Open Access Short Research Article

An Analysis of Carbon Market and Carbon Credits in India

Subrata Gorain, Ayushman Malakar, Subhajit Chanda

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 40-49
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230528

Global climate change is becoming an alarming problem of the 21st century, with global warming as the biggest challenge. Anthropogenic activities have added significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere ever since the Industrial Revolution. The agriculture sector is a significant source of GHG emission in many countries. Crop stubble burning or agricultural biomass burning is one of the highest contributors to this emission. In India, around 92 million tons of crop residue is burned every year, causing several negative impacts on the climate as well as on human health. Under the Kyoto Protocol, Carbon trading and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are the two robust processes to mitigate the GHG emissions for any country. In this study, we have assessed the overview of world’s carbon market and analysed how much carbon credit India may have traded in the world carbon market, if emission from the crop residue burning was stopped in the Indian agricultural sector. Further we have fitted an econometric model to determine the effect of carbon trading on other stock market variable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Natural and Socio-economics Factors Affecting the Household Food Security in Rural Area of Paktia Province, Afghanistan

Wali Khan Ahmadzai, Hussain Gul Aryobi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230521

This study aimed to explore the factors affecting food security in the rural area of Paktia province, Afghanistan. The study was based on household-level data collected from rural areas of all districts of the province. The data were collected from randomly selected 154 households. The respondents were both males and females. A face-to-face interview with a structured questionnaire was done with both male and female household heads. The study recorded 59.1% of households were food insecure, and on average, 48.1% of the household had poor food consumption, while, 38.3% had borderline and 13.6% had acceptable food consumption. Study also calculated food consumption scores and examined the correlation between different factors determining food security. The regression result showed lower-income, farm size, household size, flood, food price, and internal displacement factors determined the food insecurity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Onion Value Chain Actors in Kebbi State, Nigeria: A Case Study of Producers and Retailers

Yahaya Kaka, Abdullahi Auwal Gindi, Umar Magaji

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230526

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the major cash crops grown mostly in northern Nigeria, nevertheless with perpetual scarcity at off season due to its perishability as actors lacked adequate storability thus, sells at low price to avoid spoilage at hand.  The study seeks to evaluate onion value chain actors (producers and retailers) in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Purposive, simple random and convenience sampling procedures were used in selecting 210 onion producers and 40 retailers using structured questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS software and marketing margin model. The result of the study revealed that the mean output of onion per hectare was 71.58 bags with an average price of ₦15597.05. The total gross marketing margin of 14.38% out of 19.12% constitutes the total marketing costs with net marketing margin of 4.77%. Producers’ and retailers’ marketing profit share was ₦9331.61 and ₦2324.33 per bag respectively. Production and marketing constraints identified were; high cost of inputs, pest and disease attack, poor storage facilities and poor pricing. In conclusion, redress of constraints may enhance marketing margin of the actors. The study recommends for government/nongovernmental sustainable financial, technical and educational interventions for the value chain improvement in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profile Characteristics of the Farmers Showing Stubble Burning Behaviour in Punjab

Arpit Huria, Neelam Bhardwaj, Neelam Basera

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 23-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230527

Aim: To study the socio-personal, economic, communication, psychological, and situational characteristics of the farmers.

Study Design: Descriptive design.

Place and Duration of Study: Malwa region of Punjab, between first week of October 2019 to mid-December 2019.

Methodology: Multi-stage sampling was followed. Malwa region was selected purposively because of the maximum number of stubble-burning incidents reported in the area during 2018. Within Malwa region, three districts (Bathinda, Sangrur and Ludhiana) were selected randomly. One block was selected randomly from each district and two villages were selected randomly from each selected block. The sample size of 246 was determined using Cochran’s formula and the selection of farmers was based on proportional allocation. Based on the literature, a total of 14 characteristics were taken to document the profile of the farmers who were engaged in the stubble burning behaviour.

Results: The results indicated that most of the respondents were middle-aged (65.46%), male (91.06%), had formal education up to intermediate level (21.95%) and possessed semi-medium (5-10 acres) landholding (27.24%). Economic characteristics revealed that 51.46% farmers earned low annual income (<Rs. 50,000- Rs.4,50,000), possessed lager milch animals (98.78%) and were practicing specialized farming (45.93%). More than half (51.63%) of the farmers possessed medium information seeking behaviour. Among psychological and situational characteristics, most of the farmers showed medium levels of innovativeness (49.19%), risk orientation (47.15%) and scientific orientation (57.32%) while high levels of ecological consciousness (45.53%) and economic motivation (42.28%). Most of the farmers (45.93%) showed medium level of awareness towards various stubble management measures.

