Open Access Short Research Article

Panel Discussion - Scope, Opportunities and Challenges of Agri-Journalism in India

K. B. Ramappa, R. C. Srivastava, Birendra Kumar, Mohit Sharma, A. R. Shravanthi, Tulika Kumari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 104-112
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030670

Information is crucial for taking or arriving at right decisions, it becomes an economic action that can be produced, purchased and sold. Although, agriculture is a backbone of many countries, the investment in agriculture and rural development is still lagging. Communication for agriculture is not seen as a major priority and the role of the media as an effective player in agricultural and rural development. There is hardly any meaningful debate on farmers’ issues with facts and figures. There are hardly any media that covers exclusive news on rural India in general and agriculture in particular, although 70 per cent of the population lived there. The information on agriculture coverage is limited to a particular topic such as market and market prices, advertisement, stock market, etc., in most of the medium. Many a times, this piece of information might be written by an exclusive scientist, interested journalist or as usual by the news reporters, who have the journalist skills but, not able to translate things. There is a lack of skilled manpower to cover all aspects of agriculture such as crop production output, national GDP, overcome farmer problems, farm machinery and implements, farmer lifestyle, ways of doubling of farmer income etc. This panel discussion has come up with a suggestion to start a one year Post Graduate Diploma in Agri-journalism course to train the interested students, working professionals and the budding entrepreneurs to contribute to the industry as well as farming community.

Open Access Short communication

Survey of Remote Sensing Technique in Plant Disease Management

Swapnalika Nanda Goswami, Rakesh Roshan Satapathy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 444-448
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030717

Agriculture can be contemplated as the “vertebral column” of the human life and has substantial control on country’s economy. In the aim of enhancing agricultural sustainability, effectiveness and plant health, cultivators are continuously innovating high technical and scientific estimation. Remote sensing is a quick, broad-spectrum, and sophisticated approach for analysing the spectral properties of earth surfaces from a variety of distances, ranging from satellites to ground-based platforms. In this process, the information can be obtained without coming into direct contact with the object. One of the main focus of remote sensing in agriculture production of crop including crop protection from various diseases and pests. Remote sensing technique is very helpful for incredibly spatial diagnostic results and its execution in agriculture, more sustain and safe by evading expensive and excessive use of different pesticides, fungicides etc. in production of crops.

Open Access Minireview Article

Blockchain Technology in Agriculture

V. V. S. S. Anusha, S. R. Padma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 96-103
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030669

The World Economic Forum marked Blockchain technology (BCT) as one of the seven revolutionary technologies of the future. It is a distributed ledger system ensuring transparency, security, immutability, interoperability, and provenance. This article tries to understand the technological aspects, working mechanism and explore different areas where BCT can be applied in agriculture. Data in BCT is stored in a series of blocks contains the hash value (previous and the current), timestamp, and difficulty details, secured cryptographically with a symmetric or asymmetric digital signature to avoid data tampering and fraud. Traceability (supply chain), using Smart contracts (in Agricultural insurance, Crop finance, Land records) achieved by the BCT and the companies (Carrefour, Trace harvest), states (Telangana, Andhra Pradesh), and countries (Kenya, European Union) practicing are discussed. The Farmer producer company- Sahyadri farms keen implementation of blockchain fetched benefits to farmers amid Covid times. Finally, addressing the barriers in practicing the BCT in India- Technology maturity, energy cost, and education. The massive potential of BCT is yet untapped, to reach up to the farmer level, which will flourish in the coming years.

Open Access Minireview Article

Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Plant Disease Management

Hari Prasanna Sahu, Rakesh Roshan Satapathy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 377-380
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030704

The origins of indigenous technical/traditional knowledge are local, rural &community. It's utilised in forecasting of weather for better seed germination, soil, water, and soil fertility management, disease and insect pest control of plants & animals, and post-harvest management, among other things. India has a variety of indigenous agricultural practises which are still popular in organic agriculture in India's many states and are sustainable, environment friendly, profitable, and cost-effective. This review paper contains an overview of Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Plant Disease Management to help researchers in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Economic Analysis and Profitability of Tomato ((Lycopersicon esculentum) Production in Selected Districts of Punjab State

Gurleen Kaur, Gurlal Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030659

The study was conducted to analyse the comparative economic analysis and profitability of tomato production in selected districts of Punjab state. A primary data was collected in the year 2019-20 by using multistage stratified random sampling technique. Two top ranking districts namely Amritsar and Patiala on the basis of highest area under tomato crop were purposively selected in the Punjab state. A sample of 200 tomato growers were selected, 100 each from both the districts from 21 producing villages selected from Patiala and Amritsar district of Punjab state. The results of the study indicated that the average area under tomato crop was highest in case of Amritsar district i.e. 10.90 acres as compared to 2.98 acres in Patiala district. Majority of the farmers in both the districts were using hybrid varities. 575 variety is basically demanded by the factories or tomato companies and mostly preferred by processing firms. The total variable cost was estimated highest in case of Patiala district (Rs.59262.63/acre) as compared to Amritsar district (Rs.47779.15/acre) due to the difference in their cultivation methods (Bamboo staking vs open field cultivation), varietal difference, nursery preparation methods, seasonal and geographical difference. The returns over variable cost was found higher in case of Patiala district i.e. Rs. 85142.42 than Amritsar district (Rs.61882.74). The study concluded that the tomato cultivation in Patiala district was found more profitable than Amritsar district. It was recommended that the primary agricultural credit cooperative societies and other funding agencies should be persuaded to provide adequate short term credit facilities to cover the higher operational cost. Government should ensure the supply of hybrid seeds to tomato growers at subsidized rates and ensure better minimum support price to tomato growers so that farmers received price at least cost equal to the cost of production.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Economics of Coffee (Coffea arabica) Plantation in Nagaland, India

Imsuakum Pongener, Sanjoy Das

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030660

The present study was conducted for estimating the economics of coffee plantation in Nagaland. Three districts were selected, and 60 respondents were interviewed from the selected districts. Selection of respondents was carried out with the help of snowball sampling method. Snowball sampling method was used due to limitation of secondary data on coffee farmers and the uneven distribution of coffee farmers. The cost of coffee cultivation was estimated by using different cost concepts used in farm management studies. This study revealed that total establishment cost of coffee was Rs. 22,271/- per acre. The gestation period of arabica coffee found as 4 years for the present study, thereafter the maintenance stage begins with an annual maintenance cost of Rs. 17,762/- per acre. Average yield reported in the study area was 229 kg/acre and making a gross income of Rs. 45,868 /- per acre. The net return worked out as Rs 28,106/- per acre / annum. The productivity of coffee was found as lower than the national average, which maybe as a result of poor availability of labour, the plantations are rainfed and organic by default, therefore absence of fertilizer input may attribute to low productivity. The cost as well as the yield was found lower in the marginal category and increased as the plantation size increases, this may be due to the absence of competitiveness and poor technical knowledge on the management of the plantation among the marginal growers. However having a return to scale value of 1.03 and benefit cost ratio of 1.6, it was cleared that the coffee plantation in Nagaland is profitable and can be undertaken in a commercial scale.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-personal and Economic Profile of Tribal Farmers Practicing Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Ranchi district of Jharkhand

Smriti Singh, Gyanendra Sharma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 19-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030661

The present study has been undertaken during 2019-2020 to appraise the socio-personal and economic profile of tribal farmers of Ranchi district of Jharkhand. Four villages were randomly selected from the two purposively selected blocks namely Tamar and Angara blocks of Ranchi district of Jharkhand state. The data were collected from 45 randomly selected tribal farmers practicing ITKs pertaining to pest and disease management by personal interviewing the respondents through a well tested structured interview schedule, who were considered as tribal key informants. The findings revealed that majority of the key informants were females (60%) belonging to old age group (71.11%) of Oraon community (46.66%). Majority of the respondents had education upto primary level only (31.12%), whereas about 30 per cent of them were either illiterate or could read and write only. Highest proportion of the key informants had marginal size of land holding with long farming experience (57.78%). Altogether one-third of the respondents had membership of only one organisation and 42.22 per cent of them were not associated with any formal organisation. Majority of the respondents had low level of risk-orientation (57.77%) and innovativeness (60%). Interventions on education, training and technology were suggested as the suitable measures for raising their socio-economic status. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Market Integration and Price Leadership among Major Mulberry Cocoon Markets in South India

G. R. Halagundegowda, P. Kumaresan, . Muttanna, Y. Satish

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030662

Market integration is a good proxy for measuring market efficiency and the emerging price signals from the markets can be utilized to benefit both farmers and reelers alike. The present study empirically examines the dynamic interrelationships among the prices of major cocoons markets viz. Ramanagaram (Karnataka), Sidlaghatta (Karnataka), Hindupur (Andra Pradesh) and Dharmapuri (Tamil Nadu) in terms of market integration. The monthly average prices of cross breed mulberry cocoons for a period between April 2002 and March 2021 were considered for the present study. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) (tau) testindicated that all the price series were non-stationary at level, but were stationary after first difference. The Johansen's multivariate cointegration procedure revealed existence of cointegration among the prices of cocoon markets. The Vector Error Correction Models (VECM) revealed a long run price causality running from Ramanagaram and Sidlaghatta markets to all other markets considered under study. The Granger causality test indicated a unidirectional causality running from Ramanagaram and Sidlaghatta markets to all markets and not vice versa. The prices prevailed in Ramanagaram and Sidlaghatta markets controlled and decided the current prices of cross breed cocoons both in long run and short run in all other markets considered for the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lifecycle Assessment of Tomato Production in Open Field and Greenhouse in Dharmapuri District of Tamilnadu

C. Shokila, V. M. Indumathi, N. Venkatesa Palanichamy, K. Hemaprabha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030663

Aim: Tomatoes are commercially cultivated in open- field (OF) and greenhouse (GH) in Dharmapuri district of Tamilnadu. The main aim of this study is to assess the environmental impact of selected categories in open-field and greenhouse tomato cultivation using the lifecycle assessment (LCA) methodology.

Methodology: The primary data was gathered from 30 open field and 30 greenhouse farmers in Dharmapuri district. The system boundary selected for the study is ‘cradle to farm gate’ approach and the functional unit based on mass is one ton of tomato production. The Openlca software was used for the impact assessment in which the CML- IA baseline method was used to calculate the impact categories.

Findings: The results indicated that the environmental impact of greenhouse is lower than the open-field due to high yield and less energy inputs. Field emissions of ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide due to the incorporation of large amount of manure and the usage of fertilizers were the main contributor of the impact categories.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measuring the Technical and Scale Efficiency of Smallholder Maize (Zea mays) Farmers in Cameroon: The Case of the Centre Region

Eloundou Etoundi Christian, Fon Dorothy Engwali, Minkoua Nzie Jules René

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 44-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030664

Urbanisation has led to the development of new markets, including that for cereals for human consumption, where maize cultivation has taken on an important role among smallholder producers in some countries, such as Cameroon. However, the cultivation of maize in the centre region of Cameroon raises several questions, including the efficiency of these farmers. This article presents the level and determinants of technical performance of smallholder maize farmers. The research method was based on field surveys. The study was carried out between September 2019 and December 2020 in the Centre Region of Cameroon. The research methods used included field work, field surveys through semi-structured interviews on 1060 (545 women and 515 men) maize farm managers who were selected in a reasoned method based on the file of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Cameroon. Data from the study was analysed using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and the Tobit model allowed us to identify the determinants of the performance of these maize farms. The results show that the efficiency scores of the production and income outputs are 0.7773 and 0.6707, respectively, and provide evidence for the inefficiency of smallholder maize farmers in the Centre Region. Gender, cropping system, maize variety and number of treatments have a significant and positive influence on the productive efficiency of the farms while the only determinant that influences the income efficiency of the farmers is the maize variety used. Ultimately, smallholder maize farmers are not performing well in terms of both production and income. Value chain actors need to act on three main pillars around family farms: socio-economic characteristics (the place of women and education policy), the production system (access to quality seeds, and production techniques) and institutional factors (access to extension, financing and membership to a producer organization).

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Purchase Behaviour: A Move towards Environmental Sustainability- An Application of Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM)

J. Jeevitha, S. Hemalatha, S. Moghana Lavanya, V. Anandhi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 57-66
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030665

Green purchase behaviour refers to the purchase of environmental friendly products. It is considered to be one of the most important measures to attain environmental sustainability. Present study aims towards identifying factors influencing green purchase behaviour and to establish a relationship between the factors. Using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM), a hierarchical structure has been extracted illustrating the contextual relationship between the factors. Environmental knowledge occupied the lowest form of the hierarchy which is found to be the basis for green purchase behaviour. MICMAC analysis has been applied to group the factors according to their driving power and dependency. Environmental knowledge, environmental concern, eco-labelling, product quality, and brand image have a strong driving power towards green purchasing behaviour. Green purchase intention and green purchase behaviour are highly dependent on other factors. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Perception of the Feasibility of Mithun (Bos frontalis) Farming and its Constraints in Nagaland, India

Kamni P. Biam, D. Bardhan, L. Sunitibala Devi, K. Khate, Abhijit Mitra

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 67-74
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030666

The present study was conducted on a sample of 126 mithun farmers randomly drawn from three districts of Nagaland to assess the perception of the farmers regarding the feasibility of mithun farming and its constraints that can contribute to a better understanding of the mithun production systems and its declining population in Nagaland. The farmer’s perception of the feasibility of mithun farming and its constraints was measured using a 3 and 5 point continuum Likert scale, respectively, drawing various inferences based on the respondents’ responses. A low mean perception score (MPS) of 1.06, reveals that the majority (99.21%) of the respondents are in disagreement with the statement that mithun farming is not profitable. Mithun farming according to them is very profitable which needs the right hand-holding support from financial institutions for the exploitation of its marketable potential. Due to the lack of institutional efforts in promoting mithun rearing as bankable and insured schemes, 99.21 percent of farmers held a strong perception (MPS=2.98) that mithun farming, in the long run, may not be feasible and may result in discontinuity of mithun farming in some villages. Also, the high cost of inputs for fencing (Mean value=3.91) and constant predator attack on the animal particularly the young calves (Mean value= 3.88) renders mithun farming difficult with the existing system of rearing. The findings indicate that though mithun farming is profitable, there is a strong need to promote a scientific and alternative semi-intensive method of mithun rearing and encourage the diversified use of mithun for meat, milk, hide, and draught potential to stop the slaughter of mithun for table purpose only. Therefore, considering the socio-cultural linkages of the tribes with the mithun proper strategies and policies are essential for its conservation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges to Overcome by the Members of the NARMUL Dairy Cooperative

S. Satish, Ranjit Kumar, Ajay Kumar Koshta

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 75-82
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030667

Dairy cooperatives have played an important role in improving the economy of small milk producers’ households in different regions of India. Telangana is one amongst them, which is predominantly an agricultural state with an excellent potential for milk production. The study was conducted to analyze the constraints faced by dairy farmers of Yadadri- Bhongir district of Telangana. The study data was collected during March-April 2021 from 90 milk producers of NARMUL co-operative in Yadadri-Bhuvangiri district of the state. Low procurement price of milk, Lack of disease control programs, No Bonus, Lack of milk testing & animal screening facilities, Irregular visits of Veterinary staff were considered as the most serious constraints where as, Unavailability of first aid services and lack of sufficient supply of vaccines to the animals, Non availability of loan facilities, Lack of artificial insemination (A.I.) facilities in/around the village, Inadequate supply of feed and mineral mixture were considered as the least serious constraints.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Executive Extension Needs of Rural Women in the Field of Rationalizing Food Consumption Using Broach's

Jasim Mohammed Saleh, Adel Ibrahim Elhamoly

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 83-95
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030668

Empowering rural women and girls is not only a fundamental need for agricultural development but also one of the most prominent components of social and economic progress and sustainable development in general. Search data gathered through the questionnaire, the interview with 120 properly addressed, after compiling the data are encoded and discharged and scheduling to fit the statistical analysis methods used, and used some appropriate statistical methods as a percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, as well as using frequency tables to display data, use the SPSS program. The variable was measured for the indicative requirements using equation Borich's needs assessment guidelines. The parent survey results that most rural women aged boys with active level by 59.2%, and education level between a medium and illiteracy, for the exposure to mass media level was low by 76.7%. The most of the sources of information were from Mother of husband by 80%. In conclusion the need to utilize the remaining food through several smaller units to take advantage of it to make a new meal, so they must diversify its sources of information and guidance for the purpose of upgrading rural women to benefit from food waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Information Communicatyion Technology (ICT) Knowledge Levels of the Moth Bean Growers in Churu District of Rajasthan, India

Nemi Chand Meena, J. P. Lakhera, R. K. Verma, Sunil Kumar Meena

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 113-120
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030671

Now a days new technologies introducing in agriculture and it reduce the role of man power. Globally, in this informative era, information, communication and technology (ICT) play vital roles in creating awareness about new innovations in every field of life, especially in agriculture. ICTs can make agriculture more innovative, attractive and productive occupation through providing latest useful information. In this study, ICTs is operationalized as the use of communication tools like, WhatsApp group, SMS, Telephone helpline to reach farmers. It saves money, time and efforts and reduces dependency on so many factors in the chain of extension. In this present study, majority of respondents were had medium level of knowledge regarding ICT.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Conservation Agriculture Practice and Socio-Economic Factors on Yam Production (Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea rotundata) in Kalagoé (Lobaye, Central African Republic)

G. I. Touckia, L. Aba-Toumnou, O. D. Yongo, M. Ganima Yara, K. Kokou

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 121-131
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030672

Few studies have been carried out on Yam (Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea rotundata) in relation with the conservation agriculture in CAR. Yam is cultivated in limited quantities despite its role in improving food security.  In order to increase  Yam   production  in the smallholder farms in CAR, the potential effect   of  crop management practices  like    nutrient application,  mulching and minimum  tillage  on  Yam  crop  yield  and  household  financial  returns,  needs  to  be  understood. A  questionnaire  was  prepared  and  used  as  a  tool  for the  collection  of  information  from 100 producers  of Yam without distinction of ages and sexes. In order to determinate the agronomical performance of Yam, two plots were explored. The first plot with 625m² (12.5m ×50m), known as the improved plot, is a plot on which all conservation agriculture practices were applied. The second plot, known as the traditional plot, is one on which traditional farming techniques were applied. The results of the survey show that 32% of the farmers are in favor for CA practice nevertheless 68% are not favor, which shows that a large proportion of farmers in Kalangoé are not aware of the benefits of this technique. The most widely cultivated variety is D. rotundata, because of its taste qualities.  Some producers also grow both varieties at the same time. Some producers (28%) clear their plots by cutting down all the trees to leave the field bare, while a large number (72%) practice partial cutting by removing the shrubs to keep the large trees in order to protect the forest. A large number of producers (62%) also burn their plots for various reasons, including freeing up space and making it easier to move around the field because the plant debris from clearing prevents them from working properly. A small proportion of producers (26%) practice ploughing against 74% who do not practice this technique. The conservation agriculture practice applied to Yam gave interesting agronomic performances (growth and production parameters) than the farmers practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of Banana Cultivation: A Comparative Study on Adopters and Non-Adopters of Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme

S. Ajmal, T. Paul Lazarus, Aswathy Vijayan, Brigit Joseph, R. V. Manju

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 132-140
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030673

An economic analysis of banana cultivation was done to compare the adopters and non-adopters of WBCIS. Firstly, a comparison of farm business analysis was done using cost concepts. At Cost C, insured farmers had incurred more cost (₹ 3,86,021 ha-1) than uninsured farmers (₹3,50,910.06 ha-1). The net returns at Cost C for insured farmers were ₹3,56,261 ha-1 and for uninsured farmers, it was 3,24,197 ha-1. Insured farmers had incurred more cost C and more net return at Cost C than uninsured farmers. The BC ratio obtained for insured farmers (2.01) at Cost C were more than that of uninsured farmers (1.92). It was found that the insured farmers were having more economic benefits than uninsured farmers from banana cultivation. The results of Cobb-Douglas production function revealed that R2 value for insured and uninsured farmers was 0.87 and 0.79 respectively, which indicated a good fit. The analysis of allocative efficiency, for insured and uninsured farmers, revealed that quantity of hired labour, family labour and quantity of manures, fertilizers and soil ameliorants were underutilized. Furthermore, quantity of plant protection materials was overutilized by both categories of farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Determinants of Rice Production Yield in Benin

Parape Oto Issa Abdou-Raouf, Assouni Janvier, Abdoulaye Moussadikou

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 141-146
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030674

This study aims to analyze the determinants of rice production yield in Benin. Data were collected in the central part of Benin, which includes the districts of Bantè, Dassa, Glazoué and Savalou. A total of 300 randomly selected rice producers were surveyed. The results indicate that the contract farming participation, membership in an innovation platform, and the location of the producer are the main determinants of rice yield. The design of policies to improve producer yield should focus primarily on these factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Self-Esteem among Working Women

Kavita Kumari, Bimla Dhanda

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 147-152
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030675

Women are significantly involved in the development of any nation by managing personal responsibilities as well as professional life. They are playing an important role in economic and social development of any society and their participation gives them satisfaction at their home up to a greater extent. Self-esteem is defined by how much value people place on themselves being the evaluative component of self-knowledge, high self-esteem refers to a highly favorable global evaluation of the self. So, the study was conducted in Hisar district of Haryana state on 400 rural and urban working women to assess their self-esteem. It was found that a very high majority of respondents (95.5%) of urban area were having low level of leisure time exercise and 47.5 percent respondents were having high level of self –esteem. Occupation of respondents was observed statistically significant only in low level of self-esteem (F=2.84, p<0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

An Economic Analysis of Paddy Cultivation in Cuddalore District

E. Ragunath, R. Rajesh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 153-160
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030676

In this paper an attempt was made to analyze economics of paddy cultivation in Cuddalore district. Based on area under paddy, three blocks namely Kurinjipadi, Kumaratchi and Vridhachalam were selected. The total sample size was 120 paddy growers. The study revealed that area and production of paddy crop was declining during the period 1998-2008 while the productivity was growing positively during the same period. During 2009-2019, compound growth rate of area, production and productivity of paddy was depicting an increasing trend due to the role-played by high yielding varieties which created greater affinity towards paddy crop. The cost of production of paddy per hectare was estimated to be Rs. 56,617. The average gross income was found to be Rs. 92,077 per hectare and net income was observed to be Rs. 29,712 per hectare. Excessive usage of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers could be reduced to decrease the production cost and increase the efficiency of inputs. Adoption of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method was suggested to increase the productivity of paddy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Farmers Decision to Join Joint Forest Management Programme in Jammu Division of Jammu and Kashmir

Tariq Iqbal, P. S. Slathia, Rajinder Peshin, Sandeep Sehgal, Manish Kumar Sharma, Kiran Kour

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 161-166
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030677

The present study was conducted in purposively selected “East Forest Circle” of Jammu division of J&K. Multistage sampling plan was followed for the selection of respondents. Six forest ranges from East circle having maximum number of Joint Management Programme (JFM)Cs were selected purposively. Twenty four committees, four from each selected ranges of East circle and eight members from each selected JFMC were selected through random sampling technique. The respondents were divided into two groups 1).Treatment group: Eight members from each selected JFMC were selected randomly for the study making the sample size to 192 respondents. 2). Control group: Two villages from each range (12 villages in total) were selected through random sampling technique. From each selected village nine non- JFMC members were randomly selected. Thus, a total sample of 108 non-JFMC members were selected from these villages. Binary regression model was applied to analyze the factors affecting farmer’s decision to join JFM programme. The result of the study showed that family size, area under trees, extension contact and social participation significantly affecting farmer’s decision to join JFM programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Scientific Technological Interventions on Rapeseed and Mustard: Recent Advances and Future Prospects

Priyanka Sharma, Monish Roy, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Bidhan Roy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 167-174
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030678

In order to increase production, popularization of improved technology as well as for uplifting the socio-economic conditions of the small and marginal farmers of Sonitpur district which typically lies in North Bank Plain Agro-climatic Zone of Assam, a Crop demonstration was conducted among 100 numbers of agricultural beneficiaries in 5 clusters namely Chaiduar, Bihaguri, Balipara, Dhekiajuli and Gabhoru in the year 2020-2021 for the popularization of technology as well as cultivars. Selection of the beneficiaries and Villages were done based on their cropping sequence by the resource person working under the project entitled "Augmenting Rapeseed-Mustard Production of Assam farmers for Sustainable Livelihood Security" linked with Assam Agribusiness and Rural Transformation Project (APART) scheme. During the period of the cropping season, the selected farmers for adoption had shown keen interest in attending farmer’s technical training programme conducted at the cluster level for adopting scientific production techniques and methods gradually, which was considered as a very important technique to be followed by the marginal farmers of Assam to obtain good crop population and ultimately higher yield. Adopting scientific agricultural techniques had helped farmers to reduce the labour cost thus benefitted the farmers by reducing the cost of cultivation. Due to its suitable soil and agro-climatic conditions as well as through their dedication and continuous efforts towards farming, they could be able to achieve higher yield and income within a short period of time as well as could motivate the other small and marginal farmers of nearby villages for further uplifting their economic status thereby preserving their ancestral occupation for future generations.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on Educational Aspiration and Parental Encouragement among Rural and Urban High School Children

Reenu Pindar, C. K. Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 190-195
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030680

Adolescence is the time of transition from childhood dependence to early adulthood freedom and responsibility. Educational aspiration is explained as a psychological construct, which reflects a cognitive type of motivation of the individual. Educational aspiration reflects educational goals an individual set for himself/herself. Parental encouragement is the inspiration or extra-boosting given by the parents to the children for their active involvement in academic life. The present study was conducted in rural and urban areas of Hisar and Fatehabad district of Haryana state. The sample of study included 120 respondents from Hisar and 120 from Fatehabad district, thus total sample comprised of 240 respondents. Educational Aspiration Scale by Sharma and Gupta (2015) was used to assess educational aspiration and Parental Encouragement Scale by Sharma (1997) was used to assess parental encouragement of students.

The results of study revealed that majority of respondents belonged to moderate category of educational aspirations and majority of respondents perceived moderate level of parental encouragement. There were significant differences in educational aspirations and parental encouragement of children from rural and urban area. In urban area, respondents had significantly greater educational aspiration and parental encouragement as compared to respondents from rural area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Labour Absorption in Crop Production for Principal Crops in Semi-Arid and Flood Prone Eastern Plain Region of Rajasthan

Arjun Singh Rajput, Vikalp Sharma, M. K. Jangid, Latika Sharma, D. C. Pant

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 196-207
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030681

The present investigation was undertaken with a view to study the labour absorption (both family and hired labour) in principal crops in Semi-Arid and Flood Prone Eastern Plain Region of Rajasthan. The primary data were collected from 200 households of 10 villages during the year 2018-2019. To study the labour absorption in crop production for principal crops the model suggested by Singh, 1996 was used. In semi-arid and flood prone eastern region (Region-III), the average labour absorption in crop production was 48.72 man-days per hectare in selected principal crops i.e., pearl millet, green gram, wheat, rapeseed & mustard and chickpea. The participation of family and hired labour was 31.11 man-days per hectare and 17.61 man-days per hectare in region-III. The wage rate for machine labour was maximum on marginal farms (Rs. 849.86 per hour) while minimum on large farms (Rs. 596.71 per hour).

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Family Background on Learning Outcome of Agricultural Undergraduates in Indian Conditions

T. R. Sridevi Krishnaveni, R. Arunachalam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 208-216
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030682

Family as an entity teaches many concepts like social, economic, technical, moral concepts to the children for a better living. Thus the contribution of a family in an educational environment is undeniable. Thus this paper attempts to cull out various aspects of family background that influence the learning situation of the agricultural undergraduate students in the Indian conditions. Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore of TNAU were taken as the study center. B. Sc. (Agriculture) degree program was purposefully selected. 114 students studying final year were considered for the study by employing saturated sampling technique. Majority of the respondents’ families were found to be economically sound with stable occupation under any one sector. Being hostellers, the parents did not have adequate scope to engage in educational activities and interact with the institution. But they always find ways to back the students in all possible ways in other means.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Independent Variables and Training Needs of Farmers about Recommended Turmeric Cultivation Practices

M. Ganapathy Ramu, M. Vetriselvan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 217-223
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030683

Erode district is well known for turmeric production and turmeric market in entire country. This study was conducted in Erode district of Tamil Nadu. Erode district consists of nine taluks. Among nine taluks, Erode taluk was selected. Erode taluk has two blocks and among the two blocks, Kodumudi has more area under turmeric cultivation. Therefore, Kodumudi block was selected purposively. Kodumudi block comprises of twenty-four revenue villages. Among the twenty-four villages, five villages were selected for the study purpose. From each selected village, total sample of 120 turmeric growers were selected through proportionate simple random sampling technique. Thirteen independent variables were selected and analyzed to identify its relationship with dependent variable (training needs).  From the above study it may be concluded that that educational status, farming experience, extension agency contact, trainings undergone, innovativeness, and scientific orientation were found to have positive and significant relationship with the training needs of turmeric growers about recommended turmeric cultivation practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

A study on Socio-Economic Changes of Agricultural Migrants

R. Kavitha, R. Velusamy, J. Puspha, K. Prabakaran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 224-230
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030684

Aims: The study aims to find out the Socio-Economic changes occurred in the livelihoods of agricultural migrants in Tiruppur district of Tamil Nadu.

Study Design: Ex-post facto research design.

Place and Duration of Study: Tiruppur district were purposively selected for this study since it is stands third place in Tamil Nadu receiving the migrants. This study was conducted during May 2021.

Methodology: Migrants with agricultural background was selected as respondents for this study. Total sample size of 120 respondents were selected by using snow ball sampling method. To measure socio-economic changes of migrants, socio-economic indicators were identified based on the literature review, discussion with advisory committee members and senior social scientists. The socio-economic indicators identified for measuring socio-economic changes are socio-psychological factors, education, health maintenance and nutrition, housing, occupation, cultural factors, economic changes, social participation and material possession. The primary data was collected with the help of a well-structured and pre-tested interview schedule. Percentage analysis and cumulative frequency method were used to analyse the data.

Results: In this context, the Socio-Economic changes of agricultural migrants were analysed and discussed with nine sub-headings. The results reveals that majority of the migrants (84.16%) expenditure on education were increased, All the respondents (100%) were able to take balanced diet, Vast majority of the respondents (91.66%) expenditure towards the improvement of the house were changed, Cent per cent of the respondent’s occupation were changed, Most of the respondents (90.00%) expenditure on celebration of festivals were increased, There was a vast change in the income of the majority of the respondents (89.16%), Cent per cent of respondents possess mobile phone and television, The outside contact was increased for most of the migrants (93.33%).Overall more than half (54.70%) of the respondents had medium level of overall socio economic changes.

Conclusion: The majority of the respondents were inter-district rural migrants and the cost of living is high in the urban areas. It might be the reasons for medium level of socio-economic changes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Trade Performance of Blackgram (Vigna mungo) and Greengram (Vigna radiata) in India and Myanmar

Nyein Aye Khine, K. K. Kundu, D. P. Malik, Monika Devi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 231-243
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030687

Black gram and green gram are important legume crops in India and Myanmar. The largest producer of black gram and green gram is India but it does not meet domestic consumption. The study was conducted with time series data from the year 1970 to 2019 in order to work out the growth patterns in area, production, productivity, export and import of black gram and green gram. CAGR and instability was calculated in order to better understand fluctuations of black gram and green gram year by year. Area and production increased in both countries from the year 1970-71 to 2018-19. However, the yield of black gram and green gram was stagnant in India which was over 500 kg/ha in 2018-19 whereas the yield in Myanmar was more than 1000 kg/ha during the same period. The yield gap between India and Myanmar was about 800 kg/ha. With a growing population and often unfavorable seasonal conditions, the country's production regularly fell short of consumption needs requiring it to import large quantities of pulses. Cropping patterns like rice-pulses, intercropping with other crops and HYV can improve productivity and expand pulse areas in India. India is the largest importer of black gram and has greater bargaining power to dominate the black gram market in Myanmar. Trade agreement is needed to overcome the risks of price fluctuation between the two countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Livestock Population Dynamics in Central India: A District-level Analysis of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh

D. Bardhan, S. R. K. Singh, A. A. Raut, Varsha Shrivastava

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 244-255
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030688

In this study, we assessed the dynamics of district-level livestock population in two central states of India, viz. Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh during the period 2012-19. The analytical tools comprised of simple descriptive statistics and fitting exponential trend equations. We found temporal variations in shares of different species to total district-wise livestock population. While population of cattle declined in Madhya Pradesh, the same registered a minor increase in Chhattisgarh. The reverse situation was observed in case of buffaloes. Dynamics of changes in small ruminant population pointed towards the increasing importance of goats as compared to sheep. Although, cattle is the livestock species on which the rural population mostly depend for their livelihood in both the states, economic dependence on sheep and pig is more in Chhattisgarh than Madhya Pradesh. Some policy suggestions have been given based on the findings of the study on leveraging the opportunities offered by livestock sector.

HIGHLIGHTS

  • In the context of increasing population pressure and associated shrinking landholding size, diversification of agricultural activities becomes crucial.
  • The role of livestock, on account of more equitable distribution in favour of resource poor farmers, is important for sustainable livelihood security of farmers.
  • For formulating appropriate policies for development of livestock sector, it is necessary to carry out disaggregated analyses to assess the district-level trends and dynamics of livestock population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated with Land Ownership by Women in Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study

Douglas Andabati Candia

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 256-264
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030689

Aims: There is growing evidence concerning the significance of asset ownership by women. However, in Sub-Saharan Africa, asset ownership is lower for women compared to men. This study investigated factors associated with land ownership by women in Uganda.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2016 data was collected by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics from 20 June to 16 December 2016. 

Methodology: The logistic regression model was fitted to determine factors significantly associated with land ownership.

Results: The likelihood of a woman owning land increased with an increase in her age and reduced with improvement in her household's wealth index. Furthermore, the likelihood of owning land was lowest for women; aged 18-19 years, residing in the Central region, residing in urban areas, of single status, with no account in a bank or other financial institution, in the richest wealth index category, and those currently not working.

Conclusion: There is a need to develop more effective strategies to empower women regarding land ownership and control. There is a need to sensitize women about their rights to land ownership, about saving with registered financial institutions which increases their likelihood of accessing alternative funding sources to support their purchase of land and other valuable assets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Costs and Returns Analysis of Sesame Production in Northern Cross River State, Nigeria

M. O. Oniah, T. O. Edem

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 265-273
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030690

The study examined costs and returns in sesame production in Northern Agricultural Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria during the 2020 cropping season. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 140 respondents using purposive and random selection. A well-structured questionnaire was the main tool for data collection. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, gross margin analysis was used to determine gross returns per hectare of sesame production. Results showed that males were dominant (61.4%) in sesame production in the area and some (39.3%) were between 41-50 years. Majority of the farmers (75.5%) were married, 50.7% had no formal education while 42.9% had farming experience of 6-10 years. Also, the results found that majority (94.3%) sourced their farm capital from personal savings. The study revealed that a total of 116.7 hectares were put under sesame production in the 2020 cropping season by the respondents representing 2.5% of the total land area of the three Local Government Areas of the State. Constraints on sesame production were found to include lack of credit facility, high cost of labour, low yielding varieties, and high cost of planting seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Responsible for Participation of Self Help Group Farmers in Vegetables and Fruits Promotion Council Kerala, India

F. L. Merline, P. Balasubramaniam, M. Nirmala Devi, V. Mohanraj

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 274-279
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030691

Self Help Groups (SHGs) are farmer-led cooperatives in which all members work together to solve issues and take advantage of opportunities through participatory action following cooperative decision-making for the members' overall growth. In this context, a study was conducted in Palakkad district of Kerala to identify the factors responsible for the participation of farmer members in SHGs of Vegetables and Fruits Promotion Council Kerala (VFPCK). A proportionate random sampling technique was employed to collect data from 68 respondents and analyzed using mean score then ranked accordingly. The factors like economic, social, personal, organizational and marketing factors may be responsible for members to participate in VFPCK. The results of analysis revealed that marketing, organizational and economic factors were the important factors responsible for the participation of farmer members in VFPCK. Membership to a farmers’ group improves access to technology, training and output markets and consequently increasing expected profits. The results of this study have implications as to which factors need to be addressed to encourage farmers to participate in the SHGs of VFPCK.

Open Access Original Research Article

Resource-use Efficiency of Shea Nut Processing in Kassena-Nankana West District, Ghana: DEA Approach

F. N. Akaribo, E. Sarpong

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 280-289
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030692

The Shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa, has been seen as a very important economic God-given tree with numerous benefits for a longtime. The Shea tree, though under threat due to deforestation, still remain abundant in several communities in Ghana. That notwithstanding, shea nut processors have not been able to fully optimize the gains from the Shea tree and thus, this research examines the Resource-use efficiency of Shea nut processing in the Kassena-Nankana West District of Ghana. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was employed to determine the overall technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of the Shea nut processing while bivariate Tobit was used to identify the sources or determinants of both technical and pure technical efficiencies. A SWOT analysis was carried out to identify the potentials and challenges faced by the Shea processors. It was discovered that on the average, the processors operated 50% of their potential overall technical efficiency, 55% of their potential pure technical efficiency and 92% of their potential scale efficiency. Determinants of processors’ technical efficiency include age, household size, experience, access to credit and membership of processors’ group. The SWOT analysis revealed challenges including poor transportation and difficulty in accessing credit. The study, therefore, recommends that, easy access to financial facilities and sensitization on savings are ways to boost processors’ use of new, efficient technologies to help enhance their Resource-use efficiency. Improvement on the road network to enhance easy movement of goods and services is highly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

KMAS as a Tool for Dissemination of Agricultural Technologies in Nagaon District of Assam

Sinki Barman, Niranjan Deka, Pallavi Deka

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 290-294
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030693

Development of Agricultural and allied activities can be achieved through various approaches of Information and communication (ICT) tools. Kisan Mobile Advisory system (KMAS) is one of ICT approaches for dissemination of agricultural technologies to the farming community through SMSs. KVK, Nagaon created a registered farmers group and information related to crop production, insect pest control, dairy and poultry farming, fishery and other marketing related information was sent to users in monthly basis for many years. A sample size of 100 registered farmers were selected for the study in order to examine the impact of KMAS for technology dissemination in Nagaon district.  With the help of Pretested scheduled with Simple Random sampling data were collected and analyze in percent analysis. The survey showed that majority of the farmers found agricultural information as increase in knowledge (41.00%), partially applicable (73.00%).  The overall impact of the KMAS was low About at 55 percent, medium at 38 per cent and high at 7 per cent. Further they suggested that messages on latest technologies should be served flowed by local language, voice messages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Entrepreneurial Traits on the Success of Agripreneurs

J. Jayasudha, M. Shantha Sheela

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 295-304
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030694

Aims: Entrepreneurship is a state of mind that allows you to take calculated risks with confidence in order to attain a certain economic or industrial goal. This study deals with the socio- economic and entrepreneurial characteristics which finds place in business success.

Study Design: Expost- facto study.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: The study has been conducted among the agripreneurs from agri-incubation centersof Coimbatore and Maduraibetween February 2021 and August 2021.

Methodology: Proportionate Random sampling method, 104 respondents were selected for the study from the total population of 416 samples. The data was collected by using pre – tested and well-structured interview schedule. Each agripreneur were personally interviewed to collect the information. The collected data was analyzed by using statistical tools such as Percentage analysis, Mean score and Regression method.

Results: It was observed that experience in business, self-confidence, annual income, economic motivation and credit orientation plays major role in determining the success of agripreneurs. It was suggested that more mentoring to increasing self confidence among the entrepreneurs in incubation centers and providing fund will lead to the success.

Conclusion: Experience also paved the way to success, by gaining experience one can learn and decide how to make the enterprise as profit and successful venture. It was suggested that creating more source of fund for their business investment and motivation by giving mentoring would increase the self confidence which lead effectively towards the business success of agripreneurs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic and Psychological Profile of Farmers Practicing Integrated Farming Systems (IFS) in Andhra Pradesh

T. Sri Chandana, P. L. R. J. Praveena, T. Lakshmi, D. Subramanyam, B. Ravindra Reddy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 305-316
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030695

Agriculture is always been considered as the backbone of our country. In India, 70 per cent of the rural population is engaged in agriculture and 80 per cent of the population lives directly or indirectly on agriculture. There are 115 million operational holdings in the country and about 80 per cent are marginal and small farmers [1]. Indian agriculture has been taken the responsibility of providing food and employment to its millions of people. The present study described the socio-economic and psychological profile of Integrated Farming System practicing farmers in Chittoor from Rayalaseema region, East Godavari from North East Coastal region and Srikakulam from North Coastal region. The sample constituted to a total of 189 farmers. The farmers practicing Integrated Farming System were middle aged (52.38%), completed graduation (26.98%), were small land holders (43.39%) with high experience in IFS (55.56%), had nuclear family (88.89%) and with fair cropping pattern (69.31%). The major occupation of the IFS farmers was cultivation (51.85%) with medium family size (67.72%), annual income (49.21%), extension contact (43.39%), mass media exposure (43.92%), economic motivation (54.50%), decision making ability (46.03%), risk preference (53.44%), enterprise combination (100.00%) and members of at least one organization (65.08%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Watershed on Cost and Returns Structure of Soyabean Cultivation in Nek Region

. Vaijanatha, Suresh S. Patil, Amrutha T. Joshi, B. S. Reddy, S. B. Goudappa, B. G. Koppalkar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 317-322
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030697

Land is a scarce resource and basic unit for any material production. It can support the needs of the growing population, provided they use land in a rational and judicious manner. The biggest crisis that the world is facing in the 21st century is the crisis of water. Looming water scarcity over large parts of the world and increased withdrawal by agriculture from 2500 km3 in 2000 to 3200 km3 by 2025 has attracted the attention of policy makers and researchers for achieving food and water security. Soybean (Glycine max) was one of the major Kharif crop cultivated in watershed (71.50 acres) and non-watershed areas (80.35 acres). Hence, an attempt was made to study the impact of watershed on the cost and returns structure in soybean cultivation in selected four districts of NEK region with the sample size of 240. It was observed inputs utilized for the cultivation in watershed areas was higher than non-watershed areas. Due to higher input utilization the total cost in watershed (Rs. 17080.90/ha.) was higher than non-watershed (Rs. 14257.62/ha.). The returns were also higher in watershed area (Rs. 27941.76/ha.). The returns per rupee of investment realized in watershed areas was 1.64 which is slightly higher than (1.56) non-watershed areas. The higher returns per rupee of investment indicating soyabean cultivation in the watershed area was financially feasible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness on Soil Health Management Scheme by Farmers of Tumakuru District in Karnataka

M. E. Darshan, M. T. Lakshminarayan, K. G. Banuprakash

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 323-329
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030698

The present study was carried out in 23 Raitha Samparka Kendras  inGubbi ,Kunigal, Madhugiri  and Tumakuru taluks of Tumakuru district in Karnataka state to know the extent of awareness of farmers regarding Soil Health Management Scheme (SHMS). Thirty beneficiary farmers of SHMS were randomly selected from 12 RSKs for the study. A pre-tested schedule was used to collect relevant data from the respondents. The results revealed that half of the beneficiary farmers (50.00%) had more awareness about SHMS, whereas one-third (33.33%) and 16.67 per cent of the beneficiary farmers were awareness and less awareness regarding the SHMS, respectively. A vast majority of the farmers were aware of the objectives, interventions, mode of operation, selection criteria of beneficiaries and subsidy on various agricultural inputs pertaining to SHMS.A simple majority of the farmers (53.33%) had contacted Assistant Agricultural Officer for obtaining information on SHMS, while half of the farmers (50.00% each) had contacted Agricultural Officer and Agricultural Assistant for obtaining information regarding SHMS. The results of path analysis revealed that extension agency contact of farmers had direct and indirect effect on the extent of awareness on SHMS. The first, second and third largest indirect effect channelled through is extension agency contact (X9) in the case of five variables, mass media participation (X8)  in the case of five variables and education (X1) in the case of three variables, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Factors Influencing Farmer Satisfaction with the Services of Farmer Producer Companies in Western Districts of Tamil Nadu

T. S. Senthil Nathan, N. Venkatesa Palanichamy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 330-335
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030699

In order to establish policies and programmes that meet the requirements of small and marginal farmers, it is necessary to assess farmers' satisfaction with the quality of services provided by the Farmer Producer Companies. Main aim of this study was to figure out what characteristics influence farmers' satisfaction with the services provided by the Farmer Producer Companies. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 200 farmer members of Farmer Producer Companies in the western region of Tamil Nadu. Descriptive statistics, Likert scaling technique and a logistic-regression model were used to analyse the data. The results showed that farmers had highest level of satisfaction for the items like Norms, rules and regulations in joining the FPC with a mean of 4.22 and were less satisfied with the statement financial support rendered by the FPC to its members with a mean score of 1.88. The results of the binary logistic regression model revealed that education, farm size, farming experience and membership period positively influenced the farmer satisfaction in the service provided by the Farmer Producer Companies; but as age of the farmers increased, overall farmers satisfaction with the services provided by the FPCs decreased. The results also showed that variables like annual income, family type and crop diversity were not significant predictors of satisfaction. Results of this study would be helpful to identify and overcome the shortfalls in the existing activities and services rendered by the Farmer Producer Companies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Usage Ofclimate Driven Seed Maize in Zimbabwe

Alpha M. Manjera, Patience Siwadi, Michael Twum-Darko

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 336-348
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030700

The study sought to analyze the factors influencing the use of climate specific certified seeds by maize farmers in Zimbabwe. In terms of the specific objectives the study determined the level of certified seeds produced and utilized in Zimbabwe and examined the factors that influence the level of climate specific certified seeds by farmers in Zimbabwe (2010-2016) farming seasons. In terms of the research methodology, the study adopted an explanatory and gathered data from 53 participants within the maize value chain using a questionnaire. Drawing from the findings, the study revealed that the certified seed maize production increased significantly although utilization declined in the same 2010-2016 period and the surplus gap between supply and demand of certified seed was exported due to low local utilization level. The research concluded that 11.38% of the variance in certified seed maize utilized by farmers under unions are explained by the price of hybrid seed maize, quantities of fertilizer, seed maize, herbicides produced by agricultural companies as well as age differences, educational differences, backward and forward markets within the maize value chain. In order to address the gap between seedmaize produced and adopted by farmer unions, the government, must develop exist strategies which involves rural financing and lending options and prioritize a culture of investing innovations among farmer unions. Such investment strategies must provide access to climate specific certified seeds such as high analysis maize blend fertilizers, hybrid seeds, herbicides and irrigation equipment required as a package to improve maize production in Zimbabwe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Behavior of Farmers Cultivating Traditional Rice Varieties in Erode District, Tamil Nadu

G. Kaviya, A. Vidhyavathi, S. Padma Rani, M. Nirmala Devi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 349-357
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030701

This study investigates the risk behavior of traditional rice variety growers in Erode District of Tamil Nadu state, using Moscardi and De Janvry approach and Discriminant analysis technique. A well structured questioner was prepared and purposive random sampling was done in three blocks which covers highest cultivable area under paddy namely Gobichettipalayam, Modakurichi and Bhavani in Erode district. Each traditional rice varieties have some unique characteristics i.e some are pest and disease resistant, drought resistant, resistant to waterlogged condition and have medicinal values. The present study was done to identify the major risks, to quantify the risk attitude and to identify the factors influencing risk attitude of the traditional variety growers in Erode District. In the research it was found that the varieties preferred by farmers were Thuyamalli, Kichadi samba, Karuppukavuni, Mapillai samba,Arcaud Kichadi Samba, Poongar, Thanga Samba, Sivan Samba and few other varieties they were cultivating in small areas using organic farming method.The major risk found in cultivating traditional rice varieties were market risk followed by human labour risk, processing risk, input risk, technology risk, institutional risk, natural risk and other risks include transport risk and storage risk. The farmers were grouped into three categories i.e., risk preferrers (63.33 per cent), risk neutral (28.33 per cent) and risk averse (8.33 per cent) based on risk attitude. Once again the farmers in each group was categorized into low, medium, high risk based on nine factors namely, farmers age, major occupation, years of schooling, family size, membership in any of the farmers association, proportion of paddy area to total farm area, proportion of paddy income to total farm income, experience and adequacy of market which were influencing the risk attitude of farmers. In order to conserve the traditional rice varieties from extinction, to restore the soil health, to ensure nutritional security the farmers were willing to take risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Factors Affecting Digital Banking Services in Western Tamil Nadu

C. Nandhini, N. Deepa, A. Rohini, M. Radha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 358-368
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030702

The banking industry serves as the backbone of any country’s modern economy. So, country’s economic development is mainly based on the banking sector growth. The developments in information technology field positively impact the banking sector’s growth. The main aim of this study is to identify the factors that positively influence the customers to use digital banking services. Based on convenient sampling technique, 120 sample respondents were interviewed in the western zone of TamilNadu (Coimbatore, Namakkal). Factor analysis has been applied to identify the factors that influence the customers to use digital banking services. Some of the factors like actual use of digital banking services, attitude, perceived security, perceived price highly influenced the customers to use digital banking services.

Open Access Original Research Article

Information Seeking Behaviour for Adoption of Tnau Released Rice Varieties

A. Jeevapriya, J. Pushpa, K. Ramakrishnan, K. Prabakaran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 369-376
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030703

Aim: This study aims to study the information seeking behavior of the respondents from various information sources and credibility of the information regarding TNAU released rice varieties.

Study Design: Ex-post facto research design.

Place and Duration of the Study: The present study was conducted in two blocks namely Melur and Madurai East blocks of Madurai district in Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted during July and August 2021.

Methodology: 120 paddy growers from Melur and Madurai east blocks were randomly selected and interviewed using a pre-tested interview schedule to study the information seeking behavior of the farmers for the adoption Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) released rice varieties.

Results: Outcomes showed that cent percent of the respondents are getting information from their friends regarding newer varieties. 96.67 percent of the respondents seeks information from Agricultural Officers (AOs) whereas only 5.83 percent seek information from Agricultural Scientists. In recent days, farmers have started using various mass media sources like TV, Portals, websites, mobile apps and Kisan Call centers. The highest credibility of 93.33 percent score were obtained from Friends in personal localite source and 84.21 percent credibility was noted for the information from AOs in cosmopolite source. Also, cent percent credibility noted for Kisan call center amongst the respondents and less credibility observed for internet sources like websites and portals.It could be interpreted that the majority farmers was technologically illiterate to use e-sources like mobile apps, portals etc. as they had very less years of formal education.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the information sources can be designed based on farmers needs and preferences. And information gap should be reduced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Understanding Learner Behaviour in Online Courses through Learning Analytics

D. Thammi Raju, G. R. K. Murthy, S. B. Khade, B. Padmaja, B. S. Yashavanth, S. Ajay Kumar, S. K. Soam, Ch. Srinivasarao

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 381-390
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030705

Building an effective online course requires an understanding of learning analytics. The study assumes significance in the COVID 19 pandemic situation as there is a sudden surge in online courses. Analysis of the online course using the data generated from the Moodle Learning Management System (LMS), Google Forms and Google Analytics was carried out to understand the tenants of an effective online course. About 515 learners participated in the initial pre-training needs & expectations’ survey and 472 learners gave feedback at the end, apart from the real-time data generated from LMS and Google Analytics during the course period. This case study analysed online learning behaviour and the supporting learning environment and suggest critical factors to be at the centre stage in the design and development of online courses; leads to the improved online learning experience and thus the quality of education. User needs, quality of resources and effectiveness of online courses are equally important in taking further online courses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factor Analysis of Service Expectation of Farmer Producer Organization from Agribusiness Incubator

R. Ramesh Kumar, M. Malarkodi, K. Uma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 391-398
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030706

This paper aimed to study the service expectation of Farmer Producer Organization from the Agribusiness incubator. The study was carried out with 60 FPO’s in Tamil Nadu. The data was collected through survey method using a well-structured online interview questionnaire. The exploratory factor analysis was carried out to reduce the data. The first factor named as which explained 25.37 percent of the variance, the second factor named as early stage business development services which explained 10.27 percent of the variance, the third factor named as business development services which explained 11.50 percent of the variance, the fourth factor named as physical infrastructural assistance which explained 2.21 percent of the variance. The obtained results of Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed that four factors such as market assistance services, early stage business development services, business development services and physical infrastructural assistance explained about 71.69 percent of the variance of factors with respect to service expectation of FPO's from the Business incubator.

Open Access Original Research Article

Existing Nutritional Practices of Rural Women in Assam, India

Ingita Gohain, Juliana Sarmah, Dipak Nath

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 399-404
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030707

Health and nutritional status of Indian women are worsening due to the prevailing culture and traditional practices in India. Indian women are generally vulnerable to poor nutrition, especially during pregnancy and lactation. It has been pointed out that the impact of nutritional status of the mother is more pervasive than the impact of other factors on birth weight. The study was carried out in the state of Assam (India) with 270 randomly selected rural women of 3 districts, viz., Tinsukia, Nagaon and Barpeta districts to find the existing practice of respondents on nutrition. Majority of the respondents (67.41%) belonged to ‘moderate’ category of practices regarding nutrition followed by 21.85 percent of respondents belonged to ‘poor category’ of practices in Assam. Majority of the respondents belonged to ‘moderate category’ of practice on nutrition, namely Barpeta (61.11%), Nagaon (63.33%) and Tinsukia (62.22%). It may be concluded that healthy lifestyle and high intake of nutritious food can provide good health throughout life to the humans. The poor nutrition and unawareness of health facilities during the childhood and reproductive age are the major factors responsible for the poor health status.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Farm Attachment Programme (FAP) Design Attributes on Experiential Learning Ability among Egerton University Students

Nancy W. Chege, Justus M. Ombati, Nancy W. Mungai

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 405-424
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030708

The Farm attachment programme (FAP) of Egerton University was established six years ago to promote learning by “reflection on doing” commonly known as Experiential Learning (EL), among students. However, effectiveness of experiential learning is dependent on possession of certain abilities known as experiential learning abilities (ELAs) including willingness to get actively involved in learning experiences and ability to reflect, analyze, solve problems and make decisions on learnt experiences. Egerton University students’ ELAs and FAP design attributes have never been assessed for the purpose of enhancing experiential learning. This study aimed at determining levels ELAs among the students and assessing the effects of FAP design attributes on these abilities. The study adopted a cross sectional survey design targeting a population of 600 students and their host farmers. Systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 102 students to participate in the survey. A 5-point continuum scale was used to rate gathered indicators to measure ELAs. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Students ELA Levels were found to be low (M= 2.79, SD = 0.51). The following FAP design attributes were found to have a significant effect on ELAs: Students’ prior agricultural knowledge levels (F (2.94) = 3.816), P =0.02) with an effect size of 8%, gender (F (1,96) = 4.312, P = .037), with an effect size of 4.4% Students study programme departments, (F (6,91) =2.652, =.011), with an effect size of 16.4%, Year of attachment (F (3,94) =4.206, P= .008), with an effect size of 11.8%. Among the host farmer attributes, income level of the farmer was found to have a significant effect on students’ ELAs (F (2, 94) =3.920, p=.026).  FAP structure and implementation had significant effects on experiential learning ability (F (2,94) =4.309) P= .016; F (2,94) =8.51, P <.001) and effect sizes of 8.4% and 13.9% respectively. The results showed that the ELA levels were low among students and certain FAP design attributes had a significant (at 5% level of significance) effect on the learning abilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Gap Analysis of Rapeseed (Brassica campestris var. Toria) in Kokrajhar District of Assam, India

P. Deka, B. K. Baishya, G. Bhagawati, M. K. Bhuyan, R. K. Nath

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 425-428
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030709

The present study was carried out at five different villages of Kokrajhar district of Assam where cluster front line demonstration (CFLD) of High Yielding Variety (HYV) of rape seed (TS 46) was conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kokrajhar.  A total of 652 nos. of front line demonstration (FLD)s were evaluated to find out the yield gaps between HYV toria variety TS 46 and variety grown by farmers. Yield data of both demonstration and farmers practice were recorded and their yield gap, technology gap, extension gap and technology index were analyzed. The yield of rape seed variety TS 46 was registered 22.38 to 50.00 per cent higher over farmer’s variety. On an average technology gap, extension gap and technology index were recorded as 2.28qha-1, 2.08 qha-1 and 20.73 per cent respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

A study on Economic Analysis of Organic Coconut Cultivation in Coimbatore District

J. J. Parthiban, M. Anjugam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 429-436
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030710

The study analyses the economics of coconut production under organic farming in Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu. Participatory Guarantee Scheme (PGS) was studied in accordance to how farmers get their organic farming certification under PKVY scheme in Tamil Nadu. The estimated variable cost was Rs. 43,025/ha. The total cost of cultivation was Rs.82,216/ha. The net income over operational cost was Rs.2,95,888/ha and net income over total cost was Rs.2,56,697/ha. Total yield was increasingly responsive with higher application of farm yard manure and bio- fertilizers. Results of scale efficiency shows majority of the farms were operating in optimum return to scale. Inadequate supply of labour and inadequate market for organic products poses as major constraints to organic coconut farming in the area of study.

Aim: The purpose of the study was to find out the profitability level and responsiveness of yield with input application of organic farming through Participatory Guarantee Scheme (PGS) and how farmers actively involved in organic farming to conserve natural resources.

Design of Study and Methodology: The study was conducted in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu (2020) with 60 sample respondents. Purposive sampling was adopted for the study and two blocks were selected based on the leading operator of PGS scheme. The data were collected through well-structured interview schedule which was prepared through pre-tested survey. The analytical methods followed in the study included cost and returns estimation, resource use efficiency and data envelopment analysis to reveal the exact scenario of organic farming practices.

Findings of the study:

The study showed about

  • Organic coconut is found to be one of the most important and sustainable crop options.
  • Estimates of Resource Use Efficiency show that coconut yield was relatively higher with use of farm yard manure and bio- fertilizers, compared to all other organic inputs
  • Nearly, 32.5 per cent of the farms considered under study were found to be operating in constant returns to scale.
  • The major marketing constraint faced by the sample farmers through organic farming was inadequate supply of labour and price fluctuations of coconut.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Factors Influencing Purchase Intention of Natural Perfumes: Framework for Designing Promotional Strategies

R. Sahana, S. Hemalatha, A. Rohini, S. Padma Rani

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 437-443
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030711

The purpose of this research is to identify the factors influencing purchase intention of natural perfumes and also aims at designing promotional strategies for natural perfumes. This study was examined through an online survey administered to the perfume buyers. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data. Results show that the demographic variables (education and annual family income), scheme characteristics, perceived quality, subjective norms and habit of using perfumes significantly influence and had an impact on purchase intention of natural perfumes. The purchase intention and its relationship with the buying behavior or purchase decision could be examined in the future research.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Economic Analysis of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Nagapattinam District of Tamil Nadu

C. Joys Narkis, K. Uma, A. Rohini, R. Vasanthi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 449-454
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030718

Shrimp has become a popular seafood delicacy across the world. Shrimp is one of the widely traded seafood items and shrimp farming has created huge employment opportunities and gives foreign exchange to developing Nations. Shrimp exports have grown substantially with the introduction of Litopenaeus vannamei in India. The study analyses the economics of shrimp production and the constraints faced by the shrimp farmers in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu. The economic analysis indicated that shrimp farmers have realized average gross returns of Rs.24,48,000 per hectare and average net return of Rs.8,71,038.58 per hectare. Disease problem and high feed cost were the major constraints faced by the farmers in the shrimp production.The results would help the policy makers in formulating suitable programs and devising strategies for increasing production of shrimp in Tamil Nadu.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Level on Soil Health Management among Soil Health Card Holders of Namakkal District, India

N. Dhivya, R. Rajasekaran, T. Dhamodaran, R. Pangayar selvi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 455-459
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030720

Aims: Soil structural deterioration and degradation is a major concern in the present-day agriculture scenario. Poor soil health directly affects the health of the plant and its productivity; indirectly the health of human beings as well as animals. So, scientific knowledge of soil management on the part of the farmer-producers is necessary. So, the main aim of the study is to identify the knowledge level on soil health management among the soil health card holders.

Study Design:  Ex-post facto research.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Namakkal district of Tamilnadu during the months of July-August 2021. All the selected respondents were the holders of soil health card as it contains physical and chemical characteristics of soil, they have a working knowledge of research problem and were able to provide responses.

Methodology: Data were collected by using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire through a face-to-face interview method. The sample size is 120 selected from four blocks of Namakkal district.

The statistical analysis applied were frequency distribution, percentage analysis, mean, and standard deviation.

Results: The study shows that more than half of the soil health card holders (55.83 percent) had an overall high level of knowledge about soil health management practices.

Conclusion: The soil health card scheme was brought to bring improvement of soil health in the long run by farmers all over the country. Thus, