Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Profitability of Wheat in Major Wheat Producing States of India

Ankita Sahu, Sunil Nahatkar, Gourav Kumar Vani, Prasanna Kolar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730603

The present study was undertaken with the objective to compare the minimum support price (MSP) with total Cost (C2) of wheat and also actual yield with break-even yield in major wheat producing states of India. The secondary data were collected from Directorate of Economics and Statistics for the period 2000-01 to 2016-17. The area of study comprises those states which covered >80 per cent of wheat production in India (i.e., Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana). The result of study showed that the difference between MSP and cost C2 per quintal was found to be positive but fluctuating over the study period (except in the year 2002-03 and 2005-06 in Madhya Pradesh and 2005-06 and 2014-15 in Uttar Pradesh). It can be concluded that wheat growers of the states benefitted more from MSP by cultivation of wheat. The margin of safety was also fluctuating over the period of time in all the five wheat-producing states but gap continuously widening in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan revealed that the profitability from wheat was increasing in these states.

Open Access Original Research Article

Supply Chain and Logistics of Fish: A Case Study of Jamalpur District Markets in Bangladesh

Syed Ariful Haque, Md. Fakhrul Islam, Mohammad Chhiddikur Rahman, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Mokhlasur Rahman

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 8-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730604

Fishery sector plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of Bangladesh. In the fish economy of Bangladesh, one of the most flourishing traffic activities is fish marketing. This study was aimed to investigate the fish species availability, supply chain, quality loss, price behavior and constrains associated with fish marketing in order to provide better suggestion for efficient fish marketing in Jamalpur district of Bangladesh. Data were collected form Sadar upazila markets by using a structured interview schedule, focus group discussions (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII) with the stakeholders involved in supplying fish from farm to fork, such as- aratdars, retailers, and consumers during 2020-21. A total 78 fish species were found (72 Fresh water and 2 Marine water), among them 20 frequently, 17 less amount, 25 occasionally, and 16 species were rarely available in the market. It was estimated that 72% fish species were sourced from culture fishery whereas 28% were from capture fishery. About 91.5% fishes in Jamalpur markets were supplied locally, whereas rests were from other districts. The post-harvest quality losses of fish in the sampled markets were assessed which indicate that small indigenous species (SIS) spoiled quicker than medium to large sizes fishes due to different factors. The price behavior of the fish market influenced by the demand of the fish species, quality, size, catching sources (culture fishery or capture fishery) and the purchasing time (beginning, middle or last time of market). The study found positive correlation between the market price and fish quality. Several problems of fish market were identified resulting consumer dissatisfaction and financial losses for fish traders. Considering the importance of fish market to the economy, this study suggested to take necessary steps for establishing modern fish market to ensure the adequate quality maintenance of fish with efficient marketing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers Information Needs on Organic Vegetable Farming in Two Agro-climatic Zones of Assam

S. Bora, P. K. Das, I. Barman, S. D. Deka, D. Sonowal

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730605

Most farmers are not aware of the various aspects of organic farming of vegetables despite the fact that the state of Assam is “naturally organic by default”. Besides having tremendous potential to grow crops organically, organic farming is yet to taste success in the state of Assam. Information is currently seen by many as the main limiting factor to growth in the organic sector in the state. Hence, there is need to equip the farmers with the necessary information related to the organic cultivation and certification process with respect to important vegetable crops The study was undertaken in North Bank Plains Zone and Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam, primarily to understand farmers’ information needs in relation to organic vegetable production. The study also identified the factors influencing the information needs and constraints as perceived by the farmers in meeting their information needs. A multi-stage, purposive cum proportionate random sampling design was adopted for the study in order to select 120 respondents. The study revealed that majority of the respondents (95.83%) expressed that they need information on inspection and certification process on organic vegetable production, followed by the need for information on soil treatment for organic vegetable production, and on the variety/planting material suitable for organic vegetable production. Findings of correlation analysis indicated that among the 10 independent variables, 6 variables showed significant and positive relationship and 4 variables showed significant and negative relationship with the information needs of farmers in relation to organic vegetable production at 0.01 level of probability. Findings revealed that “lack of knowledge about inspection and certification process of organic vegetable production” was the major constraint faced by the respondents with the highest score (PCI-296) and hence was ranked 1st followed by “Lack of knowledge about market linkages’ (PCI-280) and ‘Lack of access to credit facilities’ (PCI-278) which were ranked 2nd and 3rd important constraints faced by them in meeting their information needs. It implies that NGOs, KVKs, various development workers and extension agencies should put more efforts to modify and channel the information needs of organic vegetable farmers in the desirable direction through their preferred medium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Livestock Entrepreneurs of Karnataka- A Socio-economic Analysis

