Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Acreage Growth and Seasonality in Rice in Bangladesh

Mohammad Kawserul Islam Sikder, Seung Gyu Kim, Mohammad Jahangir Alam, Md. Mazadul Hoque, Mohammad Maksudul Hassan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330540

Bangladesh is facing noticeable risks to self-reliance in rice production, considering the population and its future demand, land scarcity, intensity of natural disaster, soil degradation, global warming. In Bangladesh, rice is cultivated in three seasons which are known as Aus, Aman, and Boro. Considering the year from 1971 to 2015, the area of cultivation growth rate of Aus, Aman, and Boro were -3.4 percent, -0.01 percent, and 4.29 percent, respectively. The yearly yield growth rate of Aus, Aman and Boro were 2.13 percent, 2.48 percent, and 1.8 percent, respectively and production growth rate of Aus, Aman, and Boro were -1.3 percent, 2.45 percent, and 6.9 percent, respectively. During the period, overall rice cultivation area increased at the rate of 1.23 percent, the yield capacity increased at 3.42 percent. The total production increased at the rate of 4.19 percent. The yearly cultivated area growth of rice was 0.31 percent, yield growth was 2.9 percent, and production growth was 3.27 percent. The study found that Boro season rice contributed 2.29 times higher production compared to Aus, and 2.24 times to Aman.

Open Access Original Research Article

Price Dynamics of Domestic and International Wheat Markets: A Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM) Approach

A. G. Sabhaya, S. M. Upadhyay, P. R. Vekariya, B. Swaminathan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 15-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330541

Market integration in agricultural commodities is vital for both developed and developing countries alike. If prices are not dreamily transmitted, then it may lead to biases in production and distribution. The strength of interdependence among markets and the speed in which the changes are passed through determine the degree of integration and the global efficiency of markets. This study examines the long-run and short-run integration of domestic and international wheat markets using Co-integration approach within the framework of Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM). A sample of two domestic wheat markets comprising two from the national wheat markets of Mathura (UP) and Khanna (Punjab) were selected along with two international wheat markets comprising from United States and Argentina. Analysis was carried out using the monthly price data between January 2003 and Dec 2019. Findings discovered that the prices became stationary merely upon first differencing. The presence of integration was confirmed among markets involving that there is price conduction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Adoption of Agro Advisory Services Disseminated through the Interactive Information Dissemination System in the State of Telangana, India

B. Soumya, B. Savitha, I. Sreenivasa Rao

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330542

The study was conducted in erstwhile Nalgonda and Khammam districts of Telangana state, where pilot testing of the Interactive Information Dissemination System was conducted during year, 2013. The present study adopted Ex-post facto research design and one hundred and twenty respondents were selected by following simple random sampling method, at the rate of sixty from each identified district. From the results of the revealed that, greater majority of the registered farmers belonged to the middle age, had high school level of education with medium level of farming experience. It was also observed that, 56.67 percent of the farmers had medium level of Information acquisition behaviour, high innovativeness and registered farmers (66.67%) used to visit KVKs for agriculture information. Further, an attempt was made to find out the factors contributing for adoption of agro advisory services and it was observed that, level of education, annual income level, level of farming experience, level of socio-political participation, information acquisition behavior, use of ICT tool, innovativeness and access to KVKs were found to be the contributing factors for adoption of the agro advisory services by the farmers. The services of the IIDS helped farmers in getting real time and personalized agro advisory services 24X7 and also facilitated them in sharing their success stories with their fellow farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Extension Delivery Methods to Farmers in Apa Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

