaning 63% net revenue variation is due to profit inefficiencies. The study contributes to Agribusiness field and would improve policies associated with agribusiness development in Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Extent of Haor Livelihood Diversification in Sunamganj District, Bangladesh

Muslima Akter, Jasim Uddin Ahmed, Kanij Fatema, Tumpa Datta, Khadija Akter

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 43-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030429

The present study aims to examine the contribution of fishing in total income and extent ofhaor livelihood diversification; and identify the factors affecting haorlivelihood diversification of the fishing community.

This study was conducted in Dekhar Haor of Sunamganj district. The data were collected from primary sources by using Simple random sampling from 100 respondents. Tobit model was used to determine the factors affecting the livelihood diversification. Fishing contributed highest to the household income. The estimated Simpson Index showed that fishermen have diversified their livelihood activities at medium level. The results showed that age of the respondents, years of schooling, access to credit and savings had positive effect, while, mode of land ownership, distance from the nearest market and value of household’s assets had negative effects on livelihood diversification. Non-farm employment opportunities should be expanded to increasehaor livelihood diversification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Farmers’ Onion Varieties against Purple Blotch Disease

Noushad Parvez, Hardev Choudhary, Vaibhavkumar V. Shinde, Vijay G. More, U. S. Kudtarkar, L. K. Gabhale, A. S. Dhane, S. B. Gangawane, Bhaumik Maru, Sandip V. Ghole, Babahaeb N. Pisore

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 52-62
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030430

Aims: To evaluate the performance of farmers’ onion varieties against purple blotch disease at different locations and to correlate Percent Disease Index with yield attributing and other important traits.

Study Design: Randomized Block Design, Field demonstration.

Place and Duration of Study: National Innovation Foundation- India Gandhinagar Gujarat, Repoli and Palghar research stations of Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli Maharashtra during October 2017 to April 2019.

Methodology: Two farmers’ onion varieties Sona-40 and Sandip were characterized and tested for their response against purple blotch disease under field condition in comparison with location-specific check varieties. Percent Disease Index of purple blotch was observed, compared and correlated with important traits viz. the plant height, leaves per plant, bulb diameter, maturity period, bulb weight, bulb yield and keeping quality. In Maharashtra areas, the study was conducted under Repoli and Palghar conditions during winter (Rabi) 2017, whereas at Gandhinagar Gujarat, it was undertaken in winter (Rabi) 2017 and 2018.

Results: The farmers’ onion cultivars Sandip and Sona-40 were found to be tolerant to the purple blotch disease at all the locations. In Maharashtra and Gujarat, the average Percent Disease Index (PDI) in Sona-40 (12.1%, 12.2%) and Sandip (10.75%, 14.64%) was found significantly lower as compared to the checks respectively. The present studies also confirmed that onion bulb’s yield, weight and keeping quality were significantly correlated with the purple blotch disease.

Conclusion: This study exhibited that the farmers’ onion varieties may perform better against disease infestation such as purple blotch disease. It also confirmed that the response of the onion varieties against purple blotch may vary in different locations. It is shown that the bulb weight, yield and shelf life of bulbs are significantly affected by purple blotch disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Scale to Examine the Entrepreneurial Behaviour among the Agriculture Students of Farm Universities in Karnataka

C. V. Sanketh, K. P. Raghuprasad, S. Ganesamoorthi, N. R. Gangadharappa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 63-69
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030431

An effort is made in the present investigation to develop a scale to examine the entrepreneurial behaviour among the students who were in the final year of their basic degree in different farm universities of Karnataka state. The developed scale consists of 35 statements categorised under seven important dimensions. The total final year agriculture students in farm universities in Karnataka during 2019-20 were around 1200, but the scale was administrated to 50 final year students in the College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore (UAS(B)) during 2019-20. The developed entrepreneurial behaviour scale was found to be highly reliable and valid. It was found that around two –fifth of students (38.00 %) were having medium entrepreneurial behaviour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Food Security among Rural Women in Kaduna State, Nigeria

O. E. Olagunju, O. C. Ariyo, U. U. Emeghara, O. S. Olagunju

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 70-82
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030433

