Open Access Case study

A Framework for Assessment of Micro Level Vulnerability to Climate Variability of Farmers: A Case Study in Kerala, India

S. Ajmal, T. Paul Lazarus, Aswathy Vijayan, Brigit Joseph, R. V. Manju

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 204-209
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930658

The vulnerability of farmers to climate variability is an important topic of discussion. It varies depending upon diverse factors that disturbing it, likewise, the extent of vulnerability varies according to different levels, i.e.; from a whole country level to an individual level or in other words from macro to micro level. This study attempts to build a framework for the assessment of the microlevel vulnerability of farmers. A vulnerability index was made from normalized values of three major component indices (sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity), which is made up of a selected number of sub components. The study was conducted by selecting respondents from two districts of Kerala, and it was found that this method can be used as an empirical method to interpret the vulnerability to climate variability, keeping the fact that it is only a constrained measure of risk.

Open Access Short Research Article

A Study on Socio-economic Condition of Sheep Rearers of District Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand

Saumya Rawat, Sanjay Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 122-128
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930649

Background: Uttarakhand is a hilly state and a very little land is under cultivation but animal husbandry appears to be a good source of livelihood for farmers and sheep rearing is one of the major components of animal husbandry in Uttarakhand which help farmers to run their life. Sheep rearing is very much prevailing in hilly regions of the State.

Aim: To find the socio-economic condition of the rearers.

Methodology: A study was conducted in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. A total of 80 rearers were selected randomly from the Bhatwari block of Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand and a pre structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the rearers. Respondents were classified into three categories on the basis of number of sheep viz. small (having less than 50 sheep), medium (between 50-100 sheep), and large (more than 100 sheep).

Results: Study showed that small rearers have 46.86 average numbers of sheep whereas medium size rearers have 73.88 and large rearers have 258.52 average numbers of sheep. Out of which number of Ram were lowest. Most of the rearers were from 35-50 years of age group. 48.74 % of rearers had completed their primary education and 14.11% of rearers were illiterate. Majority of rearers (i.e., 68.75) were engaged with two occupations. On an average 57.48 % of rearers were OBCs (Other backward class) and 29.99 % were from tribal community(i.e.,Bhotiya). The average income of small, medium and large farm group is ₹53,440, ₹89,627 ₹1,96,802 respectively.

Conclusion: It was concluded that there is need to eradicate the lack of awareness about the new technologies and educate the rearers about more efficient way of sheep rearing. With this women participation and youth should also be encouraged to involve in sheep rearing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evolution of Dairy Cooperatives in Karnataka: A Special Focus on Women’s Dairy Cooperatives

R. S. Geetha, P. S. Srikantha Murthy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930634

The present research is mainly based on secondary data and aimed to study dairy cooperatives’ evolution and especially those involving women in Karnataka. The indicators used in study are growth rate and percentages. In India and Karnataka, the analysis indicated that growth in milk production has increased significantly in the past 3 decades and overall, except during 2000-01 to 2009-10 period for Karnataka. As of July, 2020 there were 14 Milk Unions covering all the districts of the state with 14682 Dairy Cooperatives functioning and 25.30 lakh milk producers. Bengaluru and Kolar milk unions are larger unions in the state contributing around 25 per cent to total dairy cooperatives and milk producers in Karnataka, while contributing around 34 per cent to average milk procurement. The wide spread establishment of WDCs was possible in Karnataka through STEP scheme which was implemented by KMF with the support of Government of Karnataka. The total number of WDCs registered in Karnataka is of 4494 and currently functioning ones among them is 4046. Around 60 per cent of WDCs are set up through STEP in Karnataka over the years.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Gender based Study on Disagreement between Parents and Adolescents for use of Social Networking Sites

Kshiptimayee Patra, Sampreety Gogoi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930635

In today's world, social networking services are quite popular among adolescents. The usage of social networking sites is seen differently by adolescents and parents. As a result, when it comes to the use of social networking sites, there is a distinction between parents and adolescents. In today's world, parents value their adolescent's education, social life and health irrespective of their gender.