P. G. Kughur, A. A. Aveuya, Y. Kuza

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330543

Information plays a very important role in agriculture in particular and life in general. Agriculture has become information-intensive; information is required for livestock and crop production. It empowers farmers to respond to market incentives, risks, and competition. Farmers access information from a variety of sources. These sources can be divided into formal and informal information networks. The study assessed extension delivery methods to farmers in Apa Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Stratified, purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in selecting 125 respondents through survey. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that males were 74.2%, the respondents 49% were between 26 and 35 years, 61.7% were married, 52% had farm size of 6 hectares and above. About 34% earned an estimated annual income of between ₦100,000.0 and ₦500,000.0, 83.3% acquired land through inheritance and 47.5% obtained information from extension services using radio. About 50% of identified characteristics of the effectiveness of extension delivery methods used were helped solve problems and 86% of constraints to the effectiveness of extension delivery methods used were poor infrastructure. It is recommended that government and non-governmental organizations should provide infrastructure, organize adult education for farmers and organize training to update knowledge of extension workers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Cereal Self-sufficiency and Food Balance Projection in Afghanistan

Sayed Alim Samim, Zhiquan Hu, Wen Yu, Sayed Younus Amini, Moataz Eliw

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 38-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330544

Aims: Afghanistan is overwhelmed with food insecurity, thus severe food shortages in which a large percentage of the population lacks reliable access to food supplies. Cereals such as wheat, rice, and maize play a vital role in the country's food security due to their importance in terms of consumption and production quantity. This paper estimates cereal self-sufficiency and then makes a food balance forecast of the three major food crops - wheat, rice, and maize - cultivated in Afghanistan over six-decades (1979 – 2030).

Methodology: Descriptive statistics, ARIMA model, and coarse metric technique were employed to analyze the data from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), United States Department of Agriculture PSD Database (USDA), and United Nations World Population Division databases to determine cereal self-sufficiency and food balance forecast.

Results Econometric analysis demonstrated that (1) Afghanistan is not yet self-sufficient in meeting grain consumption. (2) The production and consumption ratio declined from 0.9 to 0.55 from 1979 to 2030. (3) The gap of theoretical food imbalance will increase, and by the year 2030, cereal production will likely be sufficient for only 49.8 percentage of inhabitants, leaving a high shortage equivalent to the amount required by 24.4 million people. (4) Per capita cereal production will possibly decrease from 120.8 kg to 95.4 kg per person between 2018 and 2030.

Conclusion: By evaluating the quantitative food balance and the growing population change, this study presents an analysis of the emerging threat to Afghanistan's food security. Therefore, we recommended that the Afghanistan government should increase the size of public agricultural expenditure, improve the level of agriculture infrastructure, increase the cultivation area of cereals, and continue to introduce policy to achieve higher yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact Assessment of Cluster Front Line Demonstration on Popularization of Toria in Udalguri District of Assam

P. Deka, H. Rabha, I. Ojha, P. Borah, D. Borah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 52-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330545

The programme Cluster Front Line Demonstration (CFLD) was initiated by Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer’s welfare, Government of India New Delhi implement CFLD on Oilseeds under National Mission on Oilseed and Oil Palm (NMOOP). During 2015-2020, KVK Udalguri had conducted CFLD on Toria on 270 ha covering 667 nos. of beneficiaries across 12 villages in the district selected purposively. The study was mainly based on primary data. The study is designed to analyse impact of Cluster Front Line Demonstration conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Udalguri on socio economic condition, adoption and technology gap, adoption pattern of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of the district. The study reveals that by conducting cluster front line demonstrations of proven technologies, yield potential and net income from oilseed cultivation can be enhanced to a great extent with increase in the income level of the participating farmers. The Cluster front line demonstrations recorded higher average gross returns (Rs. 25404 /ha) and net return (Rs. 7374/ ha) with cost: benefit ratio (1.43) compared to farmers practice as net return Rs. 2421/ ha which indicates the economic feasibility of the technology. After conducting Cluster Front Line Demonstration, the highest adoption was found in selection of varieties and time of harvesting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Future Trends in Cassava Production: Indicators and its Implications for Food Supply in Nigeria

Edamisan Stephen Ikuemonisan, Adeyose Emmanuel Akinbola

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 60-74
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330546

