Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Co-integration and Speed of Adjustment among Rice Markets in Bangladesh

Mohammad Chhiddikur Rahman, Md. Shajedur Rahaman, Md. Abdur Rouf Sarkar, Mohammad Ariful Islam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630588

The structure of co-integration, the pace of adjustment, and the causal markets are investigated using horizontal price integration among five main rice markets in Bangladesh. The null hypotheses were tested using Johansen and Juselius co-integration test and vector error correction model. In Bangladesh, wholesale price volatility in the rice sector has been rising over time. The findings of the study revealed that the rice markets in Bangladesh are perfectly cointegrated. The leading rice markets are Chattagram and Rajshahi, while Khulna is the price taker, which adjusts prices with all other rice markets. Any price shock in the Chattagram and Rajshahi markets takes one to two months for other markets to adjust. The findings also illustrate the value of steering policy efforts in Bangladesh rice markets toward reducing price instability and improving pricing efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on Profile Characteristics of Farm Men and Women in Paddy Cultivation: A Study in Shivamogga District

C. Kavyashree, Basavaraj Beerannavar, D. V. Kusumalatha, H. Vishwanath

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630589

The slogan “RICE is life” is most appropriate for India as this crop plays a vital role in our national food security and is a means of livelihood for millions of rural households. Major Rice growing districts of Karnataka are Bellary, Davangere, Mysore, Mandya, and Shivamogga. The study was conducted in Shivamogga district since Shivamogga district comes under medium productive region of Karnataka state. The study revealed that one third (38.33 %) of farm men had a high level of education whereas, less than half of the respondents (43.34 %) of farm women had a medium level of education. A little more than half (50.00 %) of farm men and farm women belonged to small-sized landholding categories. Concerning extension contact, it is observed that a more significant number (53.33%) of farm men had a medium level of extension agency contact, nearly half (46.57 %) of farm women had a low level of extension contact. Most (43.34 %) of the farm men and around forty percent of farm women had medium-level extension participation. It is evident from the study that farm women stay lower in most of the profile characters than men and there exists a   diversification in socio-economic status, psychological behavior and participative nature of farm men and women due to various gender issues. Hence, this paper throws a light on the comparison of profile characteristics of farm men and farm women who are paddy growers of shivamogga district, where it clearly depicts the profile characters that are low in women than men and that can be taken as a lead to educate the male dominated family to find out the push factors missing for farmwomen and the best way it can be improved. It also helps the policy makers and extension agents to concentrate more on women to improve their socio-economic, psychological and communicational characters in society by suggesting location specific feasible solutions, that further improves the efficiency of farm men and women in paddy cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraint’s Analysis of Sugarcane Cultivation in Sant Kabir Nagar District

Bhartendu Yadav, R. R. Kushwaha, Ram Singh Yadav, Pavan Kumar Singh, Arun Kumar Yadav

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 29-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630590

The study was conducted using multistage stratified, purposive cum random sampling procedure and hundred respondents were selected from a block of district. Primary data was collected through personal interview technique and required secondary information for the reference was taken from the records available at district and block offices. Simple tabular, functional analysis using Garrett ranking method was used to cook the inferences. As per the results found and seen from the analysis, lack of technical knowledge was found as the first rank followed by labor constraints in peak time at the second position. Seeds unavailability at the third rank and irrigation facility and unavailability of finance facility were found at fourth and fifth ranks respectively. Rest all problems were found afterwards. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Mobile Based ICT Tools by the Dairy Farmers of Satara and Pune Districts of Maharashtra

Kiran Jadhav, Smita Kolhe, Milind Nande, Ajay Khanvilkar, Aakash Doiphode

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630591

This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the extent of use of mobile based ICT tools by dairy farmers and constraints faced by them while its use. Respondents were randomly selected from two districts of western Maharashtra namely Satara and Pune and study was undertaken during June – November, 2020. A total of 120 respondents (60 each from Satara and Pune districts) were randomly selected and interviewed with the help of structured schedule. Analysis of data was done and frequency and percentage were calculated accordingly. Almost all the variables studied like age group (68.32%), family size (39.17%), land holding (48.33%), herd size (45.00%), experience (69.17%), social participation (75.84%), extension contacts (70.00%) and knowledge level (72.50%) could be grouped under medium level. Dairy farmers were mostly aware about voice calls (90.83%), whatsapp (82.50%) and financial apps for e-transaction (65%). However, they were totally unaware about use of Twitter, Skype, Instagram, Bluetooth and GIS applications. Similarly, most of the respondents never used video calls (73.34%), SMS facility (70.84%), and mobile for taking photographs (64.16%) related to dairy farming. Whats app found to be used on daily basis, and mobile based ICT tools were used primarily for social purposes with less involvement for its use in order to improve dairy farming activities. Major constraints faced by dairy farmers were unavailability of relevant information in local language, lack of reliable, useful and location specific contents, lack of repairing services and centers in the village. Based on the observations, it is concluded that actual utilization of mobile based ITC tools by dairy farmers is poor in terms of its use for the purpose of dairy related activities. There is need to popularized use of mobile based ICT tools and impart competence and skills in its use among the dairy farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