Aim: The goal of this study was to see if there was a gender difference in parent and adolescent disagreement regarding the use of social networking site.

Methodology: A multi-stage selection method was used to choose 118 adolescents and each one of their parents (a total of 236 samples) from five schools in the Jorhat Block. To gather the essential information, a self-made questionnaire was used.

Results: The results revealed from the findings that there was no significant gender difference in disagreement between parents and adolescents for use of Social networking sites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio Economic Status of Farming Community of Char Area of Dhubri District, Assam

R. K. Nath, B. Sarma, M. Choudhury, P. Ahmed, G. K. Upamanya, S. M. Khayer, M. Rahman, G. K. Sarma, F. A. Ahmed, R. Sarma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 14-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930636

The present study delves into the Socio-economic Status of Farmers of Char area of Dhubri district of Assam. The study was confined to the selected Char areas of the district, namely Faujdar Char, Simlabari and Bamunpara Part IV village. The quantitative study collected information using personal interview of each farmer through a semi-structured questionnaire. A multistage purposive cum random sampling design was followed for the purpose. A total sample of 150 farmers were randomly selected from the three indicated villages during 2021. This study revealed that farmers were of poor economic condition with low literacy and knowledge about agricultural methods. The farmers grow only rice, jute, summer and winter vegetables and without any awareness about their improved management practices. It is imperative that  the introduction of modern agricultural technologies can uplift the present socioeconomic status of the farming community in the Char areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Cage Culture Practices in Chandil Reservoir, Jharkhand

Shweta Kumari, Arpita Sharma, Arup Kumar Choudhary, P. S. Ananthan, S. N. Ojha, Rama Sharma, Asha Landge

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 21-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930637

The present study was carried out in Chandil reservoir which is situated in Saraikela-Kharsawan district, Jharkhand and has 933 cages installed for fish culture. The objective of the study was to assess cage culture practices in this reservoir. The assessment was done using the NFDB guidelines of cage culture in inland open water bodies of India using 15 parameters. Interviews with officials of Department of Fisheries and fishers was done to enquire if the guidelines were followed using a 3 point scale. This was corroborated by observation and field visits, so as to adopt the triangulation method. It was found that 66.67% of the guidelines were being followed fully. However, 33.33% of guidelines like water quality, cage maintenance, fish health monitoring, use of safety measures and environment precaution and assessment, guidelines were partly followed due to certain reasons. Accordingly suggestions have been provided. It was concluded that the cage culture practices followed in Chandil reservoir is good. Improvements can be done on those parameters where guidelines are being partly followed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Student’s Attitude and Comfort towards Online Education in India

Subodh Agarwal, Sapna Grewal, Suresh Kumar, Sonia Goel

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 31-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930638

The aim of this investigation was to study about the student’s attitude and comfort level towards online education in India. It also aimed to study the relationship between personal variable and student’s attitude and comfort level. The present study was conducted online in different district of India. The data were collected online from 547 students of different colleges with the help of a questionnaire developed in a Google form. The results indicated that more than half of the students (52.83%) were from Government institute (Central/state). The results also revealed that majority of the students (78.98%) had access to computers and Wi-fi in their institute while 61.61% students had access on the online material for study at home. More than half of the respondents (55.94%) reported sufficiently availability about the various online educational portals/tools /apps. More than half of the students (59.23%) agreed that short-term hands-on training/workshop about the available tools/apps/ portals will help in better understanding of the online mode of learning. 51.55% of the students responded that they did not enjoy online mode of learning more than the typical classroom teaching. The results showed a significant association for attitude and comfort level of students towards online teaching mode. 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Production and Marketing Constraints of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Growers in Bishnupur District of Manipur

Kenjit Tongbram, Y. Chakrabarty Singh, Oinam Krishnadas Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 37-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930639

The study was conducted to analyze the production and marketing constraints of French beans in the Bishnupur district of Manipur. The primary data was collected through a personal interview technique from 100 respondent farmers. Garrett's ranking technique was used for the analysis. Higher cost of labor, pesticide and fertilizer, inadequate irrigation facilities, high seed cost, non-availability of labor, credit, and seed on time, and lack of technical guidance and credit facilities were the main constraint’s found during the production.  In case of marketing constraints, price fluctuation high perishability of the produce,  high transportation cost and lack of transportation and storage facilities, presence of an exploitative middleman,  bandhs and strikes, untimely payment of sale, lack of price and market information, and absence of regulated markets were the major constraints. These constraints are giving huge hindrances to the farmers during the production and marketing and hence proper remedies should be imposed so that the production and marketing of this particular crop can be improved efficiently.