Adequate nutrition is a crucial component of a healthy society. One of the major problems of human health is malnutrition and it is in every society. Rural households engage in food production, yet, they are mostly food insecure.This study accessed the determinants of food security among rural women in Kaduna state. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to draw the sample. Four rural Local Government Areas (LGAs) were randomly selected, while three villages were randomly sampled from each LGA resulting in 12 villages. Ten percent of the rural women in each of the sampled villages were randomly selected to give a total of 240 respondents. Interview schedule was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi–square, Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Regression. Mean age was 29.7±8.08 years. Most (60.4%) of the respondents were Christians. Thirty-four percent of the respondents hadsecondary education while some (40.0%) of the respondents were involved in trading. Dry season was considered as season of abundance by majority (70.8%) of the respondents. PPMC indicates that age (r=0.119; p=0.009) and household size, (r = 0.221; P = 0.001) were significantly related with household food security, while position as wife (β= 0.194), household size (β= -0.173) and monthly income (β= -0.095) were major determinants of household food security. Rural women have reasonable access to food. The study recommends that rural women should practice home gardening and domesticate animals to enhance food secured rural family.

Open Access Original Research Article

Entrepreneurial Intention of Final Year Undergraduate Students of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Shanika Madhushyanthi, Madhavi Wijerathna

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 83-98
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030434

Aims: The scientific literature on Entrepreneurial Intention (EI) among agricultural university students in Sri Lanka is meager. Therefore, the focus of this study was to evaluate the EI and to understand what factors affect on EI of the final year undergraduate students of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Study Design: The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design. A stratified simple random sample of 100 final year undergraduates that represented 50% of each of the three degree programs of the Faculty of Agriculture, university of Peradeniya were selected for the study. The primary data was collected through a self-administered structured questionnaire.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka from October 2018 to February 2019.

Methodology: The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to measure the EI. Thus, it examined the influence of personal attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control factors on EI. Short-term risk taking, perceived structural support and social capital on business start-up were examined as additional variables to the theory.

Results: The results revealed that each of the TPB variables significantly (P = 0.05) affect on EI, with an overall R2 = 0.606. Attitudes were the strongest predictor of EI, followed by subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. However, overall level of EI of the students was neutral. Awareness programmes, financial support, introducing and updating the entrepreneurial subjects were some major suggestions of the respondents to improve entrepreneurship among the students.

Conclusion: Attitudes toward entrepreneurship is the strongest predictor of EI. However, overall EI of the students was neutral. Improving individual attitudes through motivational programmes, providing an approving nature of the staff towards entrepreneurship (subjective norms), mechanisms to develop entrepreneurial capabilities among students and linking entrepreneurship to the present curriculum, would be important to improve the EI of the students leading to a greater entrepreneurship.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Climate Variability on Finger Millet Productivity: Panel Data Analysis

Parthasarathi Gurusamy, Balasubramanian Rudrasamy, M. S. Raman

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 99-104
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030435

Finger millet is widely grown all parts of the world and it is consumed by all people. This paper studies the impact of climate variability on yield of finger millet crop in Tamil Nadu using Panel regression analysis. The data on maximum and minimum rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature and yield of finger millet was collected and used for analysis. Panel data model was used to estimate effect of climate variability. The temperature and its square terms shows the significant impact on finger millet yield, it means after the certain level increase in temperature leads to yield loss. The square term of the SWM maximum temperature will increase the yield of finger millet up to a threshold level, beyond which the yield will decrease. Higher temperature during north-east monsoon season would mean lower yield rates. The regression coefficient of interaction term for NEM rainfall and NEM maximum temperature was found to be positive which indicate that the joint effect of rainfall and temperature during the north-east monsoon season on finger millet yield was positive thus contributing for increased productivity. Thus increasing in climatic variables would support the millets up to a certain level and after that it lower the yield of finger millet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Information Sources Utilized and Their Degree of Credibility as Perceived by the Fish Farmers in Manipur

. Sajina, Y. J. Singh, P. K. Maurya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 105-110
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030436