Conclusion: The analysis of these profile characteristics could be crucial in segmenting the farmer respondents and designing target-specific appropriate interventions to tackle the stubble burning behaviour of the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measuring Livelihood Vulnerability to Large-Scale and Small-Scale Mining in Rural Ghana: A Comparative Examination of Agrarian Households

Vincent Abankwah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 50-65
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230529

While promoting both large-scale and small-scale mining to facilitate rural development and poverty reduction, it becomes imperative to examine the level of exposure and the risk of mining on assets and livelihoods of agrarian households in mining communities. The study was, therefore, designed to examine the differential effect of the risk of large-scale and small-scale mining on livelihoods of agrarian households. The study covered five regions of Ghana namely, Ashanti, Eastern, Western, Central and Brong-Ahafo Regions, where both large-scale and small-scale mining are pervasive.  A two-stage sampling technique was used to sample 864 agrarian households in the study area for primary data. The 864 households comprised 432 households selected from 36 communities which are exclusively exposed to the activities of large-scale mining and 432 households selected from 36 communities exclusively exposed to the activities of small-scale mining. Household livelihood vulnerability (HLV) index was used to measure livelihood vulnerability to the risk of mining. The study established that though agrarian households are susceptible to both large-scale and small-scale mining, assets and livelihoods of such households are more vulnerable to the                 risk of large-scale mining than small-scale mining. Emanating from the study are recommendations to reduce household livelihood vulnerability to both large-scale and small-scale mining and facilitate livelihood development among agrarian households in mining communities of rural Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Health Perception of School Going Girls in West Bengal, India

Rama Das, Anannya Chakraborty, S. K. Acharya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 66-75
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230530

The present study assessed perception, practices and impact, resultant to a process of seamless exposure to cognitive, affectional and actionable pursuits to health, nutrition and hygiene related stimuli,. The study was conducted in Barrackpore-II block of North 24 Parganas district in West Bengal, India. One hundred and ninety four (194) School going teenage girls aged between 10-19 years were randomly selected for the study. The study reveals that the health perception of an individual depends on the education, mother’s education, family income and diet of that concerned person.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Training Program on Adoption Behavior of Mango Growers in Faizabad District of Uttar Pradesh

Alimul Islam, Dipak Kumar Bose, Naushad Alam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 76-81
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230531

Mango fruit (Mangifera indica) is national fruit of Indian and most popular, nutritionally rich tropical fruit with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and promoting qualities for health. In India harvest and sale of mango is during March, April and May, and this is annually covered by news magazines. Several hundred cultivars of mango depending on the cultivars of mango. The field survey was conducted the year of 2014-15. Exist survey was carried out to determine the extent of adoption of recommended Mango production practices by the farmers in Masaudha and another block of  Sohawal, Faizabad District in Uttar Pradesh. One hundred thirty respondents were selected randomly and descriptive research design was followed for the research. The study inferred that there are 47.70 per cent trainees and 56.93 per cent non-trainees were having medium level socio-economic status whereas 41.54 per cent trainees and 35.38 per cent non-trainees were having low socio-economic status while 10.76 per cent trainees and 7.69 per cent non trainees were having high socio-economic status. It was also observed from the results that there were 32.30 per cent trainees, 24.61 per cent non-trainees had medium level of adoption, 26.15 per cent trainees and 49.23 per cent non-trainees having low level adoption followed by 41.53 per cent trainees and 26.15 per cent non-trainees having high level of adoption of improved Mango production practices. Govt. should take proper steps and appropriate extension strategies to be followed for recommended adoption of mango production practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints of Extisting Innovations in Technology Dissemination (ITD) Methods in India- A Critical Analysis

Namitha Reghunath, N. Kishore Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 82-87
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230532

Extension in many countries has come to cover a variety of activities in both the public and private sectors, yet the transfer of information continues to be the ultimate focus of all extension activities. The present study was conducted in Kannur district of Kerala state, to identify the constraints of existing ITD methods implemented by different agricultural institutions in Kannur and find out the suggestions from farmers for improvement. Thirty farmers each from four selected Grama Panchayats (Ezhome, Kankol- Alapadamba, Kadannapalli- Panapuzha and Mayyil) of Kannur were identified using simple random sampling. A well-structured interview schedule was used for collecting data from the respondents. The data were tabulated and inferences were drawn after appropriate statistical analysis. The results shows that lack of awareness about the latest ICT methods for technology dissemination’ is having highest mean score (72.17) and it is considered as the most severe constraint by the farmers followed by ‘trainings are not effective to meet farmer’s needs’ (71.5) and ‘Less training programs for farmers and extension personnel (69.77).

Open Access Original Research Article

Wheat Crop Acreage Estimation Based on Remote Sensing and GIS in Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh, India)

Umakant Rawat, Ankit Yadav, P.S. Pawar, Aniket Rajput, Devendra Vasht, S. Nema

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 88-94
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230533

Mapping and classification crop by using satellite images is a challenging task that can minimize the complexities of field visits. The recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite has thirteen spectral bands, short revisit time and determination at three different resolutions (10 m, 20 m and 60 m), besides that, the free availability of the images makes it a good choice for vegetation mapping. This study aims to classify crop, using single date Sentinel-2 imagery within the Jabalpur, state of Madhya Pradesh, India. The classification was performed by using Unsupervised Classification. In this study, four spectral bands, i.e., Near Infrared, Red, Green, and Blue of Sentinel-2 were stacked for the classification. The results show that the area of wheat crop corresponds to 83.07%; Gram/ Pulses, 14.64%; and other crop, 2.28%. The overall accuracy and overall Kappa Statistics of the classification using Sentinel-2 imagery are 85.71% and 0.819%, respectively. Therefore, this study has found that Sentinel-2 presented great potential in the mapping of the agriculture areas of Jabalpur by remote sensing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges in Transformation of Informal Business Sector towards Formal Business Sector in Nepal: Evidence from Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

Dipak Bahadur Adhikari, Preeti Gupta, Niranjan Devkota, Udaya Raj Paudel, Seeprata Parajuli

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 95-106
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230534

This study seeks to contribute to the empirical understanding to the transformation of informal business towards formal business in Nepal on the basis of cross-sectional data. This paper examines the preferences socio-economic and other social capital related to informal business. Various indicators were identified to understand and analyze readiness of various informal sectors from literature review of different theories. People with high level of education less prefer informal sector however, prime working age labor force were involved massively in informal sector. More than two-third respondents argued that situation is not manageable which means the informal economy is not transitional to formal economy. Majority of respondents believes that there are some administrative problems that could hinder the entrepreneurial potential and their creativity to flourish.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Farm Income of Different Farming System in Madhya Pradesh

Yogesh Tiwari, H. O. Sharma, P. K. Awasthi, Prasanna Kolar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 107-110
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230535

The present study was conducted in Umaria and Anuppur districts of Madhya Pradesh with the specific objective viz. to examine the factors influencing farm income of the respondents. The study confined to two locations of AICRP on IFS, JNKVV, Jabalpur. Total 240 respondents, consisted of 120 beneficiaries under IFS and 120 non-beneficiaries with similar socio economic, were involved in this work. The log linear form of Cobb-Douglas production function was applied to determine the effects of socio-economic variables on farm income. Apart from this, some descriptive statistical analyses were carried out to examine the socio-economic characteristics of the households. The estimated results of the regression models revealed that land holding, irrigation intensity, cost of farm inputs and employment generation had a significant positive effect on farm income among beneficiary’s respondents. On the other hand, age, education, cost of farm inputs and employment generation had a significant positive effect on farm income among non-beneficiary’s respondents. The results of the present study help in increasing the farm income by the enhancement of the factors which found significant during the study period and the policy makers can also plan accordingly for the betterment of both the respondents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints in Cotton Cultivation Reported by Growers and Suggestive Measures

Chitrasena Padhy, Pakalpati Satyanarayana Raju, Rabindra Kumar Raj

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 118-125
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230537