M. Harisha, B. Subrahmanyeshwari, K. C. Veeranna, G. R. K. Sharma, Y. Ravindraredddy, B. Punyakumari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 36-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730606

India owns the largest livestock population in the world and it is bestowed with huge and diverse livestock resources. The animal husbandry sector provides large self-employment opportunities and is proved to be a boon for sustaining the livelihood of the resource poor farmers. A study was undertaken to analyze the socioeconomic and psychological profile of livestock entrepreneurs in Karnataka state. Four divisions viz. Bengaluru division, Mysuru division, Belagavi division and Kalaburagi division were selected for the study. A total of 160 livestock entrepreneurs were randomly selected and data were collected using structured interview schedule. The analysis of socio economic and psychological profile revealed that majority (58.75%) of the livestock entrepreneurs were of middle age group (35-50 years), and more than three forth (78.13%) of the livestock entrepreneurs are male. With respect education 36.88 per cent of them had middle school education and half (50.63%) of the entrepreneurs belonged to small family size(less than 6 members). Majority (56.88%) of the livestock entrepreneurs had animal husbandry as their major occupation with 43.75 per cent of the respondents had medium landholding (2-3 acres of land). More than half (51.25%) of the respondents had medium livestock possession and 45.63 per cent of the entrepreneurs had an annual income of more than Rs.4,00,001. Majority (53.75%) of the livestock entrepreneurs had (5 to 10 years) medium level of experience in livestock entrepreneurship. Majority of the respondent dairy farmers had medium economic motivation and scientific orientation. The study concludes that livestock entrepreneurs had different socioeconomic status due to varied attributes possessed by them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Baseline Study on Pine Nuts Industry in Khost City, Afghanistan

Rafiq Atif

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 51-63
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730608

This study was conducted on the pine nuts industry in the southeast of Afghanistan. This is a baseline study, which has conducted between May 2019 and December 2020. This study aims to provide essential information about the pine nuts industry, especially focused on the supply chain of pine nuts. A structured questionnaire has been used for the data collection to collect demographic information, and information regarding the pine nuts supply chain, pine nuts processing, challenges and opportunities, trade, and marketing, Due to the small size of the population, the census method was used. I interviewed directly the stakeholder and entrepreneurs who are working in the pine nuts industries; the interview has been conducted on local language (Pashto). Chilgoza plays an important role in the socio-economic development of rural societies existing nearby Chilgoza forests. Chilgoza pine forests not only provide pine nuts as a cash crop product but also provide fuelwood, medicinal plants, pasture, and shelter for livestock as well as environment habitat and other ecological services. Nuts of Chilgoza pine are highly valued, collected, and sold by local villagers is a good source of income for them. After extracting nuts from the cones, the owner, sells the empty cones to the people of Khost province of Afghanistan, usually used as fuelwood. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Green Products on Consumer Purchase Decision in Coimbatore City of Tamil Nadu

D. Sivaselvan, T. Samsai, K. Mahendran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 64-70
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730609

Aim: The purpose of the study is to find the awareness of consumers towards green products, factors influencing them to purchase the green products and the problems faced by consumers while purchasing the green products in Coimbatore city

Design of the Study: The study is empirical in nature as the study aims to find out the Impact of green products on consumer purchase decision in Coimbatore city. The study is carried out with a survey through a well structured interview schedule. Collection of data for the purpose of the research study is in the form of primary data as the study being empirical in nature.

Methodology: The sampling technique involved is purposive sampling. The study is limited only in Coimbatore city. The data were collected from the customer who were aware about the green products. The survey conducted in customers of organised retail stores. In this study, total samples is 100.Tools used for analysis were percentage analysis, factor analysis and Garett’s Ranking Technique.

Findings: Consumer Awareness towards green products was high and it indicated that they were having high environmental concern. Most of the sample respondents were college graduates and they have good knowledge about the green products. Consumer attitude towards purchase of green product was high. Consumer purchase decision of green products was highly based on the Quality and Promotion (Advertisement). High cost is the major problem faced by the sample respondents while purchasing of green products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of Group Decision Making Index: A Measure of Collective Decision Making among Self Help Groups

Pragya Goswamy, S. K. Kashyap, Neelam Bhardwaj, V. L. V. Kameswari, G. S. Kushwaha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 71-80
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730610

Group decision-making is a participatory process in which multiple individuals collectively perform situation analysis, think of alternative courses of action, and select the best alternative to solve the problem. Similarly, in the context of Self-help groups, group decision-making is a necessary process. However, decisions made collectively tend to be more effective than decisions made by a single individual. Still, group members face various constraints while group decision making like social pressure toward conformity, individual domination, conflicting secondary goals, undesirable compromises, ambiguous responsibility, and time. Most studies suggest that SHG members perceived problems faced during group decision-making as a significant constraint. Considering a shortage of empirical research indicating the exact reason for group failures, what makes a group successful, and the factors that lead to ineffective group decision-making, the study aimed at systematically and scientifically developing a group decision-making index to study the group decision-making of the Self-help groups, various factors affecting the group decision-making process, and quantitatively measuring how different groups vary in their group decision-making ability, Thus, an instrument was developed using a two-step method, i.e., instrument designing and judgmental evidence. After that, the validity of the instrument was computed through Item-Content Validity Index (I-CVI) method.  Finally, it was narrowed down to 48 statements distributed among ten indicators. The reliability coefficient of the tool was found to be 0.80. Thus, it was found that the group decision-making indexes had appropriate content validity and internal consistency to measure and quantify the group decision-making process of selected Self-help Groups. The study recommends the use of the developed index for studying the root cause of ineffectiveness in group decision-making in various Self-help groups, which will help in the formulation of strategy for overcoming the constraints related to group decision-making as reported by various SHGs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Performance of Groundnut in Ananthapuramu District of Andhra Pradesh – A Temporal Analysis

I. Krishna Teja, S. V. Ramana Rao, I. Bhavani Devi, S. V. Prasad, B. Ravindra Reddy, Paladugu Praveen Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 81-87
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730611

Ananthapuramu district is considered as one of the major groundnut growing districts in the Andhra Pradesh state, with an average area, production and yield of 7.04 lakh hectares, 3.65 lakh tonnes and 512 kg ha-1 respectively, during the present millennium (from 2000-01 to 2018-19). Though the district is drought prone and majority of the cultivated area is under rainfed ecosystem, groundnut still continues to be one of the largest cropped area in the district. This interesting feature of the district has driven to take up the study on the performance of groundnut in the district through Compound Annual Growth Rates (CAGR) and decomposition analysis. CAGR of area, production and yield of the groundnut and decomposition analysis of groundnut production in the district were analyzed from 1970-71 to 2018-19. For lucidity, the study period was divided in three sub-periods viz., Period I (1970-71 to 1985-86), Period II (1986-87 to 1999-2000) and Period III (1999-2000 to 2018-19). It was evident from the results that, the growth performance of groundnut in Ananthapuramu district declined over the years, particularly in Period III, which implies that, despite lot of efforts from researchers and government to encourage groundnut production at macro level, the contribution of groundnut at district level showed a declining trend. This scenario could be attributed to low farm level yields with higher farm level inefficiencies, gaps in production technology, geographical location of the district under rain shadow region, declining scenario in the length of growing period, shift towards competing crops, poor post-harvest support, changing climate, lower yields, low extension contact at field level, low market prices and high abiotic and abiotic stresses. It was opined that, groundnut cultivation in the district should be encouraged with the partnership of private institutional players, where the farmers would get high quality seed, agro-advisory, post-harvest support, value addition support, remunerative and assured price support etc., encouragement of value addition, reduction of the length of market channels to reduce the supply gap between farmer and consumer would help in realignment of the growth performance of groundnut in the district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Aromatic Black Rice Growers Regarding Benefits Provided under Mission Organic Value Chain Development Scheme

Meghajit Sharma Shijagurumayum, M. T. Lakshminarayan, B. Krishnamurthy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 88-95
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730612

The present study was carried out during 2020-21 in Thoubal and Bishnupur districts of Manipur state to assess the knowledge of aromatic black rice growers regarding the benefits provided under the Mission Organic Value Chain Development Scheme (MOVCDS). One hundred eighty aromatic black rice growers were interviewed for the study using a pre-tested interview schedule. The results revealed that a vast majority of over 85.00 per cent of the aromatic black rice growers had correct knowledge regarding the various benefits provided under MOVCDS. Education, organic farming experience, livestock possession, crop productivity, achievement motivation, aspiration, management orientation, economic motivation, risk orientation, innovative proneness, mass media exposure, training on organic farming, extension agency contact, and extension participation of aromatic black rice growers have significantly contributed in increasing the knowledge level of aromatic black rice growers regarding the benefits provided under MOVCDS. Further, extension agency contact, extension participation, and training on organic farming of aromatic black rice growers were found to be having the direct effect, indirect effect, and largest indirect effect in increasing the knowledge regarding the benefits provided under MOVCDS. The research finding validates the importance of training, extension participation, and extension agency contact in any social intervention to enhance the knowledge of the beneficiaries regarding the scheme or intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Farmer Field School and Conventional Extension Trainings on Knowledge Gain among Farm Women

J. Krishnan, T. T. Ranganathan, P. Ravichamy, K. C. Sivabalan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 96-103
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730613

The world extension forum over three-four decades emphasized the people centric bottom up approach in extension work.

In mid 1970s world bank had introduced Training and Visit (T&V) system of extension in 70 countries including India. This solely emphasized the dissemination of Green Revolution technologies to farmers, mainly in Asian and African countries with top down extension approach. Subsequently, FFS emerged in the rice paddy fields of the Philippines and Indonesia in the late 1980s where, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) had heavily involved from its incubation, development and spread to Asian, African countries and other parts of world in 1990s with the emphasis on bottom up approach and participatory extension services. This demanded a paradigm shift in extension purview and its methodology to factor upon farming fraternity participation in all possible ways. Despite that the technology transfer process remains unchanged and unrefined till now. The best features of extension methodologies are identified by making literature review pertaining to Farmer Field School (FFS) and Training and Visit (T&V) method of extension trainings. Both Farmer Field School (FFS) and conventional extension training methodologies were used to train women groundnut growers in Pennagaram villages, Dharmapuri, India and the change in knowledge level and the effectiveness of methodologies were studied. In context, 29 important crop production practices in groundnut cultivation were identified and surveyed with 300 participants of which, 50% of participants ( n=150) exposed to FFS way of training and 50% of participants (n=150) exposed to T&V way of training. Most (90-95%) of the survey respondents found that the FFS way of training as better effective than T&V way of training. Similarly, the knowledge level of 80 to 85% of participants who participated FFS way of training found to be more than the participants who attended T&V way of training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic and Socio-personal Characteristics of Agri-Entrepreneurs: A Study of Uttarakhand and Punjab State of India

Taufiq Ahmad, Rifat Haneef

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 104-109
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730614

This study investigated the Socio-economic and Socio-personal characteristics of agripreneurs. The study was conducted in Uttarakhand and Punjab states. Data for the investigation were collected from 120 respondent trainees, 60 each from the selected state. The study discovered that the majority of respondents (65.83) belonged to middle age group of 29-40 years, were married (75.83%) and had a low level of experience (0-5 years) in the agri enterprises. It was found that the majority of the respondents (50.83%) were engaged in agriculture belonged to the General caste and had education up to graduation (57.50%). A maximum number of the respondents were involved in social and political institutions holding more than one position (35.83%), belonged to medium family size (49.17%), possessed 5-10 animal (biogas plant, pump set, two-wheeler (36.67%). The majority of the respondents (81.17%) had a medium level of socio-economic status (SES).

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Groundwater Irrigation Development on Cropping Intensity and Crop Productivity in Krishnagiri District

M. Arvind Kumar, K. R. Ashok, M. Prahadeeswaran, R. Vasanthi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 110-121
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730615

Aims: The study is done with the objective of assessing the impact of groundwater irrigation development on cropping intensity and crop productivity in Krishnagiri, Tamil Nadu, India.

Study Design: Purposive random sampling

Place and Duration of Study: Krishnagiri district, Tamil Nadu, India during 2019-20.

Methodology: The data on irrigation sources and area under various irrigation sources in Krishnagiri, Tamil Nadu and India is subjected to growth analysis using trend studies and CAGR (Compound Annual Growth rate) to study the ground water irrigation development. Whereas, regression analysis was done with the primary data collected from 120 farming households in Krishnagiri on agricultural land use and irrigation to study the impact of groundwater irrigation on cropping intensity and crop productivity.

Results: As the net tube wells and other well irrigated area to net sown area (GWA) increases, there has been a corresponding increase in cropping intensity and crop productivity. The rise in percent of net tank and canal irrigated area to net sown area and percent of fertilizer applied area to net sown area have also increased cropping intensity and crop productivity whereas the increase in percent of net rainfed area to net sown area have decreased the cropping intensity and crop productivity.

Conclusion: The ground water utilization through tube well construction have increased the cropping intensity and crop productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) among Smallholder Tomato Farmers in Buuri Sub-County, Meru County, Kenya

David. M. Kihoro, Pauline. K. Micheni, Florence. W. Ng’ang’a

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 122-129
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730616

The study examines the socioeconomic factors that influence the adoption of Integrated Pest Management in 152 smallholder tomato farmers in Buuri Sub-County, in Meru County Kenya. A random stratification sampling procedure was used to obtain smallholder tomato farmers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data which was analyzed using a binary logistic regression model. The results showed that the average land size for tomato production in the area was 1 acre, with average yields of 35 tonnes per acre, Kshs 592,000 net returns/ acre for IPM adopters. The study established that gender type (5%), farm size (5%), labor (5%), and access to information (5%), and age of the farmers (5%) were statistically significant. Additionally, gender type resulted in an increase of adoption of IPM by 43%, farm size by 8%, labor by 11%, while access to information by 40%. The study concluded that different stakeholders should ensure a support system to various IPM practices to lower production costs and encourage adopting the techniques.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges of and Opportunities for Market Access by Pineapple Agripreneurs in Rangwe Sub County, Homa Bay County, Kenya

Winstone Asugo Nyaguti, Job Kibiwot Lagat, Hillary Bett, Fredrick Onyango Ogutu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 130-140
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730617

Pineapple farming is among the fastest-growing agricultural sub-sectors in Homa Bay County, Kenya specifically Rangwe sub-county. However, limited attention has been given to the market access of this produce. Evidenced by vast quantities of pineapples harvested from the farms and stacked along main highways without targeting a specific market. This result to a small portion being sold and the rest deteriorating, consequently reducing returns for pineapple agripreneurs. Therefore, this paper sought to determine those factors that influences access to formal market by pineapple agripreneurs and as well as find out challenges of and opportunities for accessing formal markets by the Rangwe pineapple agripreneurs. The survey was undertaken in Rangwe Sub-county, and multisampling method was used to select a sample of 183 pineapple agripreneurs from the study area, primary data was collected using a semi-structured survey tool. Data was analyzed by descriptive analysis and Logistic regression model. Results indicated that pineapple agripreneurs were faced with numerous challenges in accessing pineapple market, also there existed several market access opportunities for pineapple agripreneurs. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed extension contacts, education level and price of pineapple as factors that were positively and statistically significant in influencing access to formal markets. While those that were statistically and negatively influencing access to formal market comprised of; age of household head, household size, and type of road. The study recommends;  improvement of road infrastructure in pineapple producing areas so as to improve on their market access; development of policies that encourages capacity building of pineapple agripreneurs in Rangwe sub-county 

Open Access Review Article

Analysis of the Effects of Public Expenditure on Agricultural Growth in Mali

Abdoulaye Maïga, Amadou Bamba, Boubacar Sy, Georges Hady Keita, Issoufou Soumaïla Mouleye, Moussa Diallo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730607

The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of government spending on agricultural growth in Mali using data from 2000 to 2019. The lagged autoregressive model (ARDL) was used to perform the estimation. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the data from the World Bank database. Several specification tests were performed to confirm the validity of the chosen model. The results of this study show that the public expenditures have positive and significant effects on agricultural growth, except for agricultural expenditures that have negative effects. Similarly, the agricultural employability rate and fertilizer consumption also have negative effects. This implies that the government needs to review its resource allocation policy in all sectors, including the agricultural sector.