Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting the Use of Domestic Gas in Benin: A Comparative Study of Artificial Neural Networks and Logistic Regression

Jean Adanguidi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130496

The strong growth in demand for wood energy in Benin's major cities today represents a real threat to the preservation of forest ecosystems. The promotion of new alternatives such as the use of domestic gas as cooking energy could help to better cope with the adverse effects of climate change resulting from deforestation. The objective of this paper is to analyze the determinants of domestic gas use in Benin. To do so, we used data from 15,000 households collected during the Global Food Vulnerability and Security Analysis Survey of 2017. We then compared the prediction of household gas use determinants by Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP) and classical Binary Logistic Regression (BLR). The two approaches have highlighted as important factors of the adoption of Domestic Gas in Benin, the residence department (here department of the Littoral) and the level of education. We also noted that the MLP highlighted more adoption factors than the BLR model (income, ethnicity, and number of wives of the household head). In order to increase the use of domestic gas on a large scale, the Government must put in place a policy that promotes the physical and financial accessibility (through subsidies) of the product to the large mass of the population in our cities which are still dependent on traditional energy sources such as wood fuel and charcoal in order to better protect our forest ecosystems in a sustainable manner. The Government could also strengthen the public-private partnership in this sub-sector by, for example, creating facilities for private economic operators through tax or customs exemption measures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Factors Affecting Uptake of Banana Value Addition among Smallholders in Chuka Sub-county, Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya

Josphat K. Muigai, Geofrey K. Gathungu, Miriam Thogori

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 22-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130497

Banana farmers in most parts of Kenya have not embraced value addition despite its accrued economic benefits and emphasis by stakeholders. A study was done in Chuka Sub-County, Tharaka Nithi County to identify the socio-economic factors affecting uptake of banana value addition by farmers. The study was based on the diffusion of innovations theory to establish the relationship between farming experience, group membership, access to credit and uptake of banana value addition. The study adopted a descriptive research design whereby frequency tables were generated whilst both qualitative and quantitative data was collected. The target population was 20,180 banana farming households in Chuka Sub-County and 3 key informants. Purposive sampling, Random sampling and snowballing techniques were used to select the 156 banana farmers. A pilot study of 24 (15% of sample size) households was done in Imenti South and the questionnaire was found to be reliable (Cronbach alpha value, α˂0.785). With a 90% questionnaire return rate, the data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 25 and presented using frequency tables. Binary logistic regression was used to test the levels of significance of variables and the model through the Hosmer & Lemeshow test of the goodness of fit suggested that the it was good for fit to the data as p=0.480 (>0.05) while ANOVA analyses were used to check the presence of multicollinearity. It was observed that only 31.9% of farmers uptake banana value addition and there were no banana value addition technologies identified with 35.6% and 64.4% of those who uptake doing banana ripening for sale and bulk packaging respectively. The results [P=0.05] showed that group membership [p=0.019] and access to credit [p=0.004] had a positive and significant effect on the uptake of banana value addition by farmers at varying levels. It was observed that farming experience had a positive effect on the uptake, but was statistically insignificant. The study recommended that; farmers should be encouraged to form cooperatives on value addition and the government and other stakeholders in conjunction with financial institutions need to streamline policies to enhance farmer’s access credit for effective farming among others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nerica Rice Technology Acquisition through Community Agriculture Development Project in Semi Arid Lands (CADSAL) of Kerio Valley, Kenya

Rael J. Lagat, David Bunyatta, Nicholas Rop

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 35-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130499

The aim of Community Agriculture Development Project in Semi-Arid Lands (CADSAL) in Kerio valley was to increase agricultural production in the project area and it used Community Participatory Extension (CPE) approach. A survey methodology was utilized in the study with target population of 480 small-scale farmers who interacted with the project in Kerio valley locations. The objective of the study was to determine and compare the level of performance between the CADSAL participants and non-CADSAL participants in knowledge acquired in NERICA technologies in Kerio Valley of Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya. A sample of 160 comprising 80 CADSAL-Participants and 80 Non-CADSAL participants was chosen using simple random sampling.  A structured questionnaire was administered through personal interviews to the respondents at their homes. Descriptive statistics was used to compute percentages, means and standard deviations. Inferential statistics was used which included multiple linear regression and t-test to test the hypothesis at α = 0.05. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for SocialSciences (SPSS) Version 24.0. The result indicated positive acquisition of NERICA technologies by the community using community participatory extension approach. The t-test p-value of less than 0.05 was achieved upon analysis of data which led to rejection of all the null hypothesis. This means further that community extension approach was key in enhancing the level of acquisition of technology by the farmers and hence extension agents need to utilize participatory approach. The study outcome therefore encourages Community participation in the projects meant to increase knowledge of food production in order to increase food production, accessibility and income both in productivity and diversity of production hence sustainability. 