Open Access Original Research Article

Marketing Activities in the Fruit Industry: Case Study of Banana in Khoai Chau District, Hung Yen Province, Vietnam

Nguyen Van Phuong, Do Quang Giam, Vu Thi Hai

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 42-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930640

Aims: The study aims to overview about the marketing activities of banana industry in Vietnam based on the case study in Khoai Chau district, Vietnam.

Methodology: Both primary and secondary data were used in this study. Primary data was collected through face-to-face interviews and mobile phone with market participants using semi-structured questionnaire in two year 2016 and 2019. The descriptive analysis method was used to describe channels of distribution, marketing practices of farmers and traders, flow of product from producers to consumers, and problems that banana farmers and traders encounter in their business operations.

Results: The results show that banana was sold through 13 channels for both domestic and international markets. At traders’ level market, non-contract was popularly applied by retailers in both selling and buying operations. Majority of banana growers have small operations and engage in small transactions and individually with buyers. They do not have market power in setting the price. They are often faced with unstable price and difficulty in entering high income market. Establishing banana grower association in each commune would enable growers to maintain and monitor the quality of banana especially among small growers. Though collective marketing, they can link with large and stable potential markets such as supermarkets and other institutional buyers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Income and Employment Pattern of MNREGA Programme in District Sant Kabir Nagar

Ambrish Kumar Verma, Bhartendu Yadav, Anil Sachan, Akash

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 53-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930641

The MGNREGA scheme is an initiative to improve rural livelihood, but also there are several pros and cons. So, this research is being done to study the scheme in the selected area. The study was conducted using purposive cum random sampling procedure and seventy-five respondents were selected from a block of district. The data collected through personal interview method were classified, tabulated and analysed in the light of objectives of the study. MGNREGA is a beneficiary scheme that improves the socioeconomic face of the maximum rural households in the selected research area. It is seen that majority of the respondents are enjoying the income and employment rewards from the scheme and are further seeking it in the future. The wages provided and works assigned are found satisfactory to the households, and MGNREGA enhances livelihood security in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Awareness about Different Scholarship Schemes among the Students of Assam Agricultural University

. Santosh, Mayuri Bora

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 58-65
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930642

Various academic scholarship schemes are introduced in India with the aim of inspiring students for better academic performance. However, for availing such scholarships it depends largely on the level of awareness among the students about the scholarship schemes. Though a considerable number of scholarship schemes are available in India, level of awareness regarding scholarship among students is not known. The present study was conducted to assess the awareness of Agricultural University students on different Scholarship Schemes. Two hundred forty undergraduate students from Assam Agricultural University were included as respondents by using stratified random sample method for the study. One questionnaire was prepared on “Google Form” for online data collection. Frequency, percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation and chi square test were used for analysing the data statistically. The findings reveal that majority of the students of Assam Agricultural University had awareness on Ishan Uday Scholarship and State Merit Scholarship for Assam, while slightly more than 50.00 per cent respondents were aware about National Talent Scholarship.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Adoption of New Agricultural Technologies by Cooperative Farmers in Nigeria

Onuoha, Onyekachi Chibueze, Umebali, Emmanuel

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 66-75
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930643