E-Marketplace in the Agricultural Sector in Sri Lanka: Challenges in Adoption

N. H. Ellawala, K. M. V. Sachitra

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 44-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630592

Purpose: Agricultural e-commerce can assist in overcoming notable challenges and inefficiencies in the agriculture supply chain especially in developing countries. The aim of the study is to identify barriers to sustaining and further developing an E-marketplace in the agricultural sector in Sri Lanka.

Design: An exploratory qualitative research approach was used to provide an in-depth overview of adopting and sustaining an e-marketplace. Data collection was carried out using semi-structured individual interviews amongst mass producers and buyers of fruits and vegetables as well as an e-marketplace developing institution in Sri Lanka. As this is a qualitative study, non-probability sampling techniques were used. Sample for mass producers was selected using the snowball sampling approach. Criterion sampling approach was used for the selection of bulk buyers of fruits and vegetables and the e-marketplace developing institutions. Thematic analysis was employed.

Findings: The study found that while farmers and buyers both expressed an interest in joining an e-marketplace in the future, they had expectations that must be fulfilled to do so. Unawareness about its existence and the processes behind an e-marketplace was a major barrier common to both farmers and buyers. Further, both farmers and buyers were satisfied with their current process and therefore felt no need for an alternative and therefore would not join an e-marketplace unless that process is supported to an extent. Further, quality, transportation, certifications, and low mobile phone signal were considered major concerns and barriers. Developers face difficulty in acquiring necessary funding to invest in sustaining and further developing the platform. They also believe the absence of a method to guarantee quality and to resolve problems between participants requires an immediate solution. Further, as majority of the farming community is technologically illiterate, developers must account for this issue when developing the platform.

Research Implications: The findings of this study provide valuable knowledge necessary to increase the farmers’ and buyers’ adoption of an e-marketplace in agriculture which has been named as a high priority solution, by the Department of Agriculture in Sri Lanka, to solve the agricultural problems currently being faced.

Originality: The literature scores in developing context are limited to exploring the e-marketplace adoption in the agriculture sector. This study has deepened the authors’ understanding by investigating farmers’ and buyers’ perspective on the adoption of an e-marketplace for agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Performance of Dairy Sector in India

K. Vykhaneswari, G. Sunil Kumar Babu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 59-67
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630594

The present study was undertaken to analyse the performance of the dairy sector in India by using compound growth rate analysis and to determine the trends observed in the parameters. It was observed that the compound growth rate of the livestock population was 0.89 per cent, positive and significant from 1956 to 2019. Buffalo population has shown a positive and significant growth rate of 1.43 per cent and 0.31 per cent for cattle and 1.58 per cent for goats. In comparison to indigenous cows, exotic or crossbred cows showed a greater significant growth rate of 5.14 per cent against 1.71 per cent. There has been observed a positive and significant compound annual growth rate of 4.71 per cent to milk production and 3.26 per cent for per capita availability. Dairy cooperative societies, producer members, milk procurement and liquid milk marketing showed a positive and significant compound annual growth rate of 3.47, 2.31, 7.78 and 6.04 per cent respectively. The compound annual growth rate of exports in quantity showed a positive rate of 14.24 per cent and imports with a negative growth rate of 9.70 over the period which indicates that India is a net exporter of dairy products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Effectiveness of Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) Services to Increase Farmers’ Skill

Paritosh Sarker Mishuk, Muhammad Humayun Kabir, Md. Mahbubul Alam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 68-75
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630595

The Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) is considered as the most prominent public organization in Bangladesh for disseminating agricultural information to the farmers. In this line, the objectives of this study were to determine the extent of effectiveness of DAE regarding their services for improving farming skill and to determine the factors affecting the effectiveness of DAE services. Data were collected from two villages of Nawabganj Upazila (sub-district) in Dinajpur district using structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis were done to explain the data. The findings revealed that majority (70.2 %) of the farmers think that the DAE services are moderately effective for improving farmer’s skill. Among the rest of the respondents, 7.7% and 22.1 % were commented as less and high effective category respectively. The inferential analysis revealed that farmers' education, organizational participation, cosmopoliteness and time spent in farming had positive and significant contribution with effectiveness of DAE services. This means that the initiative for higher these factors would increase the effectiveness of DAE services.  The extension personnel, development practitioners and other researchers may be benefited from the findings. The policy makers should also consider these important factors to increase the effectiveness of DAE regarding agricultural advisory services.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Sustainable Rural Livelihoods in Sand and Silt Deposited Areas of Dhemaji District of Assam

D. Sonowal, J. K. Sarma, P. K. Das, I. Barman, S. D. Deka

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 91-102
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630597

The study was undertaken in sand and silt deposited areas of Dhemaji district in Assam, primarily to measure physical and social capitals as livelihood assets, compute Sustainable Rural Livelihood index, study selected personal, socio-economic and psychological attributes of farmer respondents as well as to find out the relationship, if any, between Sustainable Rural Livelihoods and the selected personal, socio-economic and psychological attributes of the respondents. A descriptive research design, following an ex post facto approach was utilized for the study. A multi-stage, purposive cum proportionate random sampling design was adopted for the study in order to select 100 respondents.

With respect to the selected personal, socio-economic and psychological attributes of the respondents, the study revealed that most of the respondents (88%) were young to middle aged and had medium level of formal education (57%). The study revealed that the proportion of farm families belonging to small and medium sized families were almost equal (46% and 43% respectively). Majority (61%) of the respondents was marginal farmers and belonged to the low and medium level of annual income categories (respectively 41% and 46%). On the other hand, a large majority (70%) had low level of annual expenditure pattern, medium level of economic motivation (68%) and risk bearing ability (70%).

The computed Sustainable Rural Livelihood Index score (49.89%) was found to be on the lower side, indicating its relatively low strength based on physical and social capital indices. Correlation analysis of the independent variables of the study with Sustainable Rural Livelihoods revealed that five independent variables, viz., age, education, size of land holding, expenditure pattern and risk bearing ability were positively and significantly correlated with Sustainable Rural Livelihoods.

The study reveals that a productive human capital falling largely in the young to middle age category holds promise for socio-economic development in similar situations. However, illiteracy, coupled with lower formal education would mean that skill development ought to be the focal area for capacity building in the agricultural sector.  . Strategic agricultural technology interventions suited for sand and silt affected areas have to planned keeping in mind seasonal uncertainties and low cost technologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urban form and Urban-Agricultural Eco-Efficiency as an Indicator for Sustainable Urban Development in Huancayo Province, Peru

Miguel Beltrán Palomares, Ronald Révolo Acevedo, Bimael Quispe Reymundo, Saul Caballón Flores

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 103-117
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630598

Aims: The urban form of each district was estimated; the entry indicators and exit indicators of urban eco-efficiency; as well as the environmental costs and economic outcomes of agricultural eco-efficiency in the 28 districts of the Huancayo Province.

Study design: Descriptive-Correlational.

Place and duration of study: The research project lasted 1 year, the data collection of agricultural-urban eco-efficiency was carried out from January to December 2020 by district, as well as the delimitation of productive and non-productive agricultural areas.

Methodology: The World Business Council for Sustainable Development eco-efficiency model developed by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used. To estimate the Urban Form, the Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS satellite image was used. For the Ecoeficiencia Urban-Agricultural data was collected by interviewing field and respective households using probability sampling, to estimate the polluting gases by province, the Sentinel-5P satellite image was used. Pearson's r coefficient and bilateral Student's t-test were used for the statistical analysis [26; 2.05].

Results: The Urban Form presents compactness ratio 0.27, shape ratio 0.21, elasticity ratio 5.47 and population density 753.09hab/km2. The Urban-Input indicators are urban water consumption 5889116.31ML/year electric energy consumption 2062019.23MW/year, food consumption 2664.56 ton/year. The Urban-Output indicators are emission of polluting gases 40335.11 ton/year, economic revenue 279.35PEN/year and wastewater discharge 90581.38ML/year. The Environmental Costs-Agricultural are water consumption for the agricultural sector 3348.34ML/year, fertilizer consumption 69.14 ton/year and phytosanitary consumption 46 ton/year. The Economic Outputs-Agricultural are agricultural production of 4779.79 kg/year, agricultural land rent 6390.3 PEN/year, gross value of production 4854.35 PEN/year. Agricultural Eco-efficiency [Eec-Ag]=0.89 and Urban Eco-efficiency [Eec-Ur]=0.98, ratio coefficient r=-0.13 and tc=0.64.