Open Access Original Research Article

An Adrift Community in Mainstream Bangladesh: Case of Tea Workers

Kanij Fatema, Dipta Sarker, Jasim Uddin Ahmed, Kausar Ahmed Majumder, Md. Faizul Kabir

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 43-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130500

This research was conducted to analyze the status of tea workers of selected areas of Bangladesh. Primary data were collected through direct interview and secondary data were also collected from different sources. A total of 100 tea workers were randomly selected from Ootterbhag and Indanugger tea estate of Moulvibazar. Descriptive statistics and functional analyses were employed to achieve the objectives of the research. Risk facing index, food security index, food consumption score were calculated and binary logistic regression were carried out to identify the factors affecting food security status. The study revealed that the life of tea workers in selected areas are vulnerable. Wages are not adequate to meet basic needs and the wage raises are not keeping pace with the cost of living. Considering 4.51 average family member the respondent family household is far below the international poverty line (1.90 US$). It was observed from the analysis that 52% sample respondents were illiterate. However, the maximum respondents also agreed that they faced various psychological, mechanical and biological hazards. Household calorie availability or consumption behavior was revealed by food consumption score, which exemplified that 49% respondents are in borderline food consumption pattern while 5% and 46% are in poor and acceptable level respectively. The overall average daily per capita calorie intake by tea workers was observed to be 2076.3996 kilo calorie, which is lower than the national average of Bangladesh. Only 35% household were food secure based on calorie intake.  Household was food insecure if number of dependent persons in family increases; food secure with increase in household monthly income; and household food security decreases with increase in household size.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urbanization, Carbon Dioxide Emission, and Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria

Kehinde John Akomolafe, Anigbogu Chukwuebuka Madu, Alatise Kayode Ebenezer

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 57-72
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130503

This study examines the effects of carbon dioxide emission and urbanisation on total agricultural production, livestock production and crop production in Nigeria. The data span from 1981 to 2014. In other to avoid endogeniety problem, the relationship among the variables was modelled using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The result implies that carbon dioxide emission impacts total agricultural, total livestock and total crop production positively, but it was negative in the case of urbanization. More so, the effect of carbon dioxide emission and urbanization increase overtime.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Indices for the Application of Irrigation to Enhance Cactus Pear Fruit Yield

Blanca Isabel Sánchez-Toledano, Jorge A. Zegbe

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 73-81
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130504

Aims: Cactus pear cultivation for fruit production is under rainfed conditions, mainly. Hence, irrigation uses for this purpose is expensive in arid and semi-arid agricultural lands. The objective of this study was to derive agro-economic indicators associated with supplemental irrigation to improve fruit yield of commercial cactus pear cultivars grown in a semiarid agroecosystem of Mexico.

Study Design: The irrigation treatments tested were fully irrigated (FI) and supplemental irrigation (SI), with non-irrigated as a control (NI).

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was set up at the Campo Experimental Zacatecas, Calera, Zacatecas, Mexico from 2011 to 2013.

Methodology: Five-year-old cactus pear plants of ‘Cristalina’ (O. albicarpa Scheinvar; white-pulped fruit) and ‘Roja Lisa’ [O. ficus-indica (L.) Mill.; red-pulped fruit] were included. The experiment was conducted in a split-block design. There were three blocks; each included both cultivars, randomly allocated to each irrigation treatment. The response variables were: fruit yield (FY), cultivation costs (CC), gross return (GR), net return (NR), benefit-cost ratio (BC), irrigation use efficiency (IUE), gross water productivity (GWP), net water productivity (NWP), labor productivity (LP), break-even-point (BEP), and credit vulnerability (CV).

