Open Access Case Report

Case Study on Successful Dairy Farmer of Virudhunagar District

V. Jothika, R. Rajasekaran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 200-203
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230525

Food security means that all people must have access to adequate, healthy, reliable and nutritious food both physically and economically in order to meet the nutritional needs and food priorities that are necessary for an active and healthy life at all times. Dairy farming in today’s world is an essential system of agriculture to meet out the growing nutritional needs of the country. India is the largest milk producer and the second largest milk products producer in the world. This paper deals with the case study of a dairy farmer Mr. Perumal who had experience of thirty years in dairy farming and hence runs a dairy farm successfully which is located at the Alagiyanallur village of Virudhunagar district. Case study method of research was adopted. The data was collected through the semi-structured personal interview schedule and the results were documented. He owned about 1.5 acres of land in which the Cumbu Napier Co 4 for feeding the livestock were grown. His dairy firm comprises of 20 milch animals, 10 goats and 50 chickens. He runs his firm in terms of low investment since the seeds were distributed to him at free of cost as he was a member of SEEDS company which is located at Mallaginar village and the chickens were fed with the ration rice. It was found that the success factors of his firm were the selection of HF breed which is the high milk yielding breed followed by the proper maintenance of the livestock from diseases and the feeding of Krishi Bypass cattle feed. He initially had five animals left over by his father and later he developed his firm by availing loan from the bank. He mainly concentrates on the dairy farming. The expenses and the returns of the firm were recorded and documented. He had helped his villagers for the start up of the dairy farming as he came to know the importance of dairy production and he also provided the advices on the management practices of the livestock.He had further planned to develop his success path by starting up a dairy enterprise. SWOC analysis was conducted and the findings were documented. The factors that contributed for his success include Selection of HF breed, Maintenance of the livestock from diseases, Feeding provided along with the Krishi Bypass cattle feed.

Open Access Short Research Article

Impact of Light Traps on the Larval Population of Gram Pod Borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Chickpea

S. A. Hakeem, F. Rasool, S. Bashir, S. Nissa, Z. A. Dar, G. Zaffer, M. Habib, S. Majid, S. Naseer, Z. Rashid, A. A. Lone

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 107-111
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230495

One (T1) and two (T2) light traps per ha were compared with control with no light source (T3) against gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera. Pooled data of 2018 and 2019  showed that TI resulted with average population of 0.31larvae per plant with 5.46% pod damage and average yield of 1235 kg per ha. In T2, lowest larval population was recorded (0.25/plant), lesser pod damage (4.02%) and higher yield (1244.8 kg /ha) while in control plots (T3), larval population density was maximum with 0.377 larvae/plant with pod damage of 10-25% and 1162.90 kg /ha yield was recorded.

Open Access Short Research Article

Economic Valuation of Backyard Duck Rearing in the Border Covering District Households of Vembanad Lake – Market Price Approach

V. Chandrasekar, S. Murali Gopal, A. Vidhyavathi, C. Jayanthi, R. Sathy, Nikita Gopal

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 156-161
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230508

The Vembanad lake provides various provisional services which are directly used for consumption through various means like fishing, aquaculture, paddy cultivation, duck farming etc. In this study, the economic valuation of duck rearing activities practiced by the 30 sample households situated in around three districts bordering Vembanad lake namely Ernakulam, Alappuzha and Kottayam districts were used for the estimation. This study used to estimate the economic value generated by duck rearing using market price method was about INR 27.62 crores, out of which the value generated from the egg and duck (meat) was about INR 15.43 and INR 12.18 crores respectively. In the process of estimation used the variable from the sample household as such as number of ducks reared, egg produced annually and selling price of duck egg and meat in local markets.

Open Access Short Research Article

Empowerment of Rural Tribal Women through Value Addition of Carambola

Y. Prabhabati Devi, Khwairakpam Bembem, Th Bidyalakshmi Devi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 162-168
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230511

Carambola is one of the highly perishable underutilized fruit wildly available in the hillocks of Chandel district which goes wasted every season. In order to reduce the post-harvest losses, Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Chandel took initiative to convert the underutilized carambola in to value added products. For this study, primary and secondary information were collected in order to assess the indigenous knowledge for the preparation and consumption of different carambola products. Five value added products namely, carambola squash, ready to drink juice, jam, candy and salted preserves were standardized. Rural tribal women were empowered through training and demonstrations on the preparation of value added carambola products. Lamjing Shelf Help Group (SHG) was formed by a group of women and started an enterprise on processing and value addition of carambola. The standardized products were organoleptically tested for acceptability before marketing. Value added products were sold at the local melas and markets enabling SHG members to generate additional income and making them financially empowered.