Conclusion: The 28 districts of the province of Huancayo have an Eec-Ur [Urban Eco-efficiency] of 0.98 and Eec-Ag [Agricultural Eco-efficiency] of 0.89 where it maintains the added value while generating 98% and 89% of its environmental pressures. There is no statistically significant relationship between urban eco-efficiency and agricultural eco-efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Faced by the Rice Farmer Beneficiaries of Rastriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) in Adoption of Recommended Angrau Technologies

M. Usha, P. Rambabu, T. Gopi Krishna, M. Martin luther, V. Srinivasa Rao

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 118-126
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630599

This study aimed to assess the constraints faced by rice farmers under RKVY, their suggestions and a strategy was developed to overcome the constraints. The present study was conducted in 3 districts viz Srikakulam, Nellore and West Godavari of Andhra Pradesh. Ex post facto research design was used and data was collected through interview schedule from 240 farmers. Collected data is analyzed using Garett test and other suitable statistical tools. Multiple responses were considered to ascertain the constraints faced by the rice growers in adoption of recommended technologies of Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU). The constraints faced by the rice growers in adoption of recommended technologies are classified into 5 categories viz., Personnel constraints, Bio physical constraints, Socio-Economic Constraints, Marketing constraints and Organizational constraints. The major constraints perceived by the farmers among different categories were Labour scarcity & high wage rates during peak periods, less mass media exposure, interference of middlemen and Epidemics of pest & diseases. The suggestions given by the farmers were prioritization of agricultural activities in MGNREGA scheme, Conduct of hands on experience training programs on usage of ICT tools and social media for browsing information related to agriculture, Setting up of sufficient number of public purchase points at local level by the government, Conducting sufficient number of practical oriented season long training programs during crop period and Provision of timely updates regarding fluctuations in market prices. A suitable strategy was evolved addressing the various constraints which would be helpful for the policy makers, researchers, extension functionaries to plan and modify the extension programs so as to mitigate these constraints faced by the rice farmers and thereby to augment rice production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Purchase-sell of Livestock and Availing of Subsidy Benefits among Commercial Dairy Farmers of Gujarat

A. L. Rathva, L. M. Sorathiya, D. N. Gadhvi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 127-133
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630600

A field survey was conducted in Navsari district by selecting 40 commercial dairy farmers randomly from Navsari and adjoining areas. The commercial farm that possessed 20 Adult Unit of either cattle or buffalo was considered for the study. The desired information pertaining to livestock purchase-selling practices with criteria was collected with the help of pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. The data regarding problems found in purchased animals were collected by using 5 point Likert agreement scale. Analyzed data revealed that overall total herd strength was 52.07±5.24. It included 16.48±2.44 milch buffalo, 4.82±0.82 dry buffaloes, 5.90±0.76 milch cows and 2.12±0.33 cows. The herd strength across both regions was nonsignificant. Many livestock keepers were availing subsidies for construction of shed, purchase of chaff cutter, milking machine, rubber mats and livestock. Subsidy for purchase of chaff cutter was enjoyed by 20% respondents, whereas 12.5% respondents were benefited by subsidy for construction of shed and purchase of livestock. However, about 47% of them were not taken any kind of subsidy for their farm. The reasons for not availing subsidy showing that 17.5% respondents were not knowing/not tried to avail subsidy benefits. The analyzed data on livestock prizing showed that buffaloes were costlier than cows. The average purchase price was Rs. 72161±2195 and 58291±5233 for buffaloes and cows, respectively. Average selling price was quite lower than purchased price for cows and buffaloes. It was Rs. 28463±625 and 27083±2083 for buffalo and cow, respectively. Further, the livestock buyer was not much satisfied with purchased animals as they were having many problems like mastitis, repeat breeding, less milk production etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Quality Standards on the Performance of Agricultural Exports in Cameroon

Eric Brice Fosso Ngatsi, Demdou Minette Flore, Douanla Tameko Joslanie, Bouopda Guerlais Noël

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 134-145
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630601