Results: In all years but 2013, FI ‘Cristalina’ plants had the highest CC, reflected in their greater GR and NR; however, BC values were similar between SI and FI plants or greater in SI plants for 2013. Therefore, SI plants had the highest IUE, GWP, NWP, LP, EP, and equal or greater credit vulnerability than FI plants. The NI plants produced positive values for BEP and CV. The economic indices for ‘Roja Lisa’ were similar to those of ‘Cristalina’.

Conclusion: The SI treatment produced the best agricultural economic indices and it is also a feasible water-saving irrigation strategy for cactus pear cultivation in semiarid agroecosystems worldwide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of Rice Production among Beneficiaries of Anchor Borrowers Programme in Gerie Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

A. Bitrus, H. Yakubu, T. Patrick, S. F. Stephen

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 82-95
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130505

This study examined the economics of rice production among beneficiaries of the anchor borrowers programme (ABP) in Gerie LGA of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling was employed to select respondents for the study. Structured questionnaires were the instruments used for data collection. A sample of 85 farmers was used for the study. Percentages, means, frequency, maximum, minimum, budgetary techniques and stochastic frontier production function were the analytical tools employed. The results of the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents revealed that the majority (76%) of the farmers was headed by males; most (72.8%) were within the age range of 30 – 49 years and majority (90%) were married. Results from the budgetary techniques showed that the gross margin per hectare was ₦75,087.4 indicating production of rice among the farmers is profitable since the gross margin estimated has a positive value. The result also showed that mean economic efficiency (EE) recorded was 0.67 (67%), with maximum of 0.94 (94%) and a minimum EE of 0.34 (34%) indicating that the respondents are not fully economically efficient in rice production in the study area. The major constraints faced by rice farmers in the study area were identified among others to be inadequate credit, limited farm size and high cost of transportation. Finally, it was recommended among others that policies geared towards investment in credit, land tenue and means of transportation towards achieving effective production should be formulated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Improved Rice Variety on Productivity and Crop Diversity: A Case of Singye Gewog (Block) in Sarpang District of Southern Bhutan

Chezang Dendup, Sonam Dorji, Sonam Tshomo, Langa Tshering

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 96-104
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130510

The survey was conducted in 2019 to generate baseline information for rice yield and varietal diversity, involving 54 experienced rice farmers of Singye Gewog (block) under Sarpang Dzongkhag (district) in Southern Bhutan. A total of 9 varieties were found under cultivation, of which 2 and 7 were assessed to be improved varieties and landraces respectively. The mean yield of improved varieties was 1253.2 kg acre-1, whereas landraces yielded 777.1 kg acre-1 (P=.006). The chronological varietal diversity revealed that 47.05% of farmer-named varieties were either lost or replaced over 20 years. However, landrace such as Choti Mahsino was popular, covering 24.6% of the rice cultivated area. Further, taste, yield stability, and utility for festivals were the main reasons for perpetuating landraces’ cultivation. The study showed the positive impact of improved varieties on productivity while it has narrowed varietal diversity. On the flip side, the current research found that only one improved variety was adopted which shows a need to promote improved varieties, while the improvement of landraces should also be given priority.

Open Access Original Research Article

Producers' Perception of Grain Delivery in a Cereal Company in Northern Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil

Julcemar Bruno Zilli, Felipe Lettrari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 105-111
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130513

Agribusiness is constantly growing every year, all due to the increase in the world population, which makes the demand for food ever greater. Agriculture in Brazil is seen today with the greatest potential for expansion and growth compared to other countries, thus the market and the agricultural industries are expanding. The objective of this work is to help a cereal company in the north of the state of the Rio Grande do Sul through a field survey in verifying the customers’ perception, and exploring the predominant factors in choosing the delivery of grain production. The purpose of the literature review was to clarify aspects regarding agribusiness and the area in which the research was carried out. Information collected in the literature review provided support for the construction of a questionnaire used in the data collection. Results showed explanation of the diversity of each region in which the company operated and with that, it was noted the different profiles of the producers, and consequently the competition, since each one had its peculiarities, and each client, regardless of region, had distinct needs that needed to be seen and met by the company in general. The company is in full growth, and has a very broad view of the market, that is, it is diversifying its areas of operation in the agribusiness branch in search of competitiveness, valuing customers and partners, always bearing in mind its principles and values, being this is a differential valued by its customers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Determinants of Rice and Maize Productivity in the Southern Zone of Senegal

Fama Gueye

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 112-122
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130514

Cereals occupy an important place in the consumption patterns of Senegalese populations. Among these cereals, rice and maize are expected to play a dominant role in the country's food security due to their importance in terms of the area sown. This study examines the determinants of rice and maize productivity in southern Senegal using a Cobb-Douglas production function with cross-sectional survey of 913 family farms. The results show that technical support, the number of plows, and the semi-manual mode have a significant impact on the productivity of both speculations. The technical support and the number of plows lead to an increase in rice and maize production while the manual sowing mode is negatively correlated with this production. Producers should be better equipped and technically supported in order to boost cereal production in Senegal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Participation, Income Effect and Challenges of Village Savings and Loans Program in Garu and Tempane Districts of the Upper East Region, Ghana

Gifty Sienso, Abdul-Karim Khidir Nasow, Munkaila Lambongang

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 123-135
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130515

Village Savings and Loans Associations (VSLAs), have the aim of reducing poverty and creating assets to rural dwellers who have limited access to formal finance due to high collateral requirements. However, since the implementation of VSLAs in the Garu and Tempane districts for over a decade, there is inadequate evidence as to the impact of VSLAs on the lives of the participants. Not only that, there is the need to find out the current and anticipated challenges faced by the participants in the program. This study analyzed the effect of VSLAs on the income of households in Garu and Tempane districts. Data was collected from 100 respondents, 50 direct beneficiaries and 50 non beneficiaries from 3 and 2 communities in Garu and Tempane districts respectively. A Heckman treatment effect model was used to analyze the determinants of participation and the effect of participation on income. The results showed that participants of the VSLA program had an annual income of about GH₵ 2016.60 more than the non-participants. Decision to join VSLAs is mainly influenced by age, the years a respondent spends in the community, the number of active labor force in a household and whether a respondent is a native or migrant. However, based on the challenges identified, it is recommended that the government and other institutions interested in rural development should institute appropriate policies that will help enhance participation in the program. Also, the associations should enforce tougher sanctions on members who absent themselves from meetings without prior notice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Women’s Participation in Agricultural Cooperative Activities in the Era of Liberalization in the North West and South West Regions of Cameroon

F. T. Budi, F. A. Amungwa, I. N. Manu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 136-152
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130517

This study was carried out from February 2019 to May 2020 in the North West and South West Regions of Cameroon. The objective of the study was to examine women’s participation in agricultural cooperatives’ activities in the era of liberalization. A simple random sampling technique was used in selecting 350 farmers from the purposefully selected 52 agricultural cooperatives. Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean, frequency and percentages) and inferential statistics (Chi square). Eighteen interviews were conducted with officials of agricultural cooperatives and public extension organizations beside 5 focus group discussions. A five-point Likert scale was used to measure the extent to which women participate in agricultural cooperative and the extent to which cooperatives have succeeded in making women participative agents in cooperative activities. The findings of the study show that 90% of the respondents agreed that women do participate in agricultural cooperative activities and the extent to which women participate is ‘much’ as declared by 33.7% of the respondents. Seventy two percent of the respondents accepted that there are factors that hinder women’s participation in agricultural cooperatives, prominent among which are: low level of education, domestic and child care responsibilities and cultural constraints with low level of education being the major factor. However, 80.9% of the participants of the study declared that agricultural cooperatives have succeeded in making women participative agents in agricultural cooperatives. Women are members of Board of Directors, treasurers, vendors of agricultural products and farmers on their own right. Conclusively, women’s participation in agricultural cooperatives in the era of liberalization is not nominal, passive or a mere formality but interacting participation as women have a voice and influence decisions in their cooperatives.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Contribution of Common Interest Groups (CIGs) to Rural Livelihoods Development in Afghanistan: A Case Study of Bamiyan and Herat Provinces

Miraqa Hussain Khail, Ahmad Sina Sabawoon

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 153-158
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130518