Cotton cultivation is of immense importance for farmers in Odisha tribal regions as it is a ways of sustenance for their livelihood. A study was undertaken on 240 cotton growers from four blocks of two districts, Gajapati and Rayagada, of Odisha State. The objective of this research is to find out the constraints faced by the cotton growers and suggestive measures The tribal people of these districts have been cultivating cotton since a long time. The research methodology followed was through primary data collection. Data was collected personally on constraints in cotton cultivation as reported by farmers and suggestions to increase cotton production and productivity through a semi-structured schedule and analysed using appropriate statistical methods. The respondents of both Gajapati and Rayagada districts gave priority to the suggestion that cotton growers should be organized properly. They suggested that soil testing needs to be done at appropriate time to assess the soil fertility status of the soil and suitable recommendations on application of fertilizers should be made available to ensure better productivity. Also, there should be transparency in grading and measurement. The respondents also emphasized the need for immediate payment for the produce to fulfill their prime financial obligations. The growers need to be educated about collection of market information enabling them to obtain better price for their product. Organizing the growers facilitates better supervision and management of various farm operations. Participatory decision facilitates better planning and management. Cluster approach helps in minimizing the cost of watch and ward and timely implementation of the various crop management practices. The officials of agricultural extension that promote cotton cultivation in these districts have to create more awareness about cluster approach of farmers through group formation as organizing better growers facilitates  supervision of operations and an integrated crop management.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Economic Study of Tomato Production by Hydroponics and Conventional Agriculture (With Soil) in Greenhouses: A Case Study in the Nubaria Region

Shady Mohamed Shawky Abdelmawgoud, Hossam Hosney Abdul Aziz, Ahmed Abdel Ati Shibl, Mufidah Al-Sayed Qabeel

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 126-140
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230538

One of the most important challenges and obstacles faced by tomato farmers in the new lands is the scarcity of productive resources and their high cost, especially the suppliers of fresh water and arable land, which negatively affects the net yield. Therefore, this research paper aims to make a comparison between tomato production using traditional greenhouses (with soil) and using Hydroponics technology in the new lands with the research sample, aiming to measure the effect of using hydroponics in agricultural greenhouses on the most important indicators of economic returns, by studying and analyzing the cost components of the two production types and studying the most important productive, economic and financial indicators.

Open Access Original Research Article

Examining Profitability, Viability, and Commercialization Level of Beef Cattle Production among Pastoralists in the Simanjiro District of the Manyara Region, Tanzania

Cornel Anyisile Kibona, Zhang Yuejie

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 141-153
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230539

Beef cattle production is significant in wealth creation and improving livelihoods of pastoralists, thus reducing poverty. Nevertheless, most pastoralists continue to live in poverty. This study, thus, sought to assess the profitability, viability, and commercialization level of beef cattle production, as well as the socioeconomic characteristics among pastoralists in the Simanjiro District of the Manyara Region, Tanzania. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 398 pastoralists, using interviews and questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, gross margin (GM), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), and household commercialization index (HCI) methods were used for data analysis. The results revealed that the average age of the pastoralists was 47.7 years with a family size of 10.9. On average, the pastoralists had about 26.4 years of farming experience. Most of the pastoralists (59.3%) had no formal education. Among the pastoralists, only 3% had access to farm credits. Further analysis showed that 98.7% of pastoralists marketed their beef cattle to primary auction markets of which 75.4% of price-setting methods were inappropriate (unprofitable). Among the pastoralists, only 3.8% added value to beef cattle before selling. The average cattle herd size was 119.7 heads, of which 98.4% of cattle herd sizes were local breed cattle. Gross margin and Benefit-Cost Ratio were 136.8 US$ and 2.9, respectively, while household commercialization index was 3.9%. Medication costs constituted 44% of the total variable costs involved in beef cattle production. This study, thus, concluded that beef cattle production is profitable and highly viable to run as a business. However, the commercialization level is low. Furthermore, keeping local breed cattle, inappropriate pricing methods, low-value addition, reliance on primary auction markets, limited access to credits, low level of education, and costs for medications; continue to be critical obstacles to improving profitability, viability, and commercialization level of beef cattle production among pastoralists.

Open Access Review Article

Potential Appraisal and Development in Human Resource Development (HRD): A Review

V. A. Jerin

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 111-117
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i230536

Human Resource Development (HRD) process is denoted as how personnel are recruited, trained and put into use depending upon their skills, knowledge and potential as per the need of the job and keeping in line with organizational objectives. Potential appraisal refers to the identification and evaluation of hidden talents and underlying skills of a person. Potential appraisal enhances human resource development and enables the attainment of organizational goals. Steps in the potential appraisal system include a detailed job description, job specified quality traits, rating mechanisms and organizing the system. Techniques used for carrying out potential appraisal includes self-appraisal technique, peer appraisal technique, superior appraisal technique, management by objectives, psychological and psychometric techniques, leadership exercises, management games etc. Growth of companies lies in the hands of potential employees and hence it is the responsibility of companies to recognize the potential and reward befittingly to retain the talent. Thus it lowers the chance of good employees leaving the organization for green pastures.