Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Attitude of Farmers towards Improved Fodder Production Technologies in Jhansi District of Bundelkhand Region

Pragya Singh, Arjun Prasad Verma, Gaurendra Gupta, Khem Chand

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830618

The present study was carried out in 2020 with the aim of assessing farmer's attitude towards improved fodder production technology in Jhansi district of Bundelkhand region. An ex post Facto research design was used in the present study. Three villages from Babina block were selected purposively for investigation of farmer’s attitude towards various fodder based technological intervention. From each village, 20 farmers were purposively selected. Thus, a total of 60 farmers were selected for the present study. The results revealed that majority of the respondents belonged in middle age category (58.33%), more than one third had middle class education (36.67%), medium family size (53.34%), semi-medium land holding (41.67%), percentage of the respondents involved in dairy+crop farming (100%), medium herd size (53.33%), medium experience in dairy farming (51.67%) and medium annual income i.e. Rupees 155000 to 350000 (53.34%). The results revealed that majority of the participants who had high, moderate and low attitude towards improved fodder production technologies were 16.67, 23.33 and 15.00% respectively. It was concluded that, there was an inclination of positive response and concern for improved fodder technologies among respondents and vast majority of the respondents (85.00 %) had a moderately to highly favorable attitude.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Impact of Farmer Producer Organisation on Farmers’ Income in Andhra Prdesh

R. Vedasri, R. K. Mishra

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 7-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830619

The present paper gives the information about the impact of Farmer Producer Organisation on farmers income. The data was collected from both the members of FPO and non- members regarding the socio-economic factors and farming details of farmers. Logistic regression which was a binary regression model was used for determining the factors influencing the farmers to join as group members and then ordinary least square regression was estimated to study the impact of FPOs on farmers income by including inverse mills ratio which was calculated in logistic regression model, to remove the selection bias. The results showed that education, distance to market and age are the factors determining the farmers to join as members of FPO. The impact study results showed that group membership, hired labour, crop production area, share of crop sold and market size are the factors that are positively significant and increasing the farmers income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting the Level of Rural Households Livelihood Diversification in Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Wanno Wallole, Yishak Gecho, Tewodros Tefera

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 19-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830620

Livelihood diversification is enchanting a significant effect in generating household’s income. The livelihood diversification includes:on-farm, non-farm and off-farm strategies which are undertaken to get extra income and moderate hazard and insecurity. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors affecting the level of rural household livelihood diversification in Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. The study was conducted by using a cross-sectional research design. It is a quantitative dominant concurrent mixed research methodology where the qualitative research is complemented with interpretations and triangulation. By applying multi-stage random sampling technique, a sample size of 400 household heads from 6 sample villages was selected and data were collected using interview schedule and via key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Descriptive statistics were analyzed and presented by using tables, graphs and figures while chi-square-test and F-test were employed to make statistical inferences. Tobit model was employed to identify the intensity of factors affecting of rural household’s livelihood diversification. Out of the 14 hypothesized explanatory variables, 6 variables namely age, education, access to extension, media access, distance to urban centers and training were found to have significant effect in rural household livelihood diversification decision. Therefore, the findings of this imply that rural households’ development policies should consider these factors in designing rural household livelihood diversification strategy.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Economic Analysis of French Bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Production in Bishnupur District of Manipur

Kenjit Tongbram, Y Chakrabarty Singh, Daya Ram, N. Gopimohan Singh, Kh. Rishikanta Singh, Oinam Krishnadas Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830621

The study was conducted in Bishnupur district of Manipur with an objective to work out the cost and return of French bean production. The primary data on various costs and returns were collected at random from 100 respondent farmers. Production is normally considered as the function of area and yield. Results of the cost of cultivation analysis revealed that human labour, rental value of owned land, hired machinery charges, fertilizers and plant protection chemicals were important contributors to the total cost of cultivation. The average cost of cultivation was found to be Rs. 238894 per hectare.The hired human labour charges as the major cost item, it accounted for about 41.14 per cent of the total cost of cultivation. The imputed value of family labour and rental value of owned land were the next important cost components contributing about 11.56 and 11.30 per cent of the total cost of cultivation. The net farm income per hectare was estimated at Rs.230962 and benefit cost ratios per hectare was found to be 1.96. The government and related departments should arrange training programs to upgrade the knowledge on recommended package of practices on cultivation of vegetable crops and educating the farmers to develop social consciousness by strengthening local security service through proper initiatives. The farmers also need to encourage forming farmer groups or farmer producer organization (FPOs) in order to improve the production and marketing efficiency of French beans in Bishnupur district of Manipur.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of COVID-19 on Consumers’ Buying Behaviour and Consumption Pattern towards Milk in Nagpur City of Maharashtra

Ashish A. Uikey, Mehul G. Thakkar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 40-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830623

Understanding and monitoring the behaviour of consumers is vital for producers of products and services which help them for market development, new product design, packaging and promotional efforts, so as to suit for milk consumers. Also, to know about how the milk sales were affected during COVID-19, the project was undertaken. The descriptive cross sectional research design was used. The place of study was Nagpur City of Maharashtra and duration was 1st July to 31st July 2020. The data has been collected from 100 milk consumers. Non-Probability Convenience sampling method was used. Primary data was collected through Personal Interview Method by meeting consumers. Secondary data was collected from journals, Research papers, and Company website. Descriptive Statistics method such as Percentage, Averages, Rankings, etc. was used to analyze the data. Graphical analysis was used to achieve the objectives of the study.

It was found that Roadside vendors (54.29%) were the major source for purchase of packaged milk followed by Kirana stores (37.14%). Major important source for getting information about the milk brands was Television (47.14%), followed by Newspapers (37.14%), Retailers (14.29%) respectively. It was observed that among various attributes that affect purchase of milk, Taste was the most important attribute, followed by Quality, Brand Image, Packaging and Price respectively. The study with reference to homemade dairy products revealed that majority of the respondents (76%) were not making dairy products at home, only near about 1/4th respondents (24%) were making dairy products at home. During Lockdown majority of the respondents (63%) had no change in their milk consumption, while for near about 1/4th respondents (23%) consumption was increased and for some respondents (14%) consumption was decreased. For 23% respondents 250ml increase in milk consumption was seen. For majority of the respondents (65.22%) the reason for increase in milk consumption was All family members staying at home and for rest of the respondents (34.78%) it was Work from home. For 10% respondents 250ml decrease in milk consumption was seen and for 4% respondents 500ml decrease was seen. For majority of the respondents (78.57%) the reason for decrease in milk consumption was Financial issues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Economic Viability of Small and Marginal Farms in Rayalaseema Region of Andhra Pradesh, India

M. Ramakrishna, I. Bhavani Devi, S. Rajeswari, P. V. Satyagopal, G. Mohan Naidu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 48-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830624

This study was conducted to estimate the factors influencing the viability of small and marginal farms in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. Multistage sampling technique was employed for selection of samples at different levels (districts, mandals and villages) in the present study. A sample of 120 farmers was selected from two districts, six mandals and six villages. The farmers were categorized according to their land holding size into marginal (<1 ha) and small (1-2 ha) category. On the basis of economic surplus left, the sample farmers were grouped as viable and nonviable farmers. The farmers having positive economic surplus are viable farmers and the farmers with negative economic surplus are non-viable farmers. Out of 120 sample farmer’s only 37 farmers were viable and 83 remained non-viable. It is found that net income from live stock and dairy and net income from crops were the major significant discriminating factors that discriminate viable and non-viable farmers. Other significant factors were off farm income, farm size and family expenditure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Domestic Terms of Trade on Oilseed Crops Supply and Demand by Parity Index in Rajasthan: An Analysis

Dinesh Kumar, Shirish Sharma, Madhu Sharma, Mohamad Awais

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 58-63
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830625

In this paper, the terms of trade between the input and output prices of selected major oilseeds i.e. groundnut, rapeseed & mustard and soybean have been estimated for selected districts of Rajasthan for the period 1996-97 to 2015-16. The indices of terms of trade for groundnut has shown mixed trend whereas for rapeseed & mustard trend remained favourable from 1996-97 to 2010-11. The ratio of index of procurement prices to index of input prices for rapeseed & mustard was more than one during this period reached to as high as of 165 in 2003-04 over the base of 100 in 1996-97. Like rapeseed & mustard, terms of trade for soybean cultivation in Baran was found favourable for about a decade (1996-97 to 2008-09) and afterward had shown mixed trend of ups and downs. The decline in indices can be attributed to relatively higher rate of increase in prices of inputs than of output prices. Based on the study it was suggested to conduct regular studies for better understanding the trend in prices of farm inputs and outputs that will help in revising the existing policies with confidence. To remove the disparity between ‘prices received and paid’, concerted efforts should be made to maintain the parity, which will help farmers in buying inputs and other items of household consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Resource Use Efficiency and Marginal Value Productivity of Sugarcane Cultivation in Sant Kabir Nagar District, India

Bhartendu Yadav, R. R. Kushwaha, Harendra Pratap Singh Choudhri, Pavan Kumar Singh, Vishakha Yadav

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 64-67
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830626

Sugarcane is one of the important commercial crops and plays a crucial role in the agro-industrial economy of India. The present study was undertaken on hundred farmers of sugarcane cultivation in Sant Kabir Nagar district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Based on the nature of data, Cobb-Douglas production function was used for estimation resource use efficiency of sugarcane cultivation. The results revealed that return to scale on marginal, small and medium farms were 0.812, 0.912 and 0.962 respectively which are less than unity. It means, sugarcane cultivation is characterized by decreasing return to scale and the Coefficient of multiple determinations (R2) were 82.50, 84.10 and 87.50 percent the variation of output by dependent variable viz. seed, irrigation, plant protection and manure and fertilizers. The marginal value productivity of seed, irrigation, plant protection and manure and fertilizers measure were considerably high on all size groups of farms except fertilizers and seed on marginal farms. It indicates that positive relation is further scope for increase in the investment to realize more return.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Role in Agricultural Technology: A Case of Rural Bangladesh

Md. Shajahan Kabir, Md. Monjurul Islam, Monzur Morshed, Shakawath Hussain, Rahima Akther

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 68-79
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830627

This study analyzed the gender role in agricultural activities with respect to the change of technologies and determine their implications for improvement of household status in Netrokona district. The study followed the simple random sampling technique to select 300 sample respondents for household survey through the semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis such as, number and percentages, was used. Multiple regressions used in order to explore the relationship between the income and other factors. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques were utilized. Women perception index (WPI) was measured using rank ordered approach. The findings showed that there has been significant change occurred with the livestock rearing activities which are 116.79% after adoption in new technology. According to this study, male are involved in decision making in the following activities as reported by the respondents: sale of produce (84%),  purchase and repair (78%), weed control (70%), land preparation (76%), spraying (65%) and planting (51%), where women respondents reported that they are mostly involves in harvesting 89%, processing 81%, manuring 48% and weed control 59%. Our research also shows that 78% and 73% of men have owned small equipment and thresher, Ox-plough, and power tiller where women own only 21 percent, 2 percent, and 5 percent respectively. It is evident that the perception regarding farming with adoption of new technology attain highest score and  2nd highest ranked perception is technical training on  technology, similarly the 3rd ranked occupied is adoption in HYV where last rank score on use of indigenous technology. It means that most of them prefer modern technology in terms of productivity. The experience on modern technology of respondents has a positive coefficient and it was 0.492. Given these facts, our research has explained what keeps women’s rates of modern agricultural technology adoption low.

Open Access Original Research Article

Willingness to Adopt the Recommended Practices of Organic Turmeric among Kandhamal Farmers of Odisha

Asish Panigrahi, Satarupa Modak, Chitrasena Padhy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 80-87
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830628

Turmeric Cultivation is one of livelihood for the Kondh tribes of Kandhamal District of Odisha. These farmers were cultivating this crop with their traditional knowledge of crop practices without any intervention of chemical inputs. From the studies, it is found that farmers of the district were economically and educationally backward. Turmeric of Kandhamal is well known for its healing property, color, aroma etc. and received GI tag for its unique features. From the secondary data it was found that there were few public and private extension actors trying to promote organic recommended package of practices for Turmeric.  And, to boost willingness among farmers towards recommended organic Turmeric various socio-economic variables might be responsible. In this view the present study was carried out (2020-21) in Kandhamal district of Odisha to understand attitude towards recommended organic Turmeric and socio-economic variables effecting willingness to adopt organic package of practices of Turmeric. It was found that turmeric growers had medium to high level of willingness to adopt the recommended agricultural practice. And among selected socio-economic variables respondent’s total family member, Members help in family farming and adult male had negative and significantly relationship with willingness to adopt the recommended agricultural practices of organic turmeric. Private extension actors and State Horticulture Department training were continually motivating them to adopt recommended agricultural practices of organic turmeric. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Knowledge Gain through Training Programmes on Scientific Pig Farming

A. Chakraborty, P. K. Pathak, L. K. Nath, J. Das, S. Bhuyan, D. Hazarika, J. Dutta

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 88-92
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830629

The present study was conducted with an objective of assessing the knowledge gained by trainees about various aspects of scientific pig farming organised by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Lakhimpur. A total of 180 numbers of trainees participated in trainings on scientific pig farming over a period during 2019 and 2020 on random selection. The data were collected on pre and post completion of the training with the help of questionnaire which were distributed to the trainees before training. The questionnaire consisted of 13 different aspects on knowledge on Indian and exotic Pig Breeds, knowledge on selection of piglets, castration age of piglets, attainment of puberty in pigs, oestrus period of a sow, heat detection in gilt, gestation period of sow, care of young piglets, deworming in pigs, marketing age of pigs, feeding of lactating sow, knowledge on Vaccination of pigs and common diseases of pigs.

A score of one and zero score was assigned for each correct and incorrect response, respectively for analysis of knowledge gain. It was found that majority of the trainees were youths (52.22%), followed by Middle aged (32.22%) and Old age (15.55%).Majority of the trainees were from ST category (33.88%) followed by OBC (32.77%), General (21.11%) and SC (12.22%). Among those who attended training 32.22% had education till middle school level followed by primary 22.77, 16.11 % were found illiterate whereas 15% completed secondary, 10.55% higher secondary and 3.33 % completed education upto graduate level.

The overall knowledge of trainees on pre training evaluation was found to be 19.17% which ended up on a high note with 93.15% on post training evaluation, which is indicative of the positive impact of training on knowledge gain.

Evaluation of knowledge gain on various aspects of scientific pig farming showed that maximum knowledge was gained on vaccination in pigs (88.89%, Rank I) and minimum gain was in knowledge of gestation period of sow (54.44%, Rank XIII).

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge about the Pest Management Strategies to Improve the Socio-economic Profile of Chawnhu and Thingkah Villages of District Lawngtlai

Meenakshi Malik, Mukesh Sehgal, C. Lalfakawma, Subhash Chander

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 93-97
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830630

The present study describes the Socioeconomic Status and Knowledge about the pest management strategies Lawngtlai district, Mizoram. The two villages viz. Chawnhu and Thingkah of this district are selected for the implementation of the research.  A designed questionnaire was designed to collect the information about the targeted objectives. Efforts were made to have one-to-one interaction with the farmers. A total number of fifty farmers have been selected randomly from each village and revealed that the farmers are very poor backward and has very poor knowledge about the pest, natural enemies, and recently developed pest management strategies. There may be very much less expertise about the rural techniques and with no focus on their stepped forward management practices.  But was also felt that the farmers are keen to learn and apply the recently developed strategies which may improve the socio-economic standard moreover, it can be triggered by introducing facilities of modern technology such as Information and communication tools in the management of crop pest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Profile Characteristics of Village Agricultural Workers on Role Performance in Odisha

Anmol Panda, . Amardeep

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 98-107
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830631

Aim: To study the personal, psychological, communication and professional characteristics of Village Agricultural workers (VAWs).

Study Design: Analytical research design was adopted to use facts or information already available to make a critical evaluation

Place and Duration of Study: Nine districts of Odisha were randomly selected from major three revenue administrative divisions Cuttack, Berhampur and Sambalpur between first week of December 2019 to first week of February 2020.

Methodology: Village Agricultural Workers (VAWs) of Odisha state served as the population for the study. As many as 728 VAWs in the selected nine districts constituted the sampling frame. After the discussion with the experts and various limitations of the researcher, 40 per cent of the VAWs from the sampling frame were chosen for the study. Thus, the final sample size comprised of 292 (40% of 728) VAW respondents. The method of proportional allocation in stratified sampling procedure was adopted for the selection of respondents. VAWs from each selected district were selected randomly following proportional allocation. Based on the literature, a total of 14 characteristics were taken to document the profile of the Village Agricultural Workers (VAW) who were working in state agricultural department.

Results: The results indicated that most of the Village Agricultural workers (VAWs) were middle aged (73.63%), male (66.44%) had formal education up to intermediate level (72.94%). Professional characteristics revealed that almost four-fifths (79.80%) have service experience of 6-14 years and had medium level (74.32%) of training exposure. Most (57.19%) of the VAWs had area of jurisdiction under 9 to 36 villages and majority (87.67%) visiting 3 to 4 times a week. Study found that 78.08 percent of VAWs had high orientation towards extension profession with majority (74.32%) of VAWs perceiving neutral organizational climate in agricultural offices and 64.38 percent are having medium level of organizational commitment. Psychological characteristics revealed that 66.78 percent of VAWs have medium level of self-confidence with moderate job satisfaction (64.38%) and moderate leadership ability (79.11%). Communication characteristics of VAWs shows moderate level of Communication competence of VAWs (64.38%). Role performance analysis shows that majority of VAWs has medium (70.55%) level of role performance.

Conclusion: The analysis of these profile characteristics could be crucial in understanding efficiency of state department, agricultural offices and VAWs’ own individual career development. It could be crucial for policymakers in preparing appropriate interventions to enhance role performance of VAWS through training programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Consumer WTP and Respondent’s Income Wise Consumption Pattern for Khandsari Sugar in Coimbatore City of Tamil Nadu

G. Vivek, T. Samsai, K. Mahendran, S. Praveena

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 108-116
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830632

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is one of the most important commercial crops of the tropics. It is the main source of sugar in the world. Jaggery (Gur) and Khandsari sugar are a traditional product of sugarcane which is the natural mixture of sugar and molasses. Jaggery and Khandsari are found to be a major agro-processing industry in rural sector. Today’s scenario people were shifting towards the consumption of khandsari sugar due to various reasons. Hence this study was carried out with consumer willingness to pay towards the price of khandsari sugar and their consumption wise pattern through their income. Convenience sampling was adopted and collected the information from 120 respondents of Coimbatore city as divided of five zones. Primary data was collected through well-structured interview schedule and Chi-square test, Multiple regression analysis were carried out to analyse the study. The outcomes of the study revealed that income was significantly associated with consumption usage, purchasing frequency, purchasing quantity and consumption purpose. Also age, educational status and monthly income influenced the consumer to pay more for khandsari sugar.

Aim: The purpose of the study was to find the consumer consumption pattern and their willingness to pay towards the purchase of khandsari sugar. Here, income was analysed with consumption pattern in Coimbatore city of Tamil Nadu.

Design of study and Methodology: The study was limited to Coimbatore city of Tamil Nadu with the sample of 120 respondents. The city was categorised into five zones such as south, north, central, east and west. The sampling method adopted here was convenience sampling. The data were collected through well-structured interview schedule and information was collected the people who purchased khandsari sugar.  Chi-square test was used to analyse the consumption pattern of khandsari sugar whereas for consumer willingness to pay regression analysis was use.


  • Income status of the sample respondents showed that average income peoples preferred to purchase khandsari sugar and were medium sized families.
  • The consumption usage of khandsari sugar by the sample respondents revealed that, income was the main factor which influenced to consume more khandsari sugar
  • Consumer willingness to pay for khandsari sugar resulted that, the maximum chance of consumer willingness to pay for purchase of khandsari sugar was family type and the minimum chance of consumer willingness to pay for purchase of khandsari sugar was family size.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aquafarming and Its Impact on Rural Communities of Bangladesh

Md. Shajahan Kabir, Md. Mubarack Hossain, Monzur Morshed, Monira Parvin Moon, . Rukanuzzaman, Md. Mehedi Hasan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 117-127
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i830633

The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of aquafarming on rural communities particularly on the fishermen in terms of socio-economic condition in some selected area of Muktagacha upazila in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. For collection of data through participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools with a well-structured questionnaire from July to December, 2017 a total of sixty fishermen were selected randomly. Twelve livelihood aspects of fishers were selected and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient (r) was used to evaluate the changes of socio-economic status. The findings of the study revealed that through aquaculture majority of the respondents about 58.3% moderately changed their livelihood status, while 31.7% reached higher level and only 10% of the respondents were under lower level. Out of twelve selected livelihood aspects seven were positively correlated but four of them had no relationship with their changing livelihood pattern through aquafarming. The survey identified that fishermen faced various problems such as social, economic and technical. Mostly lack of capital, illiteracy on fish farming, unawareness on health, vulnerability and few institutional supports were the main constraints in their upliftment. The findings of the research revealed that aquafarming resolutely contributing for the development of socio-economic condition of fishers in the explored area and recommended that GOs, NOGs and stakeholders should take more steps for sustainable development.