The study was undertaken to analyze the information sources utilized and their degree of credibility as perceived by the fish farmers in three districts of Manipur viz., Imphal East, Imphal West and Thoubal. These districts were purposively selected following an ex-post-facto research based on the prevalence of fish farmers. A sample of 60 fish farmers were selected randomly from the districts; twenty (20) from each district. A structured interview schedule was used to collect the information through personal interview. Information sources were categorized broadly into three scores: 3-Regularly’, ‘2-Occasionally’, ‘1-Rarely’ and their credibility as 3-Highly Credible; 2-Moderately Credible; 1-Least Credible. The study revealed that among all the personal contact methods, majority of the respondents sought information from friends and neighbours, followed by contact with progressive fish farmers & opinion leaders, and contact with line departments with mean scores of 2.46, 2.32 and 1.67 respectively. Among the group contact methods, group discussion & meeting was the most frequently used information source by the fish farmers with mean score 2.74 followed by discussion with fish farmers and training programmes with mean scores of 2.54 and 1.77 respectively. Among the mass contact methods, radio was the most frequently used source of information with 2.88 mean score followed by newspaper and television with mean scores of 2.21 and 1.97 respectively. Friends and neighbours, contact with progressive fish farmers & opinion leaders and personal contact with faculty/ scientist were perceived as the most credible sources of information among all the personal contact methods with 2.98, 2.38 and 2.34 mean scores respectively. Among the group contact methods, group discussion & meeting was perceived as the most credible information source by the fish farmers with 2.76 mean score. Discussion with fish farmers served as the second most frequently used source with 2.53 mean score followed by training programmes with mean score 1.77. Among the mass contact methods, radio was the most frequently used with 2.84 mean score followed by television and internet with mean scores of 2.39 and 2.19 respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Farmers’ on Soil Fertility Problems and Replenishment Technologies in the North Rift Region of Kenya

Margaret A. Osundwa, Earnest Saina, Caleb Othieno

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 111-122
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030437

This paper investigates the farmers’ perception on soil fertility replenishment technologies in the North Rift Region of Kenya. A survey was conducted in Trans Nzoia and Uasin Gishu counties of the North Rift Region of Kenya. A total of 108 respondents were interviewed. A two stage random sampling technique was employed in the study. In the first stage, farmer groups growing maize as the main crop were selected. The second stage involved the selection of farmers who were practicing cereal banking for ease of marketing of their produce. A survey and field demonstration plots were adopted. On-farm demonstration were carried out and used to ascertain the farmers’ perception towards the technologies. A structured questionnaire was administered to them to elicit information on their perception on soil fertility replenishment technologies (SFRT). Descriptive statistics and the multiple regression analysis was done using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results revealed that farmers perceived that technologies could be used to address the declining soil fertility. The inputs were affordable available, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (MOALF) was effective in disseminating the technologies and that the technologies could work on any farm at mean score of 3.5, 4.1, 4.0, 3.4 and 4.6 out of 5.0 respectively. Farmers in Trans Nzoia county identified lack of capital (70.4%) compared to Uasin Gishu (39.9%) as the greatest challenge in the adoption of SFRT technologies. Credit schemes that offer loans with low interest rates should be established to enable farmers have access to credit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Weed Dynamics in Maize (Zea mays L.) as Influenced by Pre and Post-emergence Herbicides under Temperate Conditions of Western Himalayan Region

Faisul-ur- Rasool, M. I. Bhat, Z. A. Dar, S. A. Hakeem, S. Nasseer, S. Bashir, Seerat-ul- Nisa, S. Majeed, Z. Rashid, S. Iqbal, B. A. Lone, Ansar-ul- Haq, Sanjay Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 123-131
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030438

Field experiments were conducted in 2017-18 during main cropping  seasons of the year 2017 and 2018 at Dryland (Karewa) Agriculture Research Station, SKUAST-K to determine the effect of different post and pre emergence herbicides application on weed dynamics in maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with four replications and variety used was Bio-605. Five treatments Five treatments viz, Atrazine 50% WP @ 1.0 kg ha-1 as pre-emergence and Paraquat dichloride 24% SL @ 0.5 kg ha-1, 2,4-D sodium salt 58% WSC @ 1.0 kg ha-1 as post-emergence herbicides (application at 2-3 leaf stage of weeds), hand weeding as standard check and weedy check as control were used. Effect of different herbicides on weed density was found significant. in plots managed with hand weeding, no weed was recorded. The Atrazine treated plots @ 1.0 kg ai ha-1 as pre-emergence had the weed population of 5.51, 5.4, 3.73, 5.12, 4.28 and 41.4m-2 , respectively in Echinochloa spp., Eleusine indica, Digitaria sanguinalis, Amaranthus viridis, Sorghum halepense and Cyperus spp.  However, the maximum population of weeds was recorded in weedy check with 21.54 m-2, 20.87 m-2, 19.16  m-2, 21.5 m-2, 16.7 m-2 and 60.7 m-2. No significant difference was observed between Paraquat dichloride 24% SL @ 0.5 kg ai ha-1 and 2,4- D Sodium salt 58% WSC  @ 1.0 kg ai ha-1 except for Cyperus spp. with density of 51.37 m-2 and 43.04 m-2 respectively. The potential of the atrazine in controlling weeds thereby enhancing yield of maize was found in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Perception and Adoption of Forest Conservation Practices in Kaiama Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria

L. Ganiyu, B. Oluyaire, U. F. Yahaya, M. B. Usman, B. O. Odey, S. B. Abdulkareem, G. L. Lapkat

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 132-140
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030439

The practice of shifting cultivation by farmers in Kaiama Local Government of Kwara State is been inhibited by the dedication of their farm lands used for various agricultural activities to national park, thereby resulting in the depletion of soil nutrients caused by continuous cropping on the available land. Thus, the study examines farmers’ perception and adoption of forest conservation practices in Kaiama Local Government Area of Kwara State (The case of Kainji Lake National Park). Purposive random sampling was used to select three wards dedicated to the national park viz; Gwanabe 1, Kemanji and Wojibe. Primary data were gathered through the administration of questionnaires to 160 randomly selected farmers from each of the 8 communities in the three wards. Descriptive statistics, Likert-Scale and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The result shows that land acquisition was mainly (66%) through inheritance. Furthermore, rotational fallow is practiced by majority (79%) of the farmers. The perception of farmers on forest conservation practices shows that scattered trees on farm land is highly adopted (4.8) and perceived as profitable (3.0) and compatible (3.0). The result of the regression analysis shows that age, education, extension contact, farming experience, cooperative membership among others significantly influenced the adoption of forest conservation practices. The acquisition of tertiary education, training of extension staff and formation of farmers’ cooperative society among others were recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Resource Use Efficiency on Potato Farms in Azamgarh District of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

Ram Singh Yadav, R. R. Kushwaha, Kuldeep Maurya, Manoj Kumar, Bhartendu Yadav

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 141-147
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030440

The present study was carried out in Pawai block of Azamgarh district and five villages were selected randomly. A total number of 100 respondents were taken from the sleeted villages following the proportionate random sampling. The respondents were categorized as marginal (48), small (29) and medium (23) the data pertained to the agriculture year 2016-2017. The average holding size on overall farms was 1.553 ha and cropping intensity was 217.92 per cent. Cropping intensity was inversely related with the size of farms. The per farm average investment on overall farm came to Rs.242208.79 and maximum share was under the head of building i.e. 57.00 per cent followed by farm machinery and livestock share. The overall average cost of cultivation (C3) per hectare was Rs. 78154.62 and Gross income came to Rs. 123527.20, which offers a net income of Rs. 45372.50. Among the various resources considered under study the cost of seed showed significant relationship at 1 per cent level of probability in marginal category of farms and it was significantly associated at 5 per cent probability level in small and medium size group of farms. Another factor of production i.e. manures and fertilizer was found significantly associated with dependent variable at 1 per cent level probability in all farm situations. The sum of elasticity shows that potato cultivation was characterized as decreasing return to scale and positive value of marginal product indicate towards the further scope of expenditure on input to earn more than the cost. Problem related with hired human labour and technical knowledge were notice at 1st and 2nd rank by the sample farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study to Analyse the Knowledge Level of Women Beneficiaries of Anganwadi Centres (AWC) Regarding Nutrition in District Budgam of Kashmir Region

Iffat Ghani

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 148-155
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030441