The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of quality standards imposed by developed countries on agricultural exports in Cameroon. Based on the quantification technique of Bora and et al. [1], we have constructed an indicator capturing the quality standards imposed by the developed country partners of Cameroon. The empirical analysis is done by applying the Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimator to a gravity model on a panel made up of developed countries importing agricultural products from Cameroon. The results show that, over a study period of 2001-2018, compliance with the quality standards imposed by developed countries is restrictive and has a negative impact on agricultural exports in Cameroon. Thus, a 10% strengthening of quality standards results in a decrease of about 2.83% in the volume of agricultural exports to Cameroon. Given the very demanding nature of quality standards, their compliance can enable the Cameroonian agricultural export sector to become more competitive on the international market. We recommend training and support for producers in order to give them the opportunity to comply with the standards.

Open Access Review Article

Extension Reforms in India: An Overview

Akkamahadevi Naik, B. Ashokkumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630587

In worldwide most of the rural population is invariably interrelated to the performance of the agrarian sector and to the sector's ability to cope with the tasks that result from growing population pressures, changing demand for food and agricultural products, resource scarcity, climate change and greater production uncertainty. The World Bank report 2007 emphasizes agricultural extension as an important development intervention for increasing the prospective of the agrarian sector. In these view Indian farm production systems, the reforms are shown to raise the role of agricultural extension services are aimed at many different strategic interventions. First, providing the significant awareness to meet the information needs of the farming community and to ensuring such information reaches to the farmers in a timely manner lies at the crux of the reforms in Indian extension reform efforts. Further, maintaining the effectiveness of the agricultural extension system as a whole and the enhancing the efficiency. The orientation of the extension structure in India is still majorly oriented on the production –led extension. But there is great need for an inclusive approach to sustainably development in the farming systems that goes beyond production led extension and considering the farmer’s problems, offered resources, the combination of farming system approach, involvement of extension agents/worker and farmers in the extension system and  research etc. Therefore, these new reform measures are required yet to fully recognize in the vast array of knowledge and information sources.

Open Access Review Article

Transforming Indian Agriculture with Digital Technologies

B. Ashokkumar, Akkamahadevi Naik

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 76-90
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630596

Agriculture continues to be the most important sector of the Indian economy and agriculture is a more or less a compulsion for livelihood of millions of farmers. Now-a-days, Indian agriculture faces several problems such as low yield, inconsistent product quality, lack of knowledge about domestic as well as international markets and poor access to diversified agriculture information. Farmers need location specific information at the time of all the cultivation stages of agriculture in their local language. To meet out these problems, adoption of digital technology is one which improves the information transmission speed, networking, communication at their doorsteps and provides quality information in an understandable way to the farmers. Digital communication technologies when applied to condition in rural areas can help to improve communication by increasing the participation and also disseminating various information to increase their knowledge and skills. Digital efforts are being tried out by different Governments for the betterment of the agricultural sector and farmers. The digital technology in India is now at the crucial stage. Various digital initiatives such as Digital green, mobile technology, e-Choupal, precision farming, agricultural drones etc. should be promoted at large scale to improve the adoption of new technology by farmers. By this we can solve the problems like low yield, inconsistent product quality, lack of knowledge about domestic as well as international markets and poor access to diversified agriculture information.

Open Access Review Article

Crop Simulation Models: A Tool for Future Agricultural Research and Climate Change

Asma Fayaz, Y. Rajit Kumar, Bilal Ahmad Lone, Sandeep Kumar, Z. A. Dar, Faisal Rasool, Ishfaq Abidi, Fouzea Nisar, Anil Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 146-154
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630602

A crop simulation model is a computerized program which is used to describe the process of growth and developmental stages of crop in relation to weather data, crop conditions and soil conditions to solve the real-world problems. Crop simulation models plays an important role in decision making process as these models can save time and resources. The prediction accuracy of simulation models is one of the most vital components in decision making process. Our review shows the prediction accuracy and efficiency of the simulation models like DSSAT and APSIM. We have compared the prediction accuracy of these models on various growth and development stages of crops along with yield prediction. Both the models have performed well while predicting various growth and developmental stages of crops. The present scenario of traditional research is site-specific, Resource consuming and time consuming. Hence the information obtained through traditional research by qualitative analysis has many limitations, Because of changing climate and weather parameters there is a need for computerized based statistical tool which can provide decision support system for more than 10-15 years. By this we strongly believe that Crop simulation models can be a vital tool in future agricultural research and climate change mitigation strategies.