Open Access Minireview Article

Informal Saving Group: A Pathway to Financial Inclusion among Rural Women in Nigeria

Chizoba Obianuju Oranu, Ogochukwu Gabriella Onah, Elizabeth Nkhonjera

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230484

Financial inclusion is a key to economic development and has continually gained increased attention across countries, particularly in developing countries where there is relatively high rate of financial exclusion. In Nigeria, despite several measures taken to promote financial inclusion, there is still high rate of financial exclusion among rural women, as rural people and women are generally more financially excluded. This article provides an overview of financial inclusion, analysis of the patterns and dynamics of financial inclusion in Nigeria and the pathway for promoting financial inclusion among rural women is discussed. The article posits informal savings groups as a potential pathway to financial inclusion among rural women, by reviewing journal articles and grey literatures. The review shows that most rural women are participating in informal saving groups, but these saving groups are however faced with some challenges, such as limited income base, inability to receive remittance and vulnerability to theft. The pathway to financial inclusion among rural women discussed include, sensitizing these rural women through financial literacy, thereafter fostering informal saving groups which most rural women are already aware of their operations and thirdly, linking these groups to formal financial institutions. We conclude that informal saving groups have great potentials of accelerating financial inclusion among rural women, therefore Government should carry out financial literacy campaigns among rural women and policies that promote financial inclusion should be designed building on informal saving groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Attitude of Rural Women towards Agroforestry Practices in Kaduna State

O. E. Olagunju, B. Oluyaire, L. Ganiyu, M. M. Olorukooba, S. O. Olafemi, L. G. Tor

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230482

Agroforestry practices offer a solution to the problem posed by the high demand on land and stands as a means of halting the vicious circle of deforestation, soil erosion and degradation. This study assessed the knowledge and attitude of rural women towards agroforestry practices in Kaduna State. The objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of rural women, examine the sources of information on agroforestry, find out the level of knowledge of rural women on agroforestry practices and ascertain the attitude of rural women toward agroforestry practices. From the thirteen (13) districts in Chikun LGA, six districts were randomly selected. Twenty women were sampled from each district to give a total of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyze the data. Knowledge test and Mean score were used to determine the knowledge and attitude of rural women towards agroforestry practices. Inferential statistics were used to test the hypotheses. The mean age was 30.23 years. Silvopastural, Taungya system and Tropical shelter wood system were the main types of agroforestry practices. Chi-square showed that there were significant relationships between some selected socio-economic characteristics such as age ( =75.625, p = .001), membership of organization ( = 16.499, p = .003), educational status ( = 11.704, p = .020) and agroforestry practices. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant relationships between knowledge (r = .652, p = .002), attitude (r = .264, p = .001) and agroforestry practices. In conclusion, rural women have low level of knowledge and unfavourable attitude towards agroforestry practices. This study recommends that agroforestry training should be conducted for the rural women in order to increase their knowledge level which will in turn lead to a favourable attitude towards agroforestry practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Women Participation in Micro and Small Enterprises in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia

Habtamu Tadesse, Yishak Gecho, Tekle Leza

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 31-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230485

The study was undertaken with the objective of assessing determinants of women participation choice and intensity of participation in Micro and Small Enterprises in Hadiya zone, Ethiopia. Within the zone three town administrative were selected based the largest number of economic activities. The investigation was grounded on cross-sectional review information from 385 women Micro and Small Enterprise's undertakings participant and non-participant that were assigned using semi-structured interview schedule, key informants interview, focus group discussion, and personal observation. Secondary data was acquired from empirical reports, government policy documents, national statistical reports, journal articles and reports of different organizations. Heckman's two-stage selection model was applied to recognize factors influencing women's participation decision and intensity of participation in MSEs. The first level of probit model estimation results reveal that educational status, business experience, access to credit, access to training, achievement motivation, receiving remittance, information seeking behaviour and initial capital were emphatically and fundamentally impact the likelihood of women participation decision in MSE while age was negatively related and does significantly determine the participation choice of the women. The after effects of the second stage Heckman model demonstrated that the intensity of participation in Micro and Small Enterprises was significantly and positively influenced by educational status, access to market, access to transportation, and achievement motivation. Hence, this study recommends that government and concerned bodies are anticipated to enhance the educational level, skill, and knowledge development training, provide aids and subsidized to income, credit facilities, and the remittance-receiving channels. It is also suggested that women should formulate their own goals and they should participate in business by their own choice nevertheless of other alternatives accomplish well and actions need to be accepted to offer incentives for women who have faced a lack of available initial capital in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Financial Inclusion of Farmers: A Case Study of Dhenkanal District of Odisha, India

Sharda Priyadarshini, P. K. Singh, O. P. Singh, Yash Gautam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 46-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230486

Finance is essential for both economic growth and development of the country. Lack of access to finance for small, marginal farmers and weaker sections of the society has been recognized as a serious threat to economic progress especially in developing countries like India. Moreover, prolonged and persistent deprivation of banking services to a large segment of the population causing financial exclusion which leads to a decline in investment hindering economic development of the country. Thus, the need for inclusive growth comes in the picture of economic and social development of the society. The study was aimed at analysing the extent of financial inclusion among the farmers, a way to include the weaker and vulnerable section of society in the inclusive financial system which will make their present life better and secure with future plans. A multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting one hundred farmers. Data were collected using survey schedule administered by the researcher. Descriptive statistical tools such as Garret’s ranking technique and inferential statistical tool such as multiple regression analysis were employed to analyse the data.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints in Utilization of Market Led Extension Practices by the Farmers

C. Vasanthi, J. G. Angadi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 54-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230487

Market led extension is the market orientation of agriculture through extension, with a blend of economics, which aids in reaching the doorsteps of the farming community with the help of appropriate technologies. The present study was conducted with the objective of analyzing the constraints faced by the farmers in utilization of market led extension practices in grape, arecanut and maize crops. Ex-post-facto research design was used for carrying out the study. The study was conducted considering Uttara Kannada district for arecanut, Bagalkot and Vijayapura districts for grapes and Belagavi and Haveri districts for maize. The sample for the study was 240. The Garrett ranking technique was used to rank and analyze the constraints in utilization of market led extension practices as expressed by the farmers. The primary production constraint in all three crops was the higher cost of labour. Existence of numerous middlemen in the value chain was major marketing constraint in grapes, unstable market prices was major marketing constraint in arecanut and inadequate storage facilities which lead to distress sale was major marketing constraint in maize. The significant extension constraint was found to be lack of follow up activities by extension personnel in grapes and maize where as lack of credibility of online channels was significant extension constraint faced by arecanut growers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Empirical Analysis of Economic Viability and Cost of Installation of 3 HP Solar Irrigation Pump in Jaipur, Rajasthan

Yash Gautam, O. P. Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 60-67
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230489

With the increase in population, urbanisation and development in India, the demand for energy has increased in recent years. Today, India relies heavily on fossil fuels to meet its energy requirements. Hence, this study analyses the economic viability of 3 HP solar irrigation pump for farmers of Jaipur, Rajasthan. Since, solar irrigation pump is now being preferred over diesel irrigation pumps in the study area. Rajasthan was selected purposively because it receives the highest annual global radiation. Jaipur was selected because the number solar irrigation pumps were maximum. Payback period, net present worth, benefit cost ratio and internal rate of return was used to analyze the economic viability. From the results it was clear that the adoption of solar irrigation pumps was economically feasible in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Sorghum Productivity in the Cercle of Koutiala in Mali

Diakalidia Kouyate

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 68-79
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230490

The main objective of this study is to analyze the impact of climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) on sorghum productivity in the Cercle of Koutiala in Mali. To do this, the model of the production function was used to estimate the variation of sorghum yield during a period of 30 years (1986-2015). After the test of the unit root of Dickey-Fuller Augmented (ADF), the estimation of the semi-logarithmic model by the Ordinary Least Square method (OLS) showed that the yield of sorghum was affected by the climatic variables. The increase in average rainfall over the period June-September positively affects the performance to a certain threshold. On the other hand, the average temperatures during June-July have no significant effects on the yield. The temperatures observed during August and September, negatively affect the performance of sorghum during the study period to a certain threshold. The precipitations of August and September have a positive impact but not significant on the yield. The interaction between mean precipitation and average temperature during the same period negatively influences the yield of the sorghum. Indeed, the increase of the precipitation combined with an increase of the temperature for the period June to September causes a reduction in the yield of sorghum. Depending on this situation, it is important and necessary to take measures to mitigate the negative impacts of climate on sorghum yield in the Cercle of Koutiala.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Faced by Self-help Groups under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihood Mission in Uttarakhand State

Pratima Rana, Neelam Bhardwaj

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 80-87
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230491

After independence the main agenda for development of society was poverty alleviation. 26.1% of the total population lives below poverty line. Sustainability and improvement in the life of rural people is the main agenda of all developmental programmes. During that time all the development programmes implemented by the government were unified into one self employment programme referred to as Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY). The Ministry of Rural Development was determined to restructure the continuing SGSY into National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM). The main strategy was to encourage women in rural households to be part of Self-Help Group. Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana - National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) was launched in June 2011. The constraints were the restrictions SHG women members face in performing various functions in the SHGs. For the study purpose the interview schedule was prepared, women member (n=280) and government officials (n=20) were asked about the various constraints being faced by them. Based on the findings of the study, various constraints were Administrative constraints (majority of the respondents reported less number of working staff as a major constraint), Social constraints (reluctance of the members to take leadership role was the main constraint reported by SHG members), Empowering constraints (lack of freedom to take decisions and lack of equal treatment were reported as the major constraints), Management constraints (lack of space was the major constraint) and marketing constraints (transportation problems and lack of market information were reported as the major constraints).

Open Access Original Research Article

Price Competitiveness and Supply Response of Rice Producers in Nigeria: Implications for Agricultural Trade

E. N. Azifuaku, C. O. A. Ugwumba, T. O. Okoli, Uche Okeke

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 88-101
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230492

This study examined the price competitiveness and supply response of rice producers in Nigeria and its implication for agricultural trade. Specifically, it examined the trade balance for rice; examined price volatility; estimated supply response coefficients and the determinants of supply response of rice producers in Nigeria. Data were collected from secondary sources and covered the period 1972 to 2017. Data analyses were achieved using descriptive and inferential statistics.  Results indicated a negative trade balance (x = - N20/kg) between imported rice and domestic rice. Price volatility result showed that volatility in agricultural markets was high, with that of imported rice being higher than domestic rice, then maize. Supply response coefficients for rice indicated that production output, price of maize and annual rainfall statistically and significantly influenced supply of rice while domestic price of local rice, price of imported rice and government expenditure on agriculture were not significant. All the series were stationary in the first difference and there was linear combination or long-run equilibrium relationship among the co-integrated variables. There were price adjustments between short-run to long-run equilibrium and the error correction coefficient was -0.209. Further results showed that the price and probably favoured quality of imported rice constrained domestic production and negatively impacted rice exports from Nigeria. This indicates a potentially significant impediment to the expansion of rice production in Nigeria. Government must put in place guaranteed minimum price for rice, and be ready to act as buyer of last resort, as incentives for the farmers, to sustainably increase production and the country to attain self-sufficiency in the short-run. Government and non-governmental institutions should provide improved production inputs and modern processing facilities to enhance the competitiveness of local rice against imported rice, both in terms of quality and price.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption Behavior of Farmers in Khordha District of Odisha, India

Mita Meher, Sushree Purabi Panigrahi, Debasmita Nayak

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 102-106
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230493

It is a generic concept that farmers like other kind of entrepreneurs; do not adopt innovation simultaneously as they crop up on the market. Diffusion typically takes a number of years, scarcely reaches a level of 100% of the potential adopters’ population and mostly follows S-shaped curve in time. Apparently, some farmers choose to be the first users while others prefer to be early adopters or late adopters, some prefers not to adopt. This research paper titled ‘Adoption Behavior of farmers in Khordha district of Odisha, India was conducted in four villages named Pubusahi, sarua, Balianta, and Benupur to know the factors affecting adoption of a new technology, attitude of the farmers towards the technology, perception of the farmers and suggestions from farmers regarding adoption of technologies. From the study, it was revealed most of respondents were cosmopolite and elderly having high favorability towards new technologies. However from the suggestions it was clear that the lack of timely supply of inputs, extension personnel’s visit, training etc. affects the attitude of respondents towards the technologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Camel Rearing in Urban and Rural Areas of Bikaner District

Sohel Mohammad, Shailendra Singh, Vinod Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 112-121
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230498

In terms of numerical importance, the camel ranks only as a minor domestic animal. The world population of camels consists of about 17.5 million compared with 1270 million cattle, 1145 million sheep, 822 million pigs, 494 million goats, 138 million water buffaloes and 65 million horses. Yet, population statistics alone does not adequately reflect the ecological importance and historical significance of the camel for human cultural development.

From an ecological perspective, camel husbandry is the only means of exploiting the arid zone that composes about one third of the land surface of the earth. Camel pastorals are the only substance strategy that makes it possible to utilize this vast area for food production in a sustainable way. Thriving on a diet of thorny, fibrous and often very salty plants, camels convert the scattered vegetation of the desert into highly nutritious food and other forms of energy. Camels are able to produce large qualities of milk, wheat meat, wool and dung thrown in as by products. The article provides an overview on economic background of camel owners in rural and urban areas as well as different communities of Bikaner district and it is concerned with the utilization pattern of camels, the quality of food and water and the perception of camel owners towards declining number of camel in different landscape and communities of Bikaner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Consumers’ Purchasing Behaviour on Exotic Vegetables in Coimbatore City

Velumani Palaniappan, Balaji Radhakrishnan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 122-133
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230502

Scope of the Study: The purpose of this paper is to understand factors influencing consumer behavior in purchasing exotic vegetables in Coimbatore city.

Design/Methodology/Approach: A total of 125 respondents were personally surveyed with a well-constructed and pre-screened interview schedule. The sample constitutes both the female and male consumers those purchase exotic vegetables in markets and as well as organized retail stores like Reliance Fresh, SPAR, Nilgiris, Pazhamuthir Nilaiyam. These respondents are spread across  the well-developed Coimbatore city. Simple statistical analyses such as descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and analysis of variance to assess the factor influencing consumers’ purchasing of exotic vegetables were carried out.

Findings: Findings of the study indicate that the exotic vegetable purchase decision was majorly done by female consumers. The people of the age group of 21-30 years were highly interested   in purchasing exotic vegetables. A higher level of education and higher income groups prefer exotic vegetables in their food habit. The result of the factor analysis of various attributes of exotic vegetables indicated that 66.65% accounting for four factors that include value aspect, health-oriented, lifestyle & external information, and quality prospects of vegetables.

Research Limitations:  It is limited to the data collected through the framed and closed-ended questionnaire. The study being a primary one, the accuracy and reliability of data depend upon the information provided by the respondents. The respondent’s views and opinions may hold  good for the time being and may vary in future

Practical Implication: The result of the respondents based on various socio-demographic profiles and product factors will help the farmers/retailers to understand the needs of consumers  in the emerging market of exotic vegetables in a better way.

Originality/Value: The study topic is relatively less researched in terms of consumer perspectives and also it has a wide scope among consumers. It has emerging market growth, especially where organized retail stores and its still early stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transforming Activity Groups to Business Units - Emerging Fisherwomen Managers in Kerala, India

Shyam S. Salim, A. M. Shinu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 134-146
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230506

The fisheries sector in Kerala, on account of its management initiatives on fisheries sustainability and fisher welfare, posses a unique example for the other coastal states. The state has pioneered many novel management measures and fisher welfare programmes which led to commendable socio-economic standards comparable even with the Western world.   Post Tsunami during 2004 in Kerala wreathed havoc in terms of inventory and human losses which led to the initiation of Society for Assistance to fisherwomen (SAF) under the umbrella of Department of Fisheries, Government of Kerala. Over the years SAF planned and implemented many flagship programmes among which Theeramythri was instrumental in empowering women. Currently, there are more than   1200 units providing meaningful employment to more than 5000 women.  The fisher empowerment improved considerably post joining SAF from 0.41to 0.64. The empowerment determinants included economical (30.7%), legal (22.81%), political (20.18%) social (14.91%) and psychological (11.4%). SAF envisioned transforming these groups from a mere activity group into viable business units with more financial outlays, repayments, commitment at self-sufficiency, getting more collateral financial support. In the mission toward converting activity groups into business, SAF provided additional fund on a short term basis which included revolving fund, technology fund and shift to business. The study assessed the impact of these funds in augmenting the performance of over 600 activity groups in Kerala. The results showed that both sale turnover and income increased consequent to receipt of additional fund. The repayment rates were also high at 80 percent showing promising future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Market Strategies for Promotion of Millets: A Critical Analysis on Assessment of Market Potential of Ready to Eat (RTE) and Ready to Cook (RTC) Millet Based Products in Hyderabad

D. R. Pravallika, B. Dayakar Rao, . Seema, D. Srinivasa Chary, N. Sri Devi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 147-155
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230507

Aim: To understand the millet product features influencing consumers buying behavior and to analyze the market potential for Ready to Eat (RTE) and Ready to Cook (RTC) millet-based products in Hyderabad.

Study Design: Experimental Design.

Place and Duration of Study: 6 months, Hyderabad.

Methodology: It attained the objective of analyzing market potential of millets (RTE and RTC) and also to determine the product features influencing consumer buying behavior, for which 120 consumers and 30 dealers of millets were interviewed through structured questionnaires. The results revealed that the majority of the sampled consumers are already acquainted with the consumption of finger millet, sorghum and pearl millet mostly during the Breakfast, Dinner and Lunch hours. Frequency of consumption was found to be more as both RTE and RTC forms, (46%), followed by staple grains (29%), only RTC (13%) and RTE (12%). Among all the influencing factors ‘price’ holds first rank followed by taste (second), brand(third), promotional offers(fourth) and packaging(fifth). Application of one sample t-test was done which presents that the average monthly expenses on millets were ≥ Rs.250. From the dealers’ data, it was revealed that the average price per unit for RTE is Rs.90 for the sampled millet products which were higher than that of RTC, (Rs.79.06) and grain form (Rs.77.77). By conducting a comparative analysis between the annual expenses of the consumer sample and the annual sales of the dealer sample it was found that the market has a huge potential which can still be penetrated and explored to build a lucrative market for millets in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dryland Farmers on Climate Resilient Practices – An Adoption Study at an Industrialized Taluk of Tamil Nadu

D. Alagu Niranjan, Dipak Kumar Bose

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 169-177
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230512

Aims: To study the adoption of climate resilient practices by the farmers in the dryland region.

Study Design: Cross-sectional survey design was used for the present descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad (Prayagraj) during the year of 2018 and for the period of 6 months.

Methodology: The study used direct interview method with the subjects using a structured and pre-tested interview schedule for primary data collection in the sampled area which is an industrialized taluk of Tamil Nadu. The selection of area was purposeful, whereas, selection of villages was random and 15 respondents form each village was convenient. The collected data was tabulated and interpreted using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

Results: The results of the study suggest that there is a poor adoption level of climate resilient practices existing among the dryland farmers. While, some of the practices like incorporation of residues in to soil instead of burning, brown and green manuring, conservation tillage, temperature tolerant varieties, farm machinery custom hiring centre, location specific intercropping systems, crop rotation, usage of better planting materials, prophylaxis, custom hiring centre and weather based insurance were adopted to some extent. Though there was no specific intervention to sensitize on these practices, adoption of above mentioned practices were found which could be due to the passive adaptation by the farmers of the locality over years. And the results of correlation analysis revealed that there is a significant relationship between adoption of climate resilient practices and variables like the respondents’ education, exposure to mass media exposure, contacts with extension agents, innovativeness level, risk orientation and scientific orientation at 0.01% level of significance.

Conclusion: The results of the study will definitely help in evaluating government projects (as baseline) like National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture, and strengthening programme planning and implementation in climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment Study on Custom Hiring Centers (CHCs) and Its Services for Farmers in Khandwa District of Madhya Pradesh

Subhash Rawat, Monika Jaiswal, Kunal Bhalave, D. K. Vani, C. P. Rahangdale

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 178-184
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230516

The study was conducted in Khandwa district of Madhya Pradesh during the year 2017-2019. At present there are 50 CHCs working at different locations to make available various farm machinery/equipment to small and marginal farmers and to improve farm mechanization in place with low farm power availability in Khandwa district. The present study was carried out to find out the factors affecting smooth functioning of CHCs and record the views of custom hiring farmers on of CHCs services in Khandwa district of Madhya Pradesh. The data were collected through personal interview method with the help of pre-structured scheduled designed. On the farmers response basis, it was revealed that the adoption by the farmers of the relevance of technologies i.e. CHCs was not only affected by the basic characteristics of CHCs but also by its owner’s level of education, land holding, previous experience, requirement and availability of implements and machinery. On farmers response basis, it was also revealed that, CHCs is 100% beneficial to farmers, 90% farmers were satisfied with CHCs services, 75% farmers responded that there is nearby availability of CHCs, 70% farmers were satisfied with machinery of CHCs and 64% of them agree with Govt. rates of CHCs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution of Farmer’s Profile Characteristics to the Perception of Collective Farming in Tirunelveli District, India

V. Jothika, R. Rajasekaran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 185-189
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230523

Collective Farming Scheme was implemented in the year 2017-2018 by the Government of Tamil Nadu, India to empower the farmers and their access to modern technologies. This study aimed to ascertain the contribution of the profile characteristics to the perception of collective farming. The study was conducted in Alangulam block of Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.  Data were collected through a well structured interview schedule with 120 farmers selected from four villages (Vadiyoor, Melamaruthappapuram, Ayyanarkulam and Sivalarulam). Regression analysis was carried out to determine the contribution of 12 selected farmer’s profile characteristics to the perception of collective farming. Social participation, training and innovativeness were the major factors that positively and significantly contributed to the perception of collective farming.  For the better perception and practice of collective farming awareness from the state department or extension officials can be provided to the farmers along with the advantages of collective farming.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Standardization of Scale to Measure Role of Farm Women towards Natural Resource Management Activities

Neha Singh, Neena Sareen

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 190-199
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230524

Natural resources are important for human beings to sustain life on earth. However, continuous use of natural resources by the human beings, had affected the earth. There is need to manage our natural resources to improve the sustainability of the natural resources. Women have always come to forward to conserve and protect natural resources because they are the primary users of natural resources traditionally as well as modern. In this paper, A scale has been developed and standardized that can be used to measure the role of farm women towards natural resource management activities. The scale was developed by using the technique of “Scale Product Method” which combines the Thurston’s technique of equal appearing interval scale for selection of the items and Likert’s technique of summated rating for ascertaining the response on the scale. A total of 78 Natural Resource Management (NRM) activities were selected. Based on Scale (median) value and Q value, 72 Natural Resource Management (NRM) was selected to measure the role of farm women towards natural resource management activities. The co-efficient of reliability was calculated by the Rulon’s formula i.e. 0.81 and the content validity was observed thoroughly. The reliability and validity of the scale indicate its consistency and precision of the results. This scale can be used to measure the role of farm women in natural resource management activities.

Open Access Review Article

Social Media as Valuable Anti-Corruption Assets in the Public Sphere in Nigeria

B. Babasanya, L. Ganiyu, U. F. Yahaya, O. E. Olagunju, S. O. Olafemi, Amamat A. Olorukooba, T. O. Ademola, G. O. Oladele

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230481

The issue of corruption in Nigeria has assumed a monumental dimension in such a way that it has become a household song and practice. Thus, adopting a rhetoric definition may not be appropriate instead a succinct description will suffice. The dimension of corruption is monumental because it started from pre-independence in the First republic with the first major political figure found culpable and investigated in 1944 and reach its peak recently with the evolvement of ‘godfatherism’ in the political landscape of the country. Therefore, corruption in Nigeria is more or less a household name. Using Social Responsibility Media Theory as a guide, this paper undertakes an examination of the right of the media to inform the public, serve the political system by making information, discussion and consideration of public affairs generally accessible, and to protect the rights of the individual by acting as watchdog over the governments. This discourse analysis is backed up with the presentation of documented materials on tracking corruption through the use of social media. Since the use of mainstream media only is disadvantageous owing to its demand-driven nature, social media stands as a veritable and result-orientated asset in tracking corruption across the public sphere. This paper found that complimented with mainstream media, social media and civic journalism have exposed corrupt tendencies of contractors and public office holders including the political class in the provision and handling of infrastructural development projects thereby make public officials accountable and create an open access to good governance.