Open Access Case study

Demographic and Socio-Economic Status of the Farmers of North Eastern Part of Country: A Case Study

H. Vanlalhmuliana, C. Rachael, Mukesh Sehgal, Meenakshi Malik, Subhash Chander

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 146-155
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530585

A socio-economic study of farmers from Siaha district was conducted with the objectives to know the socio-economic status of Siaha district farmers, to study the availability of resources, to locate the specific socio-economic weaknesses in their production organization, and to find the constraints that inhibit the popularisation and adoption of modern technologies.  Siaha district is comprised of numerous hills and valleys and is rich in vegetation and forests. Jhum cultivation is still widely practiced as the traditional farming system. The cropping pattern of the Siaha district is characterized by the predominance of rice as the lead crop. Agricultural crops account for more than 65 percent of the gross cropped area which indicates the prevalence of subsistence agriculture and lack of crop diversification. It was observed that these farmers are socio-economically backward. Agriculture of the primary source of livelihood for the overwhelming majority of the farmer’s population. It is mandatory to identify and quantify the socio-economic factors which are key factors that are inhibiting their growth and development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Problems, Prospects and Policy Recommendations of Crop Insurance Schemes

Meenu Punia, Parveen Kumar Nimbrayan, K. K. Yadav

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530572

This paper discusses the findings of the study in the area of crop insurance. Firstly it studied the problems faced under PMFBY, secondly examines prospects of given scheme. The study was conducted in six districts of Haryana namely, Kaithal, Bhiwani, Karnal, Hisar, Panipat and Fatehabad. The study showed the results of a survey of 240 farmers being carried in June 2018 to September, 2018. Constraints generally faced by the borrower farmers like delay in claim settlement (21.66%), inaccurate yield estimation (20.83%), inadequate implementation (20.00%), lack of awareness about the scheme and exclusion of a malicious damage, theft and grazed and destroyed by domestic animals etc. as 3.33 per cent as major constraints. Majority of non-borrower farmers faced constraints like claim paid for loss assessment (20.83%) as highest per cent, lack of faith in insurance system (19.17%) and inadequate implementation (16.67%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Entrepreneurship Development of Rural Women through Value Added Dairy Products

Rajesh Dahiya, Santosh Rani, Sushma Kaushik

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530573

The most important trend of development in agriculture is increasing diversification of rural economy. Contribution of agriculture sector to total GDP of state is 26 Percent. Whereas livestock sector is contributing around 38 percent of Agriculture GDP (at current prices). Today dairy enterprise is practiced by 70 million rural households in India. Milk products generate cash income to farmers almost on daily basis, unlike other crops. Clean milk production by adopting the appropriate practices is urgent need to boost dairy industry and to meet obligations under Food Safety and standard Act, 2006. In Haryana, livestock production is more of women oriented, so their production potential can be enhanced through technical know how and support. Keeping in mind the contribution of women, the present study was undertaken in Hisar district of Haryana. 50 rural women of self help groups of Mangali and Muklan   Villages (25 each) were selected purposively who were member of self help group from last one year, having need and interest in dairy farming and having at least two milch animals. A well planned five days training at CCSHAU Hisar, visit to dairy co-operatives, kit of mineral mixture and literature was provided to the participants.  Knowledge gap reduction was found highest for paneer preparation 87.81 percent. For all three components, training effectiveness index ranged between 74.28% to 94.66% which shows that trainees perceived the intervention very useful and well covered. Overall training effectiveness index was 80.94 %. Highest perceived feasibility Index was found for Cultural compatibility (97.33%), followed by Physical compatibility practicability (93.33), Low initial cost (90.66%), Trial ability (88.00%) and Visibility of results (86.66%). Lowest perceived feasibility index was found for Cognitive simplicity 54.66 percent.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the extent of adoption of ANGRAU Technologies in Groundnut crop by Farmers of Rayalaseema Zone of Andhra Pradesh

K. Raghavendra Chowdary, . Vemaraju, M. Tejaswini, M. Reddi Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 29-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530575

