Open Access Data Article

An Analytical Assessment of Financial Crisis in Developing Countries, Its Effects, Consequences and Implications

Araniyar C. Isukul, John J. Chizea

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 155-168
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130464

This research was borne out of the need to revisit the global financial crisis and re-examine the issue of how well policy responses by developing countries in Africa have fared in addressing the crisis. In the analysis of the effect of financial crisis, two specific periods were chosen, the period during the financial crisis, and a period after the financial crisis, a decade later. The data used in the analysis of the crisis include: Current account as a percentage of GDP, external debt as a percentage of gross national income, exports of goods as a percentage of GDP, openness of the economy, economic growth rate, inflation rate, credit to the private sector by banks as a percentage of GDP and foreign direct investment inflows as a percentage of GDP. The findings of this research reveal that the global financial crisis is long gone, but its effect on many developing countries continues to deepen as the prolong and protracted effect of the crisis continues to linger. The crisis has not only caused a serious setback on the growth momentum gained by developing countries, but it also may endanger hard won economic development striders garnered over the recent years.

Open Access Data Article

Disparity Analysis Fisherman Income of Payang and Trammel Net Fisherman in Kecamatan Juntinyuat, Indramayu Regency

Achmad Yani, Achmad Rizal, Iwang Gumilar, Lantun Paradhita Dewanti

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 278-285
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130478

The research of inequality budget level analysis in Indramayu Regency has been carried out in April 2019 until September 2020 This study aims to determine the level of budget and analyze the level of inequality in Juntinyuat, Indramayu Regency based on characteristics of Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) in 2017. The method used in this research is qualitative and quantitative method. Information and data are collected by primary and secondary data that obtained by questionnaire and from relevant agencies. Processing data used the Williamson Index analysis and the Klassen Typology. The results showed that the average budget per capita of the region in Indramayu Regency has reached Rp. 15.311.000, and the results of the Gini ratio analysist has been in the high level because it was higher than 0.5 and the results of the development analysis patterns in Indramayu Regency was in 4 quadrants. It was different in each district. Juntinyuat and Karangampel sub-districts are in I quadrant, Balongan sub-district as in II quadrant, Kedokanbunder sub-district as in III quadrant and Krangkeng sub-district as in IV quadrant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Use of Social Media Platforms among Extension Professionals in Southwest, Nigeria

Bankole Babasanya, M. O. Akinola, N. M. Saddiq, O. M. Ojeleye, M. B. Usman, L. Ganiyu, M. M. Olorukooba

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130444

Opportunities to share and providing access to agricultural information at a much faster pace to a wider audience through a variety of user-friendly platforms can be achieved through the use of social media. This study investigated use of social media platforms among extension professionals in Southwest, Nigeria. Two hundred and five respondents were selected through multistage sampling and used for the study. The findings revealed that majority of respondents were between 36 and 50 years, 52.2% were male, 39.5% had B.Sc, 22.9% had HND, 15.1% had PGD, 12.2% had Ph.D and 10.2% had M,Sc/M.Phil, Over half (58%) of respondents had moderate awareness on use of WhatsApp for extension service delivery. Results of regression analysis showed positive and significant influence of performance expectancy (β=.199, p<.05), effort expectancy (β=.170, p<.05) and social influence (β=.139, p<.05) on use of social media platforms. From the result of the study, it was found that performance expectancy, effort expectancy and social influence were predictors of social media use, and recommended that in the use of social media for extension service delivery, these factors should be given attention in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Problems Associated with Cultivation of Sunflower: A Case Study of Barguna District, Bangladesh

Aparajita Badhan, Moriom Akter Mousumi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130445

Sunflower cultivation is a profitable enterprise to the farmers, but in the coastal part of Bangladesh sunflower is a new crop for the Rabi season. The present study was conducted to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the sunflower growers and to identify the problems facing from production to marketing in Barguna district. The study was conducted in coastal belt of Barguna district from where 100 samples were randomly collected. Descriptive statistical method was used for the analysis. The results revealed that seed, labor, irrigation and marketing of sunflower oil were top of the problems faced by the sunflower growers. Ranking of the specific problems showed that high charge of labor ranked first, salinity problem ranked second, stem rot ranked third, low market price than production cost ranked forth, training ranked fifth, high price of seed ranked sixth. Irrigation machinery, proper marketing facilities, reducing price of seed, appropriate training programs, setting up oil processing mill are the necessary solutions to overcome sunflower cultivation problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Women in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (NRM) in Andhra Pradesh –A Status Report

G. P. Sunandini, K. Suhasini, I. Shakuntala Devi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 15-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130446

In the present paper an attempt has been made to examine the role of women in Andhra Pradesh Agriculture especially in natural resource management. The study focused on studying participation of women in crop management, wage discrimination, ownership, access to economic resources and economic decision making and natural resources management at micro level and macro level.  The study revealed that about 22% of cost of cultivation and 56% of the labour cost is incurred towards female labour accounting to Rs 3424 out of cost of cultivation Rs. 19725/ha in case of paddy cultivation. The economic value of women’s participation was accounting to be Rs. 2558 of the total cost of cultivation (Rs. 13567/- per ha) of sorghum. There was a glaring difference in wage rates revealing discrimination between men and women wage rates. The year to year (y-t-y) wage difference was only 12.73 during 2000-01 a decade ago, later grew to 35.13 during 2010-11. The lower wage rates to women were because female labour is available in plenty than male labour. Policy initiatives such as identify women as a key player in NRM both at micro and macro level, when the Govt. distributes surplus land, it has to consider the possibility of transferring the ownership of land to women encourage leasing out fallow land for cultivation of food crops through women SHGs, train the tribal women on how to make use of NFTP and other MFP without disturbing forest cover.

Open Access Original Research Article

Marketing Strategies of Leading Cotton Seed Companies in Telangana State

Somannagari Jayasree, N. Sivaramane, P. Radhika, K. Supriya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130447

Marketing strategy is a long-term business plan of any organization with the fundamental  goal of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage by understanding the needs of   customers. This study also evaluates the perception of dealers towards the market mix  elements comprising product, price, promotion and place of the products and services of  competing brands. The study is conducted in southern part of Telangana State constituting Jogulamba Gadwal, Mahabubnagar and Rangareddy districts. The data is collected through    random sampling method covering dealers and number of farmers. Statistical tests like ANOVA, and tools like multidimensional scale were used in this study. The study revealed that most of the dealers are well educated, middle aged people with age group ranging between 30-40   years with the income of more than 7 lakhs per annum. The dealers data after the  application of statistical tools revealed that strategies applied by Kaveri, Rasi and  Nuziveedu are similar whereas the strategies applied by Tata Rallis and other brands like Ajith, Nidhi seeds are different from one another when the product, price, promotion and place elements are considered.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Rice Productivity among Beneficiaries of Anchor Borrowers Programme in Adamawa State, Nigeria: Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

A. Bitrus, I. M. Sulumbe, A. Ibrahim

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130448

Rice production in Nigeria has always been dominated by small scale farmers using traditional crude methods which are inefficient, resulting in low yield.  Various measures have been taken by the government to improve rice production with the view of achieving self-sufficiency in rice production for consumption as well as export. Despite these measures, rice has not been sufficiently produced to meet the demand of the growing population in Adamawa State. So many problems might have contributed to this, which could be due to lack of adaptable rice varieties and low level of productivity of resources used by the rice farmers among others. Recently, the federal government introduced the anchor borrowers programme (ABP) with the goal of helping rice farmers to achieve desired output using improved production resources. This paper examined rice productivity and factors affecting rice farmers’ productivity among beneficiaries of anchor borrowers programme in Adamawa State, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling procedure was used in selecting the respondents. A structured questionnaire is administered to 139 farmers spread across 3 Local Government Areas to obtain information on farmer’s socio-economic variables, inputs used and output obtained in rice production. The objectives were analyzed using descriptive statistics, data envelopment analysis and OLS regression. The DEA result for level of productivity revealed that the average technical efficiency of 0.71, a minimum of 0.02 and a maximum of 1.0, indicating that the inefficient farmers could decrease their levels of input usage by 29% to produce the same levels of outputs to be at the same level with the frontier farmers. The results showed that the double log functional form gave the best line of fit. R2 value was about 86% and statistically significant at 1% level. Seed (0.882), family labour (0.712), hired labour (0.109), herbicide (0.548), fertilizer (0.200) and land (0.211) were positively and significantly related to productivity at different probability levels. Based on the findings, the study concluded that the mean technical efficiency (productivity) score was 0.71 indicating a high level of productivity. The study also found that all the production factors used by rice farmers among anchor borrower’s beneficiaries had a positive influence on the productivity levels of the rice farmers. Hence, productivity among rice farmers depends largely on their production factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Application of Kaleidoscope Career Model among Marketing Professionals in Agribusiness Sectors

K. Nandhuparkavi, S. Hemalatha, S. Moghana Lavanya, V. Anandhi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 45-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130450

The purpose of the study is to analyze how the KCM (Kaleidoscope Career Model- consists of Authenticity, Balance, Challenge) influence the transition in their career and also to identify the factor influencing for the job mobility. Survey data were collected through Google forms and mail from the input sectors. The Google forms send to the 260 respondents and data were collected from 110 respondents with full details. Correlation and Hierarchical regression were used to identify the factor for the job mobility. To identify the factor influencing the job mobility among the marketing professionals in input sector. In Kaleidoscopic career model, among the parameters which influence their career transition. The limitation in the study is selected particularly marketing professional in the input sector among various the various positions. Further depth analysis should be involved to identify the more factor their mobility. The organization able to understand the mindset of employees for their mobility to different organizations. It help to promote the organizations by means of providing benefits to the employees from the human resource polices and resource. Many studies had been conducted for career mobility of the employees among various sectors. However the academic research has conducted among the marketing professional in agribusiness sector. The study uses the framework of Kaleidoscope Career Model to analyze the mobility of the employees. It helps to us identify the factor for the career mobility.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Trend and Growth Rate of Brinjal in Dhamtari Block and Chhattisgarh State, India

Reena Sahu, N. K. Raghuwanshi, Ghanshyam Patel

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 54-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130452

The research work was carried out with objectives to estimate the trend and growth rate in area, production & productivity of brinjal in Dhamtari block of Chhattisgarh state. The study was conducted in Dhamtari district which comprises of 4 blocks and among which Dhamtari block occupies maximum area and production of Brinjal. The secondary data was collected from Directorate of Horticulture, Directorate of Land record, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, and annual horticultural statistics, Raipur Chhattisgarh. The annual area, production and productivity of Brinjal in Dhamtari district is collected from Directorate of Horticulture Dhamtari, Chhattisgarh. The secondary data were collected for the last 10 years (2006-07 to 2015-16). Compound growth rate and simple growth rate were used to analyse the collected data. To reveal the behavior of selected variables in the district over time, regression analysis was carried out. The following form of linear production function was fitted by least square technique to estimate the trend and growth rate of the selected variable for the study period. Area, production and productivity of Brinjal in Chhattisgarh state was found to be increased at highly significant rate, whereas, in Dhamtari district, it was found that only area of Brinjal increased at highly significant rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Agricultural Extension in Cocoa Production and Livelihood of Farmers in Meme Division, Cameroon

J. Defang Taku, R. N. Njoh, N. S. Meliki, F. A. Amungwa, I. N. Manu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 58-65
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130453

Agriculture is important not only for its supply of food but also for its provision of raw materials. Cocoa is a lucrative cash crop grown in kumba, Meme Division of Cameroon. Given the importance of the crop to farm communities and the economy of Cameroon, agricultural extension has key roles to enhance production through information dissemination and adoption of innovations. This survey thus assess the role of agricultural extension in cocoa production and the livelihood of farmers in Meme Division. Through simple random sampling technique, 137 farmers were selected from the population of 210 registered cocoa farmers in the study area. A questionnaire made up of open and close ended questions was the instrument for primary data collection. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS and results revealed that 90% of the farmers were married men and 60% were of the age 35-49 years. Also, 74% of the respondents had been into cocoa farming for more than 10 years, signifying that their livelihood depend on it. A low level of education is observed with 55% of them attaining only primary education. Moreover, 64% are small farm holders with 68% acknowledging use of family labor for production activities. Results further show that agricultural extension plays an essential role in cocoa production as 92% affirmed that extension provided information, knowledge and technical skills for capacity building and empowerment using Farmers Field School (FFS) and Farmers Business School (FBS) approaches. To 96%, extension initiates diffusion and adoption of innovations and organizes credits and market linkages (87%). Another 89%, were confirmative that extension liaise projects under the Program for the Improvement of Competitiveness of Family Agro-Pastoral Farms (with French acronym ACEFA) to accompany the farmers. Conclusively, extension service delivery empowers and ensures livelihood of farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Participation in Farmer Groups on Household Adoption of Sustainable Land Management Practices in Kenyan Drylands

Rebecca N. Karaya, Christopher A. Onyango, George M. Ogendi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 66-80
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130454

Land degradation is a major cause of declining yields and loss of dryland ecosystems resilience in the Lake Baringo Basin in Kenya. One of the solutions to land degradation in drylands is the application of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) technologies. Improving farmers’ capacity to adopt SLM technologies has been an important strategy of the Kenyan government and her development partners to addressing land degradation. State agricultural extension services are charged with the role of building this capacity. Unfortunately, such extension services have had little impact in the Kenyan drylands. To counter this inadequacy in extension services, farmers have formed grass-root organisations to foster networks of support and information sharing. In this paper, we analysed the effect of participation in farmers organisation in promoting adoption of SLM practices by agropastoralists in the Lake Baringo Basin. Data were collected through in-depth household interviews with 150 farmers, 79 of them group members and 71 non-group members. Level of knowledge, sources of information and challenges of SLM adoption were studied. The study revealed significant and positive association between group participation and adoption of SLM practices at X2 (3, N=150=63.209, P=0.000). Additionally, group partnering with development agencies like Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and government departments was reported to have significant influence on household adoption of SLM practices at X2 (3, N=79=13.147, P=0.004). The results indicated that farmer groups can effectively be used to leverage farmers' adoption of SLM innovations and potentially improve household income and food security in the Kenyan drylands. We recommended organizational and resource capacity building for farmer groups to promote their effectiveness in provision of resources and services to their members. In addition, government research and extension agencies and academia should consider forming collaborations with farmer groups in generation of SLM technologies that are suited to the farmers location and prevailing context.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Extent of Farm Mechanization in North Bank Plains Agro-Climatic Zone of Assam

A. Rajkhowa, I. Barman, P. K. Das, S. D. Deka, A. Sonowal

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 81-90
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130455

Farm mechanization plays an important role for effective utilization of inputs which ultimately increase the productivity of land and labour by reducing the drudgery in farm operations in agriculture. There has been a substantial progress in farm mechanization in India; however, its spread has not been equal in all states for various reasons. This study was conducted in Sonitpur and Udalguri districts under North Bank Plain Agro-Climatic Zone of Assam with 160 farmers to analyse the factors influencing the extent of farm mechanization across different farm size groups. The findings revealed that majority of marginal (64.86%), small (64.52%), medium (72%) and large (72.73%) farmers had medium level of farm mechanization. In case of pooled sample, majority (67.5%) of the respondents had medium level of farm mechanization. The findings of the study indicated that majority of the respondents belonged to medium mechanization category. It implies that concerned agencies/ organizations should put more efforts in accelerating the adoption of farm mechanization by the farmers for sustainable agricultural production. The findings of regression analysis showed that in case of pooled farmers 8 variables, viz. education level, occupational status, scientific orientation, economic motivation, cropping intensity, social participation, working capital availability and innovativeness significantly contribute towards the extent of farm mechanization. It implies that there is possibility for the extension agencies to manipulate these crucial factors in order to bring about desirable changes in the farm mechanization adoption behaviour of farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Contributing for Vulnerability on Livelihood of Fishers of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra State, India

B. M. Yadav, S. M. Wasave, S. S. Mandavkar, S. V. Patil, M. M. Shirdhankar, K. J. Chaudhari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 91-96
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130456

Aims: The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of vulnerability on livelihood of fishers of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra state of India.

Study Design: For this study interview schedule was used to collect the fisher information.

Place and Duration of Study: In present study, the data were collected from the fishers of the three fishing villages of Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra during the year 2019-2020.

Methodology: The data were randomly collected from 64 fisher by using questionnaire in the Google form and interview schedule. The vulnerability variables considered in this study are categorised as natural shocks like cyclones, heavy rain, environmental changes; personal factors like illness, sea accidents, sudden death, social conflicts and seasonality includes decline in fish catches, unpredictable price fall and non-availability of markets. The opinions of respondents with respect to vulnerability factors were recorded on the basis of three categories i.e. high impact, medium impact and low impact. The descriptive statistics i.e. percentage and frequency analysis was used to represent the results.

Results: The overall results of vulnerability indicated that the natural shocks factors like cyclones, heavy rain, environmental changes and personal factors like illness, sea accidents, sudden death, social conflicts have high impact on more than 90% respondents; while seasonality factors like decline in fish catches, unpredictable price fall and non-availability of markets have high impact on livelihood of about 70% fishers respondents.

Conclusion: The respondents reported that the various factors of vulnerability have direct impact on livelihood of fishers and ultimately socioeconomic conditions of the fishers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Livelihood Diversification of Rural Households in Sylhet

Tabia Binte Shan, Jasim Uddin Ahmed

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 97-104
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130457

Livelihood diversification is considered as a constructive way to improve the livelihood of poor people in rural Bangladesh. This study examines the level of livelihood diversification and the determinants of livelihood diversification of rural households in Sylhet division by using both primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected from two districts of Sylhet division by adopting simple random sampling procedures. A face to face interview was employed to collect cross section data of total 210 respondents in which semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistics, Simpson diversification indexing and Logit model analysis were employed for analyzing the data in accordance with the objectives of the study. The socioeconomic attributes of different respondents indicate that characteristics of sampled respondents differ from each other in respect of their age, gender, literacy rate, family composition, land holdings, credit access etc. However, in rural Bangladesh, a considerable number of households have diversified their livelihoods at different levels through several income generating activities. Though medium and highly diversified households are majority in rural areas; which accounts for 37% and 26% of total households, respectively. Logit model was estimated to analyze the determinants and find that several factors either positively or negatively affect the extent of livelihood diversification. Gender, education level, land holdings and credit access had positive and significant effects on livelihood diversification. On the other hand, dependency ratio and savings had a negative but significant effect on diversification of livelihood in rural areas. Considering the findings, the study suggested some policy implication like encouraging entrepreneurship, expanding credit facilities, development of rural infrastructure along with market facilities; introducing effective pro-poor policies that may assist all poor people to generate more income and higher-return activities. Hence policies that widen the extent of income earning sources and livelihood diversification should be given proper attention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production Orientation of KVK Adopted Farmers: The Socio-Ecological Estimation and Interpretation

Amitava Biswas, Mrityunjoy Mahato, Arindam Ghosh, Monirul Haque, Swagata Ghoshal, Debashis Mazumder, S. K. Acharya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 105-113
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130458

Krishi Vigyan Kendra was established initially to impart training to the different stakeholders of the farming community as a method of technology delivery system. As the time passed by this grass root institution has undergone a tremendous change, starting from technology generation, testing, verification and ultimately onwards transmission to the end users for the enhancement of the productivity in particular and for the overall socio- economic development of the rural people in general with its mandated programmes.  The work was conducted with 10 independent variables and one dependent variable-.i.e. Production orientation (y). Purposive as well as simple random techniques were adopted for the study. Among 50 adopted KVK farmers of the selected villages only 22 adopted farmers have been randomly selected and more 22 non adopted farmers and thus altogether 44 farmers have been randomly selected for the study. The results revealed that adoption of improved and newer technology requires decision by farmers, and scientific orientation is a degree to which respondents can orient to the use of scientific methods in relation to adoption behavior. It is an important psychological factor in decision making process.  It is concluded that people with progressive attitude will always try to involve themselves in all activities through which more annual income can be achieved and education plays a vital role for adoption process. Training plays important role for improvement of KVK. In the last phase of stepwise regression analysis it is seen that mechanization in family has got some functional impact on production orientation. Mechanization in family determines the adoption of new technology which increases farm production. So it is clear that KVK is an institutional project of ICAR to demonstrate the application of science and technology input of agricultural research and education in the farmers field in the rural areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Encountered by Beneficiary Farmers in Adopting National Food Security Mission (NFSM) Interventions in Selected Districts of Karnataka State, India

G. Chaitra, N. S. Shivalinge Gowda, Y. N. Shivalingaiah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 114-118
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130460

India is facing the problem of food insecurity since independence. The Government has taken several measures to overcome this, still there was no maximum change that has taken place in the status of country’s food security. For the growing population the country has to produce more and more year after year. To make this possible the government announced National Food Security Mission Scheme to enhance the productivity of crops and income of the farmers through various crop based interventions. The present study on constraints faced by beneficiary farmers of NFSM in adopting NFSM interventions was undertaken in Belagavi and Haveri districts of Karnataka State with sample size of 180 beneficiaries from different components of NFSM viz., NFSM – Rice, NFSM – Pulse and NFSM – Coarse Cereals. Expost - facto research design of social research was used in the present investigation. The major constraints faced by the beneficiary farmers in adopting NFSM interventions among the beneficiary farmers of Belagavi district were, lesser amount of subsidy (in Rs), limited number of demonstrations and subsidy paid after purchase while an initial payment remains the highest problem. Whereas in case of Haveri district, the major constraints encountered by beneficiary farmers were, poor quality materials/machinery are supplied, non availability of particular seed varieties or hybrids and redtapism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers Attitude towards Use of Trichocompost

S. Bagchi, M. N. Islam, M. M. Riad, S. M. Mohsin, M. Y. Uddin

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 119-129
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130461

This purpose of this study was to assess the farmers attitude towards Trichocompost use, to determine and describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the tricho-compost farmers and identify the problems being confronted towards using Trichoderma by the farmers. Data were collected from 66 randomly selected farmers from Kamarpara, Chupinagar Union, Shajahanpur Upazilla and the Vasubihar, Juanpur, Katabaria, Maria, Chalapara, Charpara, Chakpahari, Mirpara, Panai, Birkedar, Ghashuria, Mirzapur, Adamzamur, Chomorpathalia, Khidiehashra, Chowkibari, Chalkjaphu, Majbari project site of water saving project in Bogura district in Bangladesh during January to March 2020. The findings reveal that, majority of the respondents (59 percent) were middle age category and 39 percent respondent were having secondary level education. Most of the respondents were under small family category (45 percent) and majority (64 percent) of them had a small farm size and 78.8 percent of the respondents had high agricultural knowledge. A quarter of them (24 percent) were found into medium income group and 29 percent farmers received short training and two-third majority of the farmers (68 percent) had high knowledge on Trichoderma. As far as their attitude towards tricho-compost was concerned, majority of the farmers were positive towards good               soil health condition, easy application, cheap production cost and more effective than traditional compost and found to have a negative attitude towards its adoption as it is untraditional compost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Optimization of Coffee Yields in Chuka Sub-County, Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya

David M. Kihoro, Geofrey K. Gathungu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 130-141
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130462

The importance of coffee production in the world economy cannot be ruled out due to its contribution in the developing countries in areas such as creation of employment and rise in foreign exchange. Most of the coffee producing countries in the world have come up with strategies to increase their quantity and improve the quality of their produce. In Kenya, the government have also come with numerous policies to support coffee production at the farm level but production of coffee in Kenya has since 1989 crop year been declining. There has been emergence of other enterprises that are profitable than coffee production such as real estate and dairy sector in most of the coffee-growing zones, but there are many farmers who have been determined to maintain coffee production. Despite the efforts made by the government to maximise coffee production in terms of quality and quantity, production has shown a downward trend, with some farmers completely doing away with production This study was aimed at assessing the factors that affect optimization of coffee production in Chuka sub-County, Tharaka-Nithi County. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of 153 respondents from a population of 7,428 small-scale coffee farmers from ten cooperatives in the sub-County. The findings of the study indicated that access to extension, access to research and management of coffee cooperative were essential in coffee production with a mean agreement of 58.33%. The research established that access to extension (5%) and management of cooperatives (5%) were statistically significant while access to research at (5%) was statistically insignificant. Similarly, access to extension services increased optimization by 91%, poor management of coffee cooperatives reduced production by 45.1%, while access to research increased coffee production by 51%. Therefore, it is important to ensure farmers access extension services, research and there is improved management of coffee cooperatives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Women’s Perception of the Effects of Community and Social Development Project (CSDP) on their Livelihood Activities in Ondo State, Nigeria

G. T. Ajayi, J. O. Okunlola

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 142-154
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130463

The study was carried out to investigate the women’s perception of the effects of Community and Social Development Project (CSDP) on their livelihood activities in Ondo State, Nigeria.  A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 120 respondents from three benefitting Local Government Areas in the state. Primary data were collected with the aid of interview schedule and analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, mean as well as Chi square. The mean age of the respondents was 42 years. Most (70.8%) of the respondents were married with mean household size of 6 persons, were ordinary members of social groups (73.3%) and were farmers (46.7%) with and a mean monthly income of ₦18,000.00. Most (60.2%) of the respondents had agricultural value chain activities as their livelihood activities. The study revealed that the respondents had positive perception of CSDP projects such as construction of; potable water supply project (4.01), road/bridge (4.04), health and maternity centre (4.01), community hall/viewing centre (4.06), skill acquisition centre (4.21), market (4.10). There was a significant association between CSDP micro-projects and selected livelihood activities such as crop production (χ2Cal =13.2), livestock production (χ2 Cal =39.8), farm produce processing (χ2Cal =4.3), gathering of wood (χ2Cal =5.4), petty trade (χ2Cal =21.0) and gathering of non-timber products (χ2Cal =4.6). Women’s perception of effects of CSDP projects on their livelihood activities was favourable. Therefore, the study recommends that development strategies and plan should be well structured by the government to improve the livelihood activities of women especially agriculture for improved income and livelihoods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Marketing Channel Efficiency of Almond Products: Evidence from Samangan and Balkh-Afghanistan

Ahmad Jawid Muradi, Zabihullah Rahmani

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 169-179
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130465

The objectives of this study are to determine the most efficient marketing channels for almond producers. The marketing of almond products plays a significant role for small–scale farmers that provide income and towards sustainable rural livelihoods. The sample size of the producers included 125 farmers who were taken by the stratified sampling method. In addition, 15 contractors/middlemen, 12 retailers, 8 wholesalers, 8 support service providers, and 7 exporters have been surveyed, and the total number of participants reached 175 respondents. Descriptive statistics, marketing efficiency analysis methods were used to analyses data of this research. According to the results of Acharya and Aggarwal methods, the marketing efficiency analysis, the marketing channels were ranked according to their efficiency levels, which were found 11.17 for Channel 2 (wholesalers), 6.53 for Channel 1 (middlemen or agents), 3.36 for Channel 4 (exporters) and 1.88 for Channel 3 (retailers). Afghanistan almonds are large potential for the development and efficiency of almonds marketing in the study area as almond production is one of the major cash products in the Samangan and Balkh that has positively increased the welfare of the producers and intermediaries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mapping of Tribal Products and Assessing the Business Potential in Bhadradri Kothagudem, Telangana

R. Sravyasree, P. Radhika, . Seema, D. Srinivasa Chary

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 180-188
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130466

The tribes in India usually depend on collection and sale of agricultural and forests products for their need and source of income especially for those residing close to and in the forest fringe villages. Hence, this study was conducted to document the forest products collected by the people with the aim of contributing knowledge that could help increase the business potential of these forest products. The study employed simple random sampling technique for selection of sixty (60) respondents from the three tribal groups of Koya, Kondareddie and Lambada. Primary data were collected from 20 tribals from each tribal group and the secondary data was collected from sources like Tribal Welfare department, websites, journals, research papers, tribal stores records and books. The result revealed that majority of the forest products were collected by Koya and Kondareddie tribal groups. The products include amla, bamboo, honey, mahua flowers, tamarind and tendu leaves. These groups are also involved in making of bamboo baskets. On the other hand, Amla, tamarind and honey were collected by Lambada group as they are seen to be shifting towards other occupations.  From the 216 family members of 60 tribal respondents, about 91 members were involved in collection of forest products. Majority (53%) of the people spend 50 - 100 days in collecting forest produce and around 42% spent 5-8 hours per day. In addition, about 28% each spent 1 - 4 hours and 9 - 12 hours for collection of forest produce in a day. The study also found that all the collected forest products by the tribals in the study area can be further processed to add value and enhance price. The price difference in raw and value added products ranged from 30%to as high as 1593%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Scale-Efficiency of Rice Production among Beneficiaries of Anchor Borrowers Programme in Adamawa State, Nigeria

A. Bitrus, I. M. Sulumbe, A. Ibrahim, H. Yakubu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 189-198
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130467

This study examined the scale efficiency of rice production among beneficiaries of anchor borrowers programme (ABP) in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling was employed to select respondents for the study. Structured questionnaires were the instruments used for data collection. A sample of 139 farmers was used for the study. Percentages, means, frequency, ranking, and data envelopment analysis were the analytical tools employed. The results of the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents revealed that the majority (76.3%) of them was headed by males; most (61.1%) were within the ages of 21-40 years. Results from the data envelopment analysis showed that mean scale efficiency observed was 59%, out of the rice farms studied; 78% were scale inefficient as they operated under increased return to scale (IRS) and decreased return to scale (DRS) assumptions and therefore, operated at stage I and stage III of the production process, respectively. The major constraints faced by rice farmers in the study area were identified among others to be prevalence of pests and diseases, bad roads, and high cost of labour. Finally, it was recommended among others that policies geared towards investment in pest and disease control, good access roads to farms and means of transport towards achieving effective productivity and scale efficiency should be formulated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Perceived by Buffalo Farmers in Interaction with Information Providing Stakeholders

Kamal Kumar, Mahesh Chander, V. B. Dixit, Hema Tripathi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 199-205
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130468

The present study was conducted in Haryana. The 120 buffalo farmers from twelve villages constituted the sample size for the present study. An ex-post facto research design was used for the study. Farmers were asked to rank the constraints that they faced in their interaction with stakeholders. The constraints were studied under four subheads viz., farmers related, extension related, veterinary and infrastructure-related, and other constraints. It was found that low extension agency contact and lack of information about stakeholders were the most important farmers’ related constraints. Most serious extension-related constraints were less focus of state department of animal husbandry personnel on extension activities, unavailability of information in the local language, poor availability of buffalo related literature. The most severe veterinary and infrastructural constraints were lack of rapport of farmers with veterinary surgeons, less availability of veterinary surgeons, inadequate number of veterinary functionaries. Less information on marketing channels, less information on credit/loan, source of credit availability were other most serious constraints that were acting as impediments in their interaction with stakeholders. The perceived constraints can be overcome by increasing extension agency contact, increasing social participation, availing more communication media to the farmers, providing buffalo related literature in the local language, increasing the number of veterinarians per thousand animals, off-campus training, efficient management of cooperatives, more information on market and farm credit, need-based information, and context-specific information to the farmers. The findings of the present research would provide new insights about the impediments in the interaction of buffalo farmers with stakeholders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Participation of Farm Women in Dairy Management Practices in Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh in India

N. Leela Krishna, A. Anitha, S. Jagadeeswara Rao, M. Muralidhar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 206-214
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130469

An investigation was conducted to study the participation of farm women in dairy management practices in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh .A total of 225 farm women were selected based on their land holding capacity. The study revealed that women from small farmer category had more participation in taking animals for pregnancy diagnosis (81.33%) and post calving care (77.33%).Women under landless category were more involved in regularly taking animals for grazing (45.33%), green fodder collection and feeding (68%) and feeding animals with concentrates (88%).Feeding of animals with dry fodder regularly was more in small women dairy farmer category (89.33%) and landless (86.66%) than that in medium (56%) farm women category. Cleaning of animal sheds regularly was high in landless (76%) and small (69.33%) farm women than in medium (44%) farm women. Majority of women under landless category were regularly using disinfectants for cleaning of animal sheds (49.33%).Regular involvement in disposing of dung and composting of dung is high in women under landless (69.33%) and small (65.33%) farm women categories. Feeding of Colostrum to the calves regularly is high in small (86.66%) farmwomen category and cleaning of calf after birth is high in landless (84%) women category. Women in landless (77.33%) and small (74.6%) farmer categories are regularly washing the animals before milking. It was observed that 12% of women under medium farmer category and 8% under small farmer category are engaging labour for milking of animals. Women under small (76%) and landless (73.33%) farmer category were regularly taking care of sick animals. Sale of milk regularly through cooperatives was observed to be high in landless (85.33%) and small (90.66%) farm women categories. More number of women under landless (21.33%) were regularly participating in insurance of animals than small (6.66%) and medium (10.66%) farm women categories. More number of medium (9.33%) women dairy farmers were regularly involved in purchase of animals compared to landless (5.33%) and small (1.33%) farm women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumer Preference towards Milk Products in Tamil Nadu

N. Aswini, K. R. Ashok, S. Hemalatha, P. Balasubramaniyam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 215-223
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130470

Dairy industry is one among the important sector in India. India is the largest milk producer, accounting for more than 18.50 per cent of the world’s total milk production. In India 80 per cent of milk is marketed through the highly fragmented unorganized sector, which includes local milk vendors, wholesalers, retailers, and producers themselves. On the other hand, the organized dairy industry, accounted for about 20 per cent of total milk production, comprised of two sectors: government and co-operatives. Even though co-operatives provide a remunerative price to the producer, the unorganized sector plays a major role in milk marketing. The present study identifies the major factors influencing the consumers to prefer milk products and also to analyse the awareness level of the consumers in Tamil Nadu. Totally 120 sample respondents were selected. Garrett’s rank analysis was done to analyze the factors influencing the consumers buying behaviour of milk and its products. The results showed that quality, price and taste were the most influencing factors to buy the milk products and the least influencing factors were flavour/colour and packaging of the products. Ghee was the major product preferred by the consumers .Quantity of milk showed significant relationship between age, monthly income and family size.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of the Governance Performance of Producer Organizations: Case Study of Village Cotton Producers Cooperatives in Benin

Ammadou Soule Alassane Manne, Ismail Moumouni, Guy Nouatin, Honorat Edja, Simplice Vodouhe

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 224-235
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130471

Aims: This article aims to analyze the main factors that influence the performance of the governance of Producers' Organizations in the context of the Uniform Act of OHADA devoted to the Law on cooperative societies.

Study Design: The case study is based on Village Cotton Producers Cooperatives (CVPCs). Governance performance of CVPCs referred to and has been measured through respectively quality of internal governance (administrative) and quality of services provided to members.

Place and Duration of Study: The study has been carried out in the Department of Alibori, northern Benin Republic. Data collection period run from July to October 2019.

Methodology: We included 242 CVPCs selected in the six municipalities in the Department of Alibori. Primary data relating to socio-economic characteristics (the size of the CVPC, the age, the proportion of women in group, profile of leaders), and governance parameters related to internal governance and the quality of services provided to members.

Results: The results revealed that internal governance is generally poor and the quality of services provided to members is good. The proportion of women and the profile of leaders determine (bad) internal governance compared to good governance. The low profile of the leaders, the small size and the low proportion of women determine the quality of the services provided to members. The more the profile of leaders improves, the more likely it is to have good governance. On the other hand, the more the proportion of women in CVPCs increases, the more there is a chance of having bad internal governance rather than good governance.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the lower or medium the profile of leaders, the poorer or average internal governance and services provided to members will be. A better combination of all these determinants will improve both the quality of internal governance and the services provided to members in a CVPC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Economic and Institutional Determinants of the Adoption of Improved Pearl Millet Varieties in the Centre-nord and Boucle du Mouhoun Regions of Burkina Faso

Silamana Barry, Mariam Myriam Dama- Balima, Sabine Nadembega

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 236-245
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130472

The purpose of this article is to determine the socio-economic and institutional factors for the adoption of improved pearl millet varieties in the Boucle du Mouhoun and Centre-Nord regions of Burkina Faso. Data were collected from 300 producers. The Logit model was used for econometric regression. The results show that four (4) variables have a positive and significant influence on the adoption of improved millet varieties: the training received on improved varieties, the availability of improved varieties, the organoleptic characteristics of improved varieties and the North Central locality. In terms of recommendations, actions must be taken to intensify training for producers and especially the most vulnerable, make improved varieties available at all times and in all places. Breeders should integrate the organoleptic aspect into the design of the variety.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Marketing and Production Constraints Faced by Vegetable Growers

Priyanka Shah, Mohammad Aslam Ansari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 257-263
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130474

Vegetable cultivation offers a unique opportunity for hill farmers of Uttarakhand due to the favourable climatic conditions. Consequently, vegetable cultivation in Uttarakhand hills, even in off-season, has picked up on quite a large scale. Although it has become quite remunerative but farmers are reportedly facing lots of marketing and production constraints. The present study was conducted in Kumaon region of Uttarakhand to study the production and marketing constraints faced by the vegetable growers. Study sample comprised of 200 farmers selected purposively from eight villages spread across four blocks and two districts in Kumaon division of Uttarakhand. The data was collected using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. The study findings revealed that major marketing constraints reported by vegetable growers were: long chain of intermediaries, inadequate transportation facilities, high transportation charges, inadequate storage facilities, low price / lack of remunerative price and non-availability of market information. Further, some production related constraints reported by the respondents were high cost of seeds/ fertilizers, lack of information about planting material/ production inputs, lack of knowledge about grading and standardization of vegetable, non-availability of farm labour and lack of packaging material. These findings will be helpful to the State government for developing a policy framework and relevant guidelines for promoting vegetable production in the state.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Role of Mobile Based Advisory System for Transfer of Technologies for Sustainable Agricultural Development

P. Radhakrishnan, N. Sriram

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 246-256
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130473

Mobile phones have established itself in the rural areas and are becoming quite popular both with farmer and farm women. These powerful electronic machines that were a farmer’s dream earlier have become a reality as the farmer’s can immediately make use of them to address their field problems and other farm difficulties. The Government gifted Kisan Call Centres (KCC) are functioning the all over India which give answers to the farmer queries in local languages to this toll free number 1800-180-1551. Grameen Phone is a commercial operation providing cellular services in both urban and rural areas of India, with approximately 40,000 customers. A pilot programme of Grameen Phone, through the Grameen Bank and a wholly owned subsidiary called Grameen Telecom, is enabling women members of the Grameen Bank’s revolving credit system to retail cellular phone services in rural areas. This instrument is more than a means of communication and it is being used as a weapon for empowerment and fight poverty. Mobile advisory system have been developed and utilized for transfer of agricultural technologies for sustainable development across the world. The findings of the different mobile based studies conducted across the world have reviewed and presented for replicating the suitable models in similar situation for effective dissemination of the technologies. It is concluded that mobile platform is only tool to reach the last mile connectivity especially in rural areas for delivering need based technologies in time.

Open Access Review Article

Political Innovations for ICT Institutionalization in Benin Agricultural System

Mori W. Gouroubera, Latifou Idrissou, Ismail M. Moumouni

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 264-277
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1130475

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a significant role in addressing the challenges in agriculture in many countries. However, the institutionalization of ICT in any country’s agricultural system highly depends on its ICT policies. Benin’s agricultural sector has undergone many policy reforms since its independence in 1960 which caused changes in the orientation of ICT usage. This article aims to analyze ICT integration policies in agriculture in Benin regarding the innovations brought to facilitate its institutionalization. Therefore, three (3) dimensions of national political innovations are explored: innovation propensity, innovation capacity and innovation practice. A qualitative approach was adopted based not only on policy documents analysis such as laws, decrees and projects/programs but also on interviews with 30 key persons involved in the sector. The results showed that: (i) ICT has long been overlooked in agricultural policies in Benin; (ii) Low propensity and capacity was noticed regarding innovation of ICT integration in agriculture from 1960 until 2014. After this period, several innovations were introduced but they are still under innovation practiced. This study shows to researchers and practitioners that high political innovation propensity in the field of ICT integration in agriculture does not guarantee its institutionalization. The three concepts –innovation propensity, innovation capacity and innovation practice are inter-linked with each other in successfully institutionalizing ICT in agricultural sector. In the case of Benin, despite the fact that several innovations have been introduced their institutionalization is lagging behind. The results are useful for ICT policies, researchers and practitioners to better understand the process of ICT integration in agricultural system.