The growing demand for cassava and its products has continued to stretch the supply of cassava globally. Nigeria is a leading producer of cassava in the world yet, there are concerns that if appropriate policy strategies are not adopted to increase production, the current fragile situation of food insecurity in Nigeria may be worsened. Besides the increasing number of gigantic cassava-based industries spring up in Nigeria, the rapidly growing population of consumers is another factor that may further disrupt the relatively stable cassava market in Nigeria in the future. Therefore, “ceteris paribus”, the study determined the appropriate quantitative models to forecast the trends in cassava production indictors in Nigeria. Using the historical series (1961 – 2018), 12-year period (2019 -2030) forecasts were made for each of the production indicators as follows: 106 million tonnes (production output), 7.7 tonnes/ha (yield) and 9.6 million hectares (cropped area) in 2030. The study extrapolated the expected food supply from the expected production output in the forecast period using the 2014 FAO estimates of food supply per caput. Thus, in 2030, cassava food supply per caput was found to decline from 267 Kcal/capita/day in 2014 to 239 Kcal/capita/day. The study concludes that despite keeping the future demand of the growing cassava-based industries constant, cassava production is expected to continually increase but future food supply per caput would decline. However, the growing cassava-based industries globally is expected to hugely influence the future cassava market dynamics.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Small-scale Stone Quarrying on Poverty Reduction among Youths in Zamfara State, Nigeria

Aondowase Targba, Ugba Dajo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 75-84
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330547

The paper examined the effects of small-scale stone quarrying on poverty reduction among youths in Zamfara State. The paper is based on the argument that small-scale stone quarrying has the potentials to reduce poverty in low income settings. Zamfara is one of the poorest states in Nigeria where youths are engaged in small-scale quarrying. The paper examined the extent to which small-scale quarrying has been able to reduced poverty among youths in the State. The sample size of the study comprised of 400 respondents. Structured interview was used as the primary instrument of data collection. Purposive sampling techniques was used to select quarry sites while simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents for the study. Data collected was presented in tables and percentages for better understanding. The outcome of the study revealed that youths between ages of 26-35 years were actively involved in small-scale stone quarrying in Zamfara State. The study found out that small-scale stone quarrying had a positive effect on poverty reduction among youths in Zamfara State. This is because after joining small-scale stone quarrying, majority of youths had improved access to food, healthcare facilities, housing, sleeping materials, clothing and ownership of means of transportation. The major factors limiting youth involvement in small-scale stone quarrying were lack of modern quarrying equipment, absence of personal protective gadgets and ignorance about government regulations in the mining industry. The study therefore recommends that government should assist quarry workers with modern quarry equipment, personal protective gadgets and sensitization on government regulations in the mining industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Soil Rejuvenating Scheme on Income of Cotton Farmers – An Evidence from Kalaburagi District of Karnataka

. Sagar, Murtuza Khan, Mahin Sharif

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 85-92
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330548

Rainfed areas are not only thirsty but also hungry for nutrients and are hotspots of poverty, malnutrition, and degradation of natural resources. Looking into these aspects, the Government of Karnataka has implemented a mission mode project called “Bhoochetana” meaning “reviving the soils” to benefit dryland farmers for sustainable use of natural resources in Karnataka. This scheme aimed at enhancing the yield level of major dryland crops through integrated crop management (ICM) practices. The study has been conducted in the Kalaburagi District of Karnataka State, where the majority of the area under agriculture is rainfed and cotton is one of the major rainfed crops grown on a large scale. The study revealed that the yield of the main product from cotton production for Bhoochetana beneficiary farmers was higher with 23.18 quintals per hectare compared to non-beneficiary farmers with 21.36 quintals. The results of partial budgeting showed that, a net gain of ₹ 4660 per hectare was obtained by Bhoochetana scheme beneficiaries over non-beneficiary farmers. The study highlighted that, there is a positive significant effect of the scheme on the production of cotton. Therefore, the policies must focus on long-term soil, water, and other natural resource conservation practices to achieve sustainability in agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Socioeconomic Profile of Self Help Groups Established under NRLM in the Jammu Region

Kalla Ashok, Rajinder Peshin, K. V. Manjunath, Rakesh Kumar, Rakesh Sharma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 93-98
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330549

National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) scheme was launched in 2011 with an agenda to reach out and mobilise seventy million below poverty line (BPL) households into self-managed self-help groups (SHG) and federal institutions and support them through livelihood collectives. In order to understand the profile characteristics of SHGs established under this scheme, the study was conducted in purposively selected Jammu and Samba districts in the Jammu region. Out of a total of 670 SHGs set up till 2017, a sample of 20 SHGs, 10 from each purposively selected Dansal block of Jammu district and Ghagwal block of Samba district were selected employing random sampling technique without replacement. Data collection was done by personal interview method with a semi structured interview schedule. The results revealed that all the respondents were female and majority were married belonging to the scheduled castes, with a nuclear family type having an average formal education upto 5th standard. It is also understood that there is a significant relationship between the education levels of the respondents with their caste and group membership. The study also found that majority of the respondents engaged into self help groups under NRLM belonging to the below poverty line category.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status and Factors Influencing Access of Extension and Advisory Services on Forage Production in Kenya

M. Gatheru, D. M. G. Njarui, E. M. Gichangi, J. M. Ndubi, A. W. Murage, A. W. Gichangi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 99-113
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330550

This study assessed the status and factors influencing access of extension and advisory services (EAS) for forage production among smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya. Using a multistage stratified random sampling, data were collected from 316 and 313 farmers in Kangundo sub-County and Kirinyaga Counties of Kenya, respectively. The intensity of dairy farming formed the basis of selection of the study areas. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model. Results indicated that, overall the proportion of farmers who accessed EAS on forage production in Kirinyaga (26.4%) was double that of Kangundo (13.6%). Government was the main provider of EAS on forage production and accounted for between 73 to 90% of services in Kangundo and 54 to 81% in Kirinyaga. The main channels for accessing EAS in both sites were trainings (29 - 31%) and field days (22 - 30%). Overall, majority of farmers (71 - 73%) were satisfied with the information and services they received on forage production. The empirical estimates of logistic regression revealed that the probability of access to EAS increased with access to credit, membership to farmer groups and importance of livestock on household’s food security. We recommend that the governments use innovative extension approaches and strengthen formation of farmer groups/organizations in order to improve access of EAS by smallholder dairy farmers for enhanced forage production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mobile Phone as a Communication Device for Seeking Agricultural Information by the Rural Farm Women in Bangladesh

Md. Sadekur Rahman, Md. Enamul Haque, Md. Safiul Islam Afrad, Shaikh Shamim Hasan, Md. Abiar Rahman

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 114-134
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330553

Mobile phone helps in communication and thus, lead to accessing information is gaining popularity in Bangladesh along with many developing countries.In the remote rural areas where mobile network is not up to the expectation yet and scarcity of information is a stark, rural farm women entrepreneur trying to seek information through mobile phone. The focus of the study was to determine the extent and types of information seeking through mobile phones by the rural farm women and explore the contribution of selected characteristics of the rural farm women on the extent of information seeking through mobile phones. The study was conducted in two geographic locations, in the Northern part of Bangladesh Doholpara, and  Dakkhinkharibari village under DimlaUpazila, and in the Southern part Borokupot village of ShyamnagarUpazila. A multi-stage sampling technique was followed in conducting the study. The present study was conducted on 150 sampled rural farm women which comprised of 50 from each farm enterprise's crop, fisheries, and livestock. Data were collected by a pre-tested interview schedule that was prepared with simple and direct questions with different appropriate scales from September to December 2020. Along with descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression analysis were also performed. The major findings revealed that the majority of the rural farm women of each three farm enterprises (crop, fisheries, and livestock) in the study area were found in a category of those who seek agricultural information through mobile phone at a medium to a higher level. Findings also revealed that in all three agricultural farm enterprises, rural farm women mostly seek market information i.e. calling market centers, traders, and dealers for checking market price followed by collecting weather forecast and contact with experts during an emergency like information regarding diseases of fish, selection fish fries and contact with the veterinary surgeon or quack doctor regarding domestics animal. Among profile characteristics, family size, experience in managing the farm, attitude towards the mobile phone, and organizational participation were identified as the important contributing factors of the rural farm women in seeking information through mobile phone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Laser Land Levelling vis-a-vis Conventional Land Levelling in Karnal District of Haryana

Dinesh Kumar, Dalip Kumar Bishnoi, Vinay Mehla

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 135-144
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330554

economic analysis of laser land levelling (LLL) in comparison with conventional land levelling (CLL) was exercised by the study. Karnal district was selected purposively only because it was having highest area under paddy-wheat cropping pattern in the state. Different cost concepts were used to analyse economic impact of laser land levelling. As laser land levelling has major impact on irrigation use efficiency that’s why Karnal district was most appropriate for study because it was having major cropping pattern as paddy and wheat which incorporate water thirsty crops. Total cost under laser land levelling was Rs125392 and Rs95037 while under conventional land levelling it was Rs126918 and Rs 98667 for paddy and wheat respectively. Gross returns under LLL were Rs 155480 and Rs 115880 while under CLL they were Rs148228 and 113798 for paddy and wheat respectively. Net Returns under LLL were Rs 30088 and Rs 20843 while under CLL they were Rs 21310 and Rs 15132 for paddy and wheat respectively. Benefit cost ratio under LLL was 1.24 and 1.18 while under CLL it was 1.17 and 1.15 for paddy and wheat respectively. These results shows economic profitability of LLL over CLL and recommended to adopt LLL on wider scale and tap benefits of this resource conservation technology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Value Chain Analysis of Brinjal in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

Shah Johir Rayhan, Md. Jahurul Islam, Mohammad Mizanul Haque Kazal, M. Kamruzzaman

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 145-157
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330555

This study examined the value chain and marketing margin of brinjal in Bandarban, Khagrachari and Chittagong of Bangladesh. It looks at profitability, value addition at different levels and marketing efficiency for the various market. The simple random sampling technique was followed for collecting primary data from the vegetable growers in the study area. In this study, total 60 growers and 50 market intermediaries were selected. A primary survey was carried out in January to June 2016. The benefit-Cost Ratio was used for estimating profitability. Marketing cost and margin were used for calculating the value addition in every stage of the supply chain. For assessing marketing efficiency, price spread, producers share, and Acharya’s methods were employed. The result revealed that brinjal cultivation was profitable since the Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) of brinjal cultivation was 1.59. The highest net marketing margin for brinjal was found in chain II. The most efficient marketing chain was found in chain III, which is Farmer → Retailer → Consumer (Local) in the study area. It appears that, based on the findings of the study, there is considerable scope exists for developing the value chain through keeping the marketing efficiency at the chain III level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Food Insecurity in Rural Areas in Mali

Sidina Ali Diallo, Kimseyinga Savadogo, Abel Tiemtore, Soumaïla Diarra, Diakalidia Kouyate, Bréhima M Sangare

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 158-172
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i330556

The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of households’ food insecurity in rural areas in Mali, ranked among the most exposed to this phenomenon. The study used data from the national food security and nutritional survey in March 2016. The estimation of the econometric logit model by the maximum likelihood method revealed that regional location, age of household head, household size, level of education of the household head, welfare index and incomes’ diversification sources are the main determinants of households’ food insecurity in a rural area in Mali. The analysis shows that age of household head, size of household and practical of recession cropping affect positively food insecurity while the educational level of household head, welfare index and incomes ’diversification sources affect negatively food insecurity. These determinants are pillars on which policy maker might rely to reduce food insecurity. Therefore, it is desirable for government to orientate more the food insecurity fight programs towards the most affected regions, to prioritize households head with advanced age and those whose size is high, and promote recession cropping during the food insecurity fight plan, improve household education level, promote the household’s welfare and sensitize the households to diversify the sources of their income.