Globally, advanced technologies are invented or discovered for the improvement of farming activities. In Nigeria, such technologies are gradually being available from research institutes and imported technologies. The low outputs of farms suggest that these technologies seem not to be highly adopted in Nigeria and the factors that determine the adoption of these technologies are yet to be explored. The study examined the socio-economic and institutional determinants of the adoption of new agricultural technologies by cooperative farmers in Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select three hundred and twenty farmers (160 individual farmers and 160 co-operative farmers), statistically derived using the Taro Yamane formula. The data used for this study were sourced from primary data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were deployed in the analysis of data. Findings revealed that sex, marital status, farm size and annual farm income socio-economic are the socioeconomic factors affecting the adoption of new agricultural technologies while the frequency of contact with extension agents is the key institutional factor affecting the adoption of agricultural technologies. Recommendations made include that extension services should be improved by the Agricultural Development Programme. There should be at least two extension agents to each community who should visit the farms regularly and expose the farmers to the latest agricultural technologies through Small Plots Adoption Trials (SPATS) and On-Farm Adaptive Research. The extension service workers in ADP should enjoin individual farmers to form effective groups (Co-operative Societies) for easy diffusion of the agricultural technological innovations.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Consumer Awareness, Preference and Buying Behavior for Cold Pressed Oil in Hyderabad, India

Srujana Kethavath, . Seema, Radhika Pagadala, . Supriya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 85-90
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930645

The interest in natural and organic food, including oils and fats, has grown in the last few years. The cold-pressed extraction concept was uniquely used to extract oils from oilseeds, and these cold pressed oils have a great significance in cosmetics, medicinal purposes and are also used in cooking. The usage of the cold pressed oil has increased in recent days. A study was conducted in Hyderabad city of Telangana state to investigate the consumer awareness level, preferences, buying behavior and opinion on cold pressed oils and their willingness to buy. The study included a sample of 90 consumers of cold pressed oil. Consumers were selected randomly from segmented areas. Percentages and factor analysis methods were used for analysis of the data collected. The study reported that respondents have a minimum awareness of cold pressed oils, whereas the consumers of cold pressed oil preferred health aspects as the main reason in purchasing it, price was the other main factor that influenced the purchase decision of the consumers. Educational level and income were directly linked to the buying behavior of the consumers as majority of the respondents were graduates who were residing in urban areas with an earning capacity of above 9 lakhs per annum. These attributes implied that literates and high-income respondents were comparatively more aware of the health benefits of cold pressed oils and were also willing to pay a higher price. Product attributes, product appearance, good service offered and nutritional aspects are four factors which influence the consumers to purchase cold pressed oil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Food Consumption Pattern and Dietary Diversity among the Farmers in Kanyakumari and Perambalur Districts of Tamil Nadu

Y. Melba, K. R. Ashok, A. Vidhyavathi, S. Kalaivani, P. Vennila

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 91-97
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930646

Aims: To study the consumption pattern and dietary diversity among the farmers in rural areas.

Study Design: Random Sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: Primary data were collected from the Kanyakumari and Perambalur districts of marginal and small farmers between July and August 2020.

Methodology: The study was conducted in Kanyakumari and Perambalur districts based on Tamil Nadu state planning commission report 2017.The Simpson index of dietary diversity was calculated to score the quantity and consumption of food items were consumed. The multiple linear regressions were used to understand the variation of socio-economic and demographic features of the household members.

Results: The overall result of the SIDD score for Kanyakumari district was 0.73 and 0.72 for Perambalur district. When compared to Perambalur district, the results clearly showed that Kanyakumari district farmers had a higher dietary diversity. Because the food habits of Kanyakumari district farmers differ significantly from those of Perambalur district farmers, owing to a higher intake of nutritious foods in Kanyakumari district farmers.

Conclusion: The factors like monthly income and education most influence the household dietary pattern and nutrition status of Kanyakumari district rather than the Perambalur district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Agricultural Technology Information Centre of Assam Agricultural University on Personal and Economic Empowerment of Farmers in Jorhat, Assam

Chiranjeeta Dutta, Debajit Borah, Pallabi Das

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 98-110
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930647

The present study was carried out with the objective to assess Agricultural Technology Information Centre (ATIC) of Assam Agricultural University (AAU) on personal and economic empowerment of farmers in Jorhat district of Assam. A random, purposive cum snowball sampling technique was followed to conduct the study. 8 villages of Jorhat district which are located within the radius of 50 kilometre from ATIC were selected on random basis. From the 8 villages, 120 respondents were selected purposively by using snowball sampling technique. The collected data were systematically arranged, classified, tabulated and analyzed with the help of different statistical techniques and tests namely frequency distribution, percentage, mean, standard deviation, weighted mean score, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, test of significance of correlation coefficient and chi-square test. The findings of the study revealed that 17.50 per cent respondents had low, 60.83 per cent respondents had medium and 21.67 per cent respondents had high level of overall personal and economic empowerment. The study indicated that age had negative and significant relationship, whereas operational land holding and annual family income of the respondents had positive and significant relationship with personal and economic empowerment of the respondents. It was found from the study that caste, education, occupation and social participation of the respondents had significant association with personal and economic empowerment of the respondents. From the study it can be concluded and recommended that various extension strategies like market led extension, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) led extension and agrepreneurship led extension should be implemented in integrated approach to enhance the empowerment of farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Weather Variability and Instability in Agricultural Production: Evidence from Odisha

Manoj Kumar Das

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 111-121
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930648

This study focused on exploring the weather variability induced instability in agriculture in the Odisha, India. In this study, growth and instability in ten major crops are analysed, followed by a depiction of weather variability in Odisha and then the association between weather variability and instability in selected crops are analysed using regression analysis. It is observed that weather variability is a major concern in the state of Odisha. In the context of agrarian economy of Odisha, the dimensions, magnitude and erratic nature of the weather variability and extreme weather events have made the situation more complex. Wide variations are observed in the rainfall both across time and space in the state. The long term average rainfall is indicating a declining trend. The weather variability has produced profound negative effects on agricultural production and yields in the state, causing agricultural fluctuations and has been a serious threat to the agrarian economy. Empirical findings lend credence to the negative effects of weather variability on agricultural yield and the regression analyses of yield instability on weather variability have only reaffirmed the same. The negative effects of weather variability on crop yield leads to a clear policy implication of proper provisioning of irrigation and weather variability resistance crop for increasing the crop yields and reduce the crop yield instability.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Performance of Regulated Markets in Tamil Nadu

S. Surender, P. Balaji, K. R. Ashok

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 129-140
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930650

The aim of the paper is to study the performance of regulated markets in TamilNadu . Regulated markets are essential for regulating and monitoring the financial and economic system thereby reducing market charges and providing facilities to producers and sellers in the market. At present in Tamil Nadu 284 regulated markets are functioning under 23 market committees to ensure fair prices to farmers produce. The primary data were collected by structured questionnaire to study the constraints faced by the farmers in regulated market and also the brain storming session were conducted between market committee, farmers, traders, FPO’s(Farmer Producer Organisation), etc.. to improve the efficiency of regulated market. The secondary data were collected from District market committees. The tools used in this study are Percentage analysis and Garett ranking method. The results shows that nearly 80 to 90 percent of Market fee collected outside, for the sale and purchase of notified agricultural produce would be affected due to the farm bill 2020 and this problems can be fairly rectified by some alternative measures or models in which market shops construction, Primary processing centres, etc.. will improve the performance of the regulated market. The major constraints faced by the farmers was high transportation cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Role on Food Security and Consumption Practices in Bangladesh

Md. Hamidur Rahman, Md. Shajahan Kabir, Monira Parvin Moon, Atia Sharmin Ame, Md. Monjurul Islam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 141-150
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930651

This study was carried out to investigate the factors affecting food security status, patterns of food consumption, and changes in consumption behavior. It also evaluated the gender role in food security and consumption practices in the rural areas of Bangladesh. The research was both in quantitative and qualitative in nature. Qualitative research tools such as FGD, KII and Case Study were used to collect the primary data. Data analysis was done by Microsoft Excel and SPSS. Binary Logistic regression model was used to determine the factors affecting in food security status of the selected households. Regression result shows that income, availability of food and food stock were found to be positive and size of household negatively associated with the food security. Rice dominates the food consumption pattern of the rural people. Income, production, education and awareness are causes of change in consumption behaviour of the people of study area. Men have pivotal role in household food security. Male members involve in income, assure of family assets, and on the contrary female have to manage almost all the unproductive household affairs. In the poorer household women have a little contribution in food security due to male dominating. Women contributions were more than that of men in household food consumption. Most of the household related tasks and household works related to food consumption were done by female.

Open Access Original Research Article

Temporal and Spatial Production Price Behaviour of Marketed Rapeseed-mustard in Rajasthan

Kailash Chand Bairwa, Uma Nath Shukla, Harkesh Kumar Balai, Anju Yadav, Prahlad Ram Raiger, Arjun Singh Rajput, Banwari Lal

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 151-160
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930652

The present study has been carried out with the objectives of examining growth performance of area and production of rapeseed-mustard along with behavioural change in price and arrivals of rapeseed-mustard in major districts of Rajasthan. The study period from 2010-11 to 2019-20 was selected for growth analysis and January, 2011 to December, 2020 selected for study of price and arrivals of rapeseed-mustard. The results shown that production of rapeseed-mustard was increased at positive rate and area at negative in Alwar and Sawai Madhopur districts. In case of Bharatpur, the area and production of rapeseed-mustard was reported positive growth rate. The instability in annual arrivals of rapeseed-mustard was recorded very high in KUMS, Alwar and KUMS, Dig as compared to KUMS, Nagar and KUMS, Sawai Madhopur. In case of prices, the variability in all selected Krishi Upaj Mandi Samities were record in mid-range.


  • Highest arrivals instability was reported in Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti, Alwar
  • The production of rapeseed-mustard was showed positive growth rate in Rajasthan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study the Market Competitiveness and Its Performance in Green Chilli Seeds Market

Stephan Raj, A. D. Naik, B. K. Naik, N. M. Kerur

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 161-166
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930653

The green chilli seeds market is majorly controlled by private companies in India. As a result, private companies are trying to make a profit with good quality seeds along with taking the good promotion activities in the market. The study was taken in Hassan district of Karnataka, India. In this study to know the market structure, the Herfindal Index was used and it found that East–West Company had a market share of 55.12 per cent followed by Seminis seeds with 22.44 per cent. Herfindal Index was 3,762.75 which depicted a moderate degree of concentration in the green chilli seed market in the study area. To know the performance of each selected company in the green chill market was calculated with help of a grid. The East-West and Beejo Sheetal companies performance was equal in the market. The display of product, appropriating schemes and distribution depth of East-West seeds company was foremost because the East-West company seeds come in metal box package which makes them appear more attractive, quality protected and prove to less damage during transit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Adaptation Strategies of Agricultural Farmers to Climate Change Vulnerability in Odisha

Manoj Kumar Das

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 167-179
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930654

Climate change poses severe threat to agriculture sector in terms of welfare losses especially for marginal & smallholder farmers whose main source of livelihood derives from agriculture. It is required to neutralize the potential adverse effects of climate change if welfare losses to this vulnerable segment of the society are to be avoided. So this study aims to assess the agricultural farmers’ vulnerability and determine quantitatively the factors that contribute in adaptation strategies. To accomplish the stated objective, primary surveys of agricultural farmers are designed and data are collected to analyse the results using probit regression model. The study is conducted in the Jagatsinghpur district of Odisha, India. For the study, a total of 197 farmers’ households were surveyed and to assess the vulnerability of farmers’ household to climate change, IPCC-LVI approach is used. Then to identify the determinants of adaptation strategies, a regression model is run using probit model. The results reveal that farmers are moderately vulnerable to climate change in the study area. Further, marginal & small farmers are relatively more vulnerable than medium and large farmers to climate change. It is observed that size of the farm, income level, access to credit facilities, extension training and access to climate & weather information are important determinants of adaptation strategies of farmers. Therefore, the study concludes that better credit facilities, extension training facilities and dissemination of climate information may be done through policy intervention for more adaptation strategies by farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Consumption Pattern of Various Types of Major Dry Fruits and Nuts in Coimbatore City

D. Sivaselvan, T. Samsai, K. Mahendran, M. R. Duraisamy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 180-191
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930655

Aim: The purpose of the study was to find the consumption pattern of various types of major dry fruits and nuts in Coimbatore city of Tamil Nadu.

Design of the Study: Analytical or diagnostic research and exploratory research design were used as the study aims to find the consumption pattern of major dry fruits and nuts in Coimbatore city. Survey was carried out through a well-structured interview schedule. Primary data was collected using interview schedule from the sample respondents.

Methodology: The sampling technique used for data collection was the convenience sampling method. The sample respondents in this study were selected from different regions of Coimbatore city who had purchased major dry fruits and nuts in supermarkets, hypermarkets, retail stores and bakeries. Total sample size for the study was 150. Tools used for analysis were percentage analysis and chi-square test for consumption patterns of major dry fruits and nuts.

Findings: Most of the sample respondents were highly aware about the health benefits and nutritional content of dry fruits and nuts. Age is significantly associated with purchasing frequency, consumption pattern of major dry fruits and nuts. Consumption pattern of major dry fruits and nuts varies according with the age of consumers. There is no significant association between gender and consumption pattern of major dry fruits and nuts. Family income was significantly associated with the quantity of consumption of major dry fruits and nuts like almond, pistachios, cashews and raisins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Perceived by Veterinarians of Tamil Nadu State of India in Providing Veterinary Services

R. Sangameswaran, P. V. K. Sasidhar, K. Ramesh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 192-197
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930656

Objective: To determine the constraints faced by veterinarians in rendering services to the livestock farmers.

Study Design: Ex-post facto study design

Methodology: Data were collected from the Veterinarians in State Department of Animal Husbandry (SDAH) of Tamil Nadu, India during the year 2019 through pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and Garret ranking was used for analyzing the data. A total of 36 constraints were identified through focused group discussion and included in the questionnaire under different heads viz., Organizational, Job content Psychological, Institutional and Information delivery and administrative related constraints.

Results: The results revealed that inadequacy of front line officers, arbitrary fixation of targets, less avenue for promotions, inadequate supporting staff and inadequate research extension linkages were identified as the major constraints that hinders the service delivery.

Conclusion: this study suggested that the effectiveness of service could be further accentuated if the policy makers address the above constraints by strengthening research extension linkage, filling up of vacancies, down top approach in planning pro-poor livestock development policies with due recognition to the veterinarians. 

Open Access Review Article

Transitions against the Problems of the 21st Century the Ecological Economy

Dustin Tahisin Gómez Rodríguez, Ehyder Mario Barbosa Pérez, Carlos Arturo Téllez Bedoya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 76-84
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930644

The purpose of this review article is to describe the characteristics of a dissent of the hegemonic discourse of economic science such as ecological economics, reflecting the asymmetries between them as the possibilities has to understand and solve labor transitions, economic and ecological that presents the problems of the 21st century. The methodology is qualitative, and the method is documentary review. The main conclusions are that the ecological economy establishes the dialogue with other disciplines as sustenance to respond to the challenges of the present. It conceives life as a pivot, not as another variable to obtain short-term returns but as a dynamic argumentative line.

Open Access Review Article

Socio-Economic Contribution of Donkey and Mule Rearing in Haryana (India) – A Review

Ajmer Singh, Rajender Kumar, Sanjay Kumar, Yash Pal

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 198-203
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i930657

Animal husbandry plays a vital role in growth of agrarian economy in Haryana and role of livestock is very important for livelihood in the state (Haryana). Equine (Equidae) is a major component of livestock having its four sub groups i.e. horse, pony, donkey and mule. Equine is integral part of animal husbandry as well as agriculture found worldwide and equine power is known equal to engine power. Donkey and mule are major parts of equine family and mainly reared for load carrying, cart pulling and are used as pack animals in Haryana. A great decline has been observed in donkey population during last few years in the state. As per census done by DADF (GOI) donkey population was 63000 in 1997, 8000 in 2003, 4838 in 2007, 2903 in 2012 and 800 in 2019 the state. Similarly decline was also observed in mule population and as per census done by DADF (GOI) mule population was 35000 in 1997, 14000 in 2003, 10600 in 2007, 9009 in 2012 and 2499 in 2019 in Haryana. Mechanization, ignorance of policy makers and social taboo are major factors responsible for decline of population of these animals in Haryana.