Mother is a main caretaker of their children particularly during the first three to six years of life when they are at the risk of being undernourished. How well she takes care of her children to keep them healthy will depend upon the level of her knowledge regarding childcare and nutrition and various associated factors. As such this study was planned to assess and enhance the extent of knowledge among women beneficiaries of ICDS (Integrated child development Service Scheme) centers of district Budgam of Kashmir region. With an  intension  to surpass  and facilitate the knowledge of women beneficiaries  this study was taken up with a sample  of 600 registered women beneficiaries of AWCs (Anganwadi centers) out of which 150 were nursing mothers, (NM) 150 were pregnant women (PW) and 300 were mothers of child beneficiaries (MCB having children in the age group 6 months-3years. The tool used for assessing the knowledge level was a self-devised rating scale designed to measure the nutritional knowledge related to importance of different kinds (variety) of foods for adequate/ optimal growth and development of a child. Further, in order to divide the levels of nutritional knowledge as, low, medium and high, Quartiles were calculated. In this way the mothers having low level of knowledge (Q1) those who scored up to 4, medium (Q2)  whereas, sample women who scored between 5-6 and high level of knowledge (Q3) scored as ≥ 7.The statements were so arranged that a positive answer was specified under score of 1, whereas, a  negative statement was granted a score of 0 . The scores of positive responses were summed up and the level of knowledge of women beneficiaries was ascertained, a statistically significant variation is observed in levels of nutritional knowledge as per educational qualification and income group among the respondents. It is also seen that respondents from block B.K.Pora and Nagam blocks are having high level of nutritional knowledge in comparison to block Budgam and Chadoora. Among the groups, MCB are having higher level of knowledge in comparison to NM and PW. No significant variation in the levels of nutritional knowledge is seen as per age. It is quite obvious from the study that education of mothers is directly related to knowledge. Educated mother are more knowledgeable than functionally literate mothers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adaptation Measures to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Variability among Pastoralists in Kajiado, Kenya

Jacktone Achola Yala, Joshua Orungo Onono, William Okelo Ogara, Gilbert Ongisa Ouma, Sam Oyieke Okuthe

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 156-166
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030442

Climate change and variability has direct and indirect effects on pastoralism through its effect on natural resources including water and pastures that support livestock production in pastoral areas. This study was conducted in Kajiado County where pastoralism is the main source of livelihood. The objective was to identify challenges facing pastoralism and adaptation measures applied by Maasai pastoralists to mitigate impacts of adverse climate events including flooding and drought. A cross-sectional study design was used and primary data collected through focus group discussions (FGDs), key informant interviews (KIIs) and expert opinion interviews (EOIs). A total of 10 FGDs (114 respondents within 10 wards, out of which 81 were men and 33 women), 25 KIIs (6 opinion leaders, 5 village elders, 6 chiefs, 6 government staff and 2 non-governmental organisation) and 12 EOIs (1 Department of Meteorological Services, 1 National Drought Management Authority (NDMA), 2 Department of Agriculture and 8 Departments of Veterinary Services and Livestock Production) were conducted during the data collection period. The findings showed that drought and flooding were the main climate related challenges that were often experienced by the pastoralists. The adaptation measure which were frequently implemented by pastoralist during flooding was livestock vaccination and mass treatment of sick livestock (Z >1.96) while the most frequently implemented adaptation measures during drought periods included migration with livestock to search for water and pasture (Z=1.51) and livestock vaccination and treatment of sick livestock (Z=1.08). Other climate variability related-challenges included increased incidences of livestock diseases, increased livestock deaths, increased cases of community conflicts, unavailability of veterinary vaccines and medicines, high cost of livestock vaccines and drugs and inadequate number of technical staff within the county. The study has shown that climate variability has significant impact on sources of livelihood for pastoralists who in turn are implementing several adaptation measures to mitigate the effects of climate change and variability. The study recommends formulation and implementation of appropriate plans and policies that are focussed on supporting resilience of the vulnerable pastoral communities and that could further assist in fighting the negative impacts of climate change and variability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Precision Farming Development Centre Hyderabad: The Boon for Local Farmers

M. Uma Devi, Ibrahim Kaleel, K. Chaitanya, . Deepika, B. Srinu, A. Krishna Chaitanya, G. Swathi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 167-177
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030443

Precision farming is the technique of applying the right amount of input (fertilizer, pesticide, water etc.) at the right location at the right time to enhance production, decrease input and/or protect the environment, Site-Specific Crop Management (SSCM), Farming by-the-foot, Farming soils and not fields, Prescription farming, Environmentally-friendly farming & Information-based crop production. Thus, precision farming is an appealing concept and its principles quite naturally lead to the expectation that farming inputs can be used more effectively, with subsequent improvements in profits and environmentally less burdensome production. The precision farming developments of today can provide the technology for the environment friendly agriculture of tomorrow. Especially in the case of small farmers in developing countries like India, precision farming holds the promise of substantial yield improvement with minimal external input use. In order to achieve optimal production with less inputs, Precision Farming Development Centre (PFDC), Hyderabad, Telangana, India, plays important role in Precision farming by reaching local farmers to introduce precision farming techniques. PFDC Hyderabad attracts local farmers with tailor made annual action plans which includes both research and extension part. This study shows how PFDC Hyderabad uplifts both financial and social status of local farmers by introducing them to Precision Farming.