Common Interest Group (CIG) as a farmer organization is a small voluntary association of poor people and small-scale farmers, usually from the same socio-economic background, who come together on the bases of some mutual interest or common objective. The main objective of this case study, conducted in 2020, was to examine the situation of CIGs in terms of their performance and to assess their role in improving rural livelihoods in Afghanistan. The analysis of data, collected through stratified random sampling technique from 160 CIG members of Bamiyan and Herat provinces, shows that CIG model is one of the successful models for improving the socio-economic status of small-scale famers and rural poverty-stricken population in Afghanistan. CIGs provide agricultural inputs and trainings on improved agricultural technologies to its members on favorable terms and time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraisal of Agricultural Extension Delivery Approaches among Mbororo Fulani Women in the North West Region of Cameroon

Loveline Enjoh Forbang, Tonian Nobert Lengha, Fonteh Athanasius Amungwa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 159-166
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130519

The focus to this study is to make an appraisal on the different agricultural extension delivery approaches that are used to disseminate agricultural innovations to Mbororo Fulani women in the North West region of Cameroon. The study was done between January 2018 to May 2020 and involved only Mbororo Fulani women between the ages of 21-60 years. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires, observations, focus groups and Interview guides. While secondary data was collected through the study of books, journals, research projects and scientific articles. Multistage sampling techniques were used to select the female farmers for the study. 400 questionnaires were administered randomly to Mbororo women in Mezam, Momo, Boyo, and Donga-Mantung Divisions of the North West Region of Cameroon. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) was used for data analysis and the spearman correlation coefficient test was equally used to verify the hypothesis. Results from the study revealed that farmer field school (37%) and participatory approach (47%) are the most common extension approaches used to provide agricultural innovations to the Mbororo Fulani women in the North West region of Cameroon. Also, the study noted that Mbororo Fulani women in the North West region have limited knowledge about extension delivery approaches needed to bring about innovations in the agricultural sector which they are greatly involved.  It is therefore recommended that Policy makers in agricultural extension related issues, should develop gender sensitive measures to increase Mbororo Fulani women in education and training that can create awareness on the application of extension delivery approaches in the agricultural sector which the find themselves as active participants and this can be done through the creation of Mbororo Fulani female farmer’s cooperatives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanical Drying System’ Adoption and its Impact on Cocoa Beans Quality and Household Incomes at Farm Level: A Case Study of Central and South-West Cameroon

Edgar Wakam Ouokam, Michael Osei Appiah, Fenchou Morelle Falonne, Yan Yunxian

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 167-182
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130520

Drying has been considered as a key farm-based, quality determining unit operation in the cocoa processing chain which can have an integral effect on the bean quality. In recent years, minimal attention has been directed to this process mainly because of the outdated methods and lack of technical know-how with regards to the modern technology adoption by producers. This article therefore aimed to analyze the adoption and welfare impacts of the Mechanical Drying System in Cameroon using data from a sample of 128 farm households. Using well-structured questionnaires, six villages were included in our study, and about 19 farmers from each village were approached and interviewed. The survey collected valuable information on several issues at the farm level: the data on farmer resources, drying activities, technology choices, constraints, socio-economic profiles, input markets, and cocoa beans processing markets. Using various treatment effect estimators, such as Endogenous Switching Regression, Propensity Score Matching, and Inverse Probability Weighting, our results revealed that adoption of the Mechanical Drying System leads to substantial gains in crop quality, and household incomes. For asset value, households that adopted the MDS technology had a per capita asset value of XAF2608.22 compared to those households that did not adopt the MDS who had a per capita asset value of about XAF412.83 less. Our ESR results further depicted that the adoption of MDS lowered the probability of poverty by 9.29% points for adopters compared to non-adopters. Also, ESR results indicated that the adoption of MDS increased the probability of MDS security for adopters by 37.68% points compared to non-adopters. On average, our PSM results depicted that, MDS adoption increased yield in the range of 614.74 to 679.04 kg/ha for adopters compared to non-adopters and the household income per capita from 86.21 XAF to 108.95 XAF for adopters compared to non-adopters. ATT results also demonstrated that farmers who adopted MDS had higher yields 679.04Kg/ha compared to those who did not adopt the MDS technology which resulted in higher household incomes, and decreased risk of high levels of poverty. Although the magnitude of the estimated effects varied between the three econometric models, the qualitative results were consistent and like the descriptive statistics. Hence, we concluded from our study that, the adoption of MDS by farm producers led to substantial gains in crop quality, and household incomes. Therefore, stimulating agricultural growth depends largely on policies that promote technology adoption at the farm level.