Globally India ranks first in area and second in production. India, accounts for 31 % of the total groundnut area in the world with 26.4 Mha with a total production of 37.1 million MT. The average productivity is 1400 kg/ha. The annual global export of groundnuts is of two million MT valued at 2,600 million US $. In the present study, an attempt was made to find out the extent of adoption of ANGRAU technologies in Anantapur and Chittoor districts of Andhra Pradesh. Ex-post facto research design was selected as an appropriate research design to investigate the variables influencing extent of adoption of ANGRAU technologies in groundnut cultivation. Two districts were selected purposively from Andhra Pradesh based on the highest area under groundnut cultivation. The names of the selected districts were Anantapur and Chittoor. Two mandals from each district were purposively selected based on the highest area of cotton cultivation thus constituting four mandals. Three villages from each mandal were selected by following simple random sampling procedure. The sample constituted to a total of twelve villages. From each of the selected village, ten farmers were selected by following lottery method of simple random sampling procedure. The sample constituted to a total of 120 respondents. Study showed that overwhelmingly (88.00%) of the members had adopted tractor drawn sowing, followed by two-thirds (66.00%) had adopted K-6 variety and seed treatment, 52.00 per cent had adopted Integrated pest management, 46.00 per cent adopted water management practices, 38.00 per cent had adopted water management practices, 28.00  per cent had adopted fertilizer management,  23.00 per cent had adopted Dharani variety, 18.00 per cent had adopted K-9 and 12.00 per cent of the respondents adopted sub soiler for land preparation and Anantha gorru for sowing of seed and groundnut stripper and minute (3.33%) had adopted recommended varieties of SAU.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extent of Adoption of ANGRAU Technologies in Cotton Crop in Andhra Pradesh, India

K. Raghavendra Chowdary, S. V. Prasad, . Vemaraju

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 34-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530576

Cotton is the backbone of Indian textile industry, which produces 59% of the country’s total fiber production. Ex-post facto research design was selected as an appropriate research design to investigate the variables influencing extent of ANGRAU technologies in cotton cultivation. Two districts were selected purposively from Andhra Pradesh based on the highest area under cotton cultivation. The names of the selected districts were Kurnool and Guntur. Three mandals from each district were purposively selected based on the highest area of cotton cultivation thus constituting six mandals. Four villages from each mandal were selected by following simple random sampling procedure. The sample constituted to a total of twenty four villages. From each of the selected village, ten farmers were selected by following lottery method of simple random sampling procedure. The sample constituted to a total of 240 respondents. Cent per cent of the farmers had adopted seed rate followed by overwhelmingly (92.08%) of the members had adopted spacing per cent had adopted disease management  practices, 53.33 per cent had adopted weed management, more than half (52.50%) had adopted harvesting and water management practices, 32.5 per cent had adopted nutrient management, 15.83 per cent had adopted fertilizer management and minute (3.33%) had adopted recommended varieties of SAU. In overall level of extent of adoption of recommended practices in cotton cultivation more than half (60.00%) of the cotton farmers had medium adoption of recommended practices in cotton cultivation followed by one-fifth (20.00%) of the cotton farmers had high adoption of recommended practices in cotton cultivation and rest (20.00%) had low adoption of recommended practices in cotton cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing the Performance of Cooperative Vis-À-Vis Private Dairy Industries in Andhra Pradesh

K. Vykhaneswari, G. Sunil Kumar Babu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530577

A study was carried out to analyze the factors influencing the performance of dairy industries in Andhra Pradesh. Principal component analysis, a multivariate technique was employed to determine the factor influencing dairy industries. The variable of milk procurement with highest loadings of 0.925 under first component was the most influencing factor showing the performance of the industries. The next most dominant factor was milk sold by the industries per year with loadings of 0.912 comes under second component. Likewise, the overall selected variables were represented under four components with high component loadings. Out of the four components considered, milk procurement by the different dairies was the most influencing factor that shows the performance of dairy industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Food Loss on the Cost of Cultivation: A Study on Agriculture Commodities of India

Sumit Sutradhar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 54-85
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530579

India is the respectable producer of most of the food grains in the world despite such a large production we are the 102nd rank in global hunger index 2019 and one of the most starving nations of the world. For a country like India production is not a problem anymore but the food available for human consumption is the problem as there is a huge amount of food loss in the marketing chain  [1,2,3]. India losses a large amount of its production in post-harvest activities due to under established supply chains and poor infrastructure. So, this paper studies the effect of post-harvest losses on the cost of food production in the long-terms both empirically (Simple regression analysis) and theoretically (law of Scarcity by Lionel Robbins) from 1997 to 2017 and unravels that they are positively correlated i.e., post-harvest losses are one of major determining factor for actual price hike in the cost of cultivation of major agriculture commodities in India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Advisory and Extension Services Related to the Supply of Agricultural Inputs in Cameroon: The Case of the Mifi and Menoua Divisions

Faylone Gaelle Mademguia Kuissu, Guillaume Hensel Fongang Fouepe, René Mbonomo Bikomo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 86-100
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530580

Aims: The liberalization of the agricultural sector has facilitated the advent of multitude stakeholders with varied profiles involved in the provision of numerous services to agriculture. This study analyzes the advisory and extension services that support the provision of agricultural inputs in two Divisions of the Western Region of Cameroon (Mifi and Menoua).

Study Design and Methodology: These areas are home to about 60% of the private agricultural input distributors involved in the provision of agricultural advisory and extension services within the region Data collected by questionnaire and interview guide were carried out with 62 agricultural inputs sellers with input shops on the one hand, and 7 managers of a number of organizations involved in the provision of agricultural services on the other hand.

 

Results: private agricultural input providers use several agricultural advisory and extension approaches: 42% among them use agricultural extension approach, while 32% use advice to the family farm approach, 21% use organizational capacity building advice and 5%, demand driven approaches. The terms for providing these agricultural extension and advisory services depend on the rationalities of each of these providers. Some agricultural extension and advisory services providers (NGOs, CIGs) promote agroecology through the diffusion of organic inputs, while others promote conventional agriculture through the popularization of synthetic chemical inputs. Access to services by beneficiaries are either paid-offerings or free-offerings. Findings also reveal that in some cases, the actions of some of these providers in the field are intertwined and lead to a collaborative relationship, while in other cases providers work completely compartmentalized leading to negative effects and low performance of the local agricultural extension and advisory system.

Conclusion: The advent of private providers has increased the number of actors with various profiles leading to potential advantages (e.g., includes access to agricultural information). Yet these potentials have not yet been fully valorized in the provision of agricultural advisory and extension services to farmers. And the needs of farmers have only been partially met. It would be equally crucial to factor climate risks as integral part of extension and advisory services.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Economic Analysis of Tulsi and Other Competitive Crops in Central Part of India

Savita Chouhan, A. K. Sarawgi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 101-105
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530581

The study has been conducted in Ratlam, Mandsaur and Neemuch districts in Malwa Plateau location of Madhya Pradesh. The researcher has been selected Tulsi crop on the premise of most regions included by it. From the selected districts, 6 blocks 30 villages (and forty five pattern farmers were decided on randomly for detail investigation. For estimation value and returns, fee ideas Cost Concepts and B.C. Ratio had been considered. The cost of cultivation becomes estimated to be Rs. 40811.31, Rs. 21892.Eleven and Rs. 34445.04 for Tulsi, Soybean and Maize respectively. Regarding fee of manufacturing, it became Rs. 4739, Rs. 1360 and Rs. 956 beneath Tulsi, Soybean and Maize crop respectively. The statistics discovered that the net income turned into expected to be Rs. 40720, Rs. 21325 and Rs. 14963 for Tulsi, soybean and Maize crop respectively. It clear cut indicates that 37 to fifty two percentage greater profits benefit from Tulsi crop than the soybean and maize crop by way of the sample farmers. As a ways as the B.C. Ratio became worried it was envisioned to be 1:1.99, 1:1.97 and 1:1.43 for Tulsi, soybean, and maize crop respectively, which shows that the Tulsi crop changed into greater profitable than their competitive plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status of Rural Women in Dairy Farming in Amritsar District of Punjab

Prabhjot Kaur, Lavleen Kaur, . Astha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 106-113
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530582

The present study examines the status of rural women in dairy farming in Amritsar district of Punjab. The study was based on the primary data collected for 2019-20 year from female dairy farmers selected through multistage purposive sampling technique. The data was analysed by using simple tabular analysis and other statistical tools. All the activities related to dairy farming was performed by female dairy farmers. Small size female dairy farmers performed all the activities related to dairy farming ranging from disposal of cow dung to care of sick and new born animals. Large size female dairy farmers hired labour for dairy activities due to higher income of the households and large number of animals. The role of rural women in decision making is paradoxical to their contribution in dairy farming. For various dairy related decisions like feeding of milch animals, management of milch animals, sale of milk and utilization of amount obtained from dairy farming rural women either only consulted or had no role in decision making. Independent decision making by rural women in dairy related activities was negligible in the study area.

The major factors affecting the income of female dairy farmers was education, operated area and herd size. The main problems faced by female dairy farmers were negligible role of dairy farm women in decision making, non availability of adequate veterinary services, illiteracy of dairy farm women, lack of staff at government hospitals and lack of capital.  The study suggested that to increase the income of rural women from dairy rural women should be more educated and empowered through extension facilities by government. Due to stagnation in growth of agriculture, dairy can be used as an alternative for marginal and small farmers for increasing their income. Marginal and small female dairy farmers should be give more subsidies, loan and training for dairy business. Strict rules should be made regarding working of veterinary hospitals as the doctors were not available in the government veterinary hospitals in the study area.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Front Line Demonstration on Yield and Economics of Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)] in Banswara District of Rajasthan

Bheroo Singh Bhati, Rajendra Singh Rathore, Lekhu Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 114-119
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530583

The present study was undertaken to find the yield gap through FLDs on okra crop. The Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Banswara conducted Frontline demonstration on 10 farmers for each year since 2016, 2017 and 2018 in different locations of Banswara district. Frontline demonstrations were conducted on okra by the active participation of the farmers with the objective of improved technologies of okra production potential. Use of hybrid variety, balanced use of fertilizer on the basis soil testing report and integrated pest and disease management etc are the main technologies to be tested in this demonstration. Okra is a major vegetable crop of Rajasthan, but the productivity of okra is very low in this district due to lack of knowledge and partial adoption of recommended package of practice by okra cultivators. Results showed that average yield obtained were 142.6, 134.2 and 137.7 q/ha under improved system, whereas, in local variety 80.3, 81.7 and 87.3 q/ha yield was recorded during 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. The per cent increase in yield with high yielding over local variety was 57.73 to 77.58 per cent. The extension gap recorded was 62.3, 52.5 and 50.4 per cent during 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. Besides this, the demonstrated plots gave higher gross return, net return with higher benefit cost ratio when compared to farmer’s practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Financial Feasibility of Poultry Layer Farms in Chittoor District, India

P. Soumya, B. Pratap Reddy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 120-145
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530584

The present study attempts to assess the financial feasibility of layer farms of poultry birds in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. In total, 60 farms were considered for the study, with 20 each for small, medium and large size. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from poultry farmers. The Net Present Worth is highest for large farms followed by medium and small farms at both 12 and 16% discount rates, proving the economic viability of farms. The Benefit-Cost Ratio and farm size were positively related and the large farms were economically more viable. The internal rate of return is higher than that of the discount rate for all sizes of farms which implies that investment is feasible. Even though the returns are decreased by 10% (Case I) or costs increased by 10% (Case II), the small, medium and large poultry layer farms are economically feasible at both 12% and 16% discount rates as NPV is positive and BCR is greater than 1. But if the returns are decreased by 10% and Costs increased by 10% (Case III), the small farms become financially infeasible at both discount rates, whereas medium farms become financially infeasible at a 16% discount rate only. The large layer farms are economically feasible at both discount rates if the returns are decreased by 10% and Costs increased by 10% (Case III). Based on NPV, BCR and IRR, large layer farms were most profitable followed by medium and small layer farms. The benefits per bird were highest and cost of production was lowest in case of large farms. The study revealed that poultry layer farming is a profitable business in Chittoor district.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Contribution of Agricultural Manufacturing in the Egyptian Economic Growth: Kaldor's Hypotheses

Ahmed Abou El-Yazid El-Rasoul, Mai Mustafa Hassan Morsi, Mohamed Ibrahim Younis

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 156-166
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530586

This research uses a Kaldor’s hypotheses to estimate the contribution of the agricultural manufacturing sector to increase the economic growth of the Egyptian agricultural sector during the period 1997-2018. It based on the three "hypotheses" of growth. Kaldor model depends on three hypotheses related to the relationship between the growth of manufacturing sector and the economic growth. The study used the growth rate, dummy variable, Ordinary Least Square (OLS) test, and used CUSUM squares test and Chow breakpoint test. In addition to, testing the stability of time series depended on E-view 11.0. The food, beverage, tobacco industries and textiles industry are the largest two sectors in the Egyptian agricultural manufacturing industries, as they represent about 83.58% of the total value of the agricultural manufacturing industries output during the period 1997-2018. The results shows that the increase of real growth rates of food, beverage, tobacco industries and textile production lead to increasing in the real growth rate of agricultural output. According to CUSUM Sq test and Chow test, the year 2003 is considered as the switch point for the study variables. Also, if the real agricultural manufacturing production growth rate increases, the real agricultural manufacturing labor productivity growth rate will increase. And if the real growth rate of agricultural manufacturing production value increases, the real growth rate of agricultural non-manufacturing labor productivity will increase. The results of the research assist decision-makers in the field of manufacturing industry and agriculture in Egypt, especially in the stages of economic development.

Open Access Review Article

Use of Clean Energy in On-Farm Livelihood Security

Shiv Sankar Das, Debashree Debadatta Behera, Siba Prasad Mishra

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 16-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530574

Livelihood security in rural areas can be broadly divided into three categories based on land use as primary criterion. Livelihood such as agricultural production depends on land. All such predominantly land dependent activities are covered under on-farm livelihood options. These include cultivation of paddy, wheat, vegetables, etc. Those livelihood activities that do not require cultivation but are of manufacturing or service category are called non-farm activities. These include input and output services for agriculture, agro-processing, transport, education, health, warehousing, retailing, etc. There are some activities which do not require large amount of land ownership are covered under off-farm category. These include goatery, poultry, fishery, dairy, etc. They may require access to pasture for grazing, which can be part of community or forest land. On the basis of livelihood activities practiced by households in rural areas the clean energy requirement will vary. Current study emphasizes on successful development of solar operative irrigation appliances mounted over bi-cycle. On farm use of one such case study has been deliberated from rural areas of South Odisha where the diffusion of clean energy products has taken place.

Open Access Review Article

Adoption of Agricultural Labour Saving Tools by Farm Women in India and Gujarat – An Overview

Dipti Thakar, Mita R. Rajpura

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i530578

Aim: The purpose of this paper is to overview the adoption of labour saving tools by women working in the agricultural farms in India and special reference to the Gujarat state.

Methodology: The study is based on the secondary sources. A systematic methodological approach has been adopted while reviewing various related literature of India and Gujarat. The conclusion of the study is based on the systematic review analysis of key findings.

Review analysis: Farm women have been found using both traditional and improved labour saving tools. Lack of adoption of improved tools was reported in various literatures, however, the adoption level by the farm women found to increase after trainings. The gain in understanding and skill about labour saving tools increase work efficiency and save their time.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the practices of labour saving tools are not satisfactory due to the lack of awareness. The capacity building training enhance in using the labour saving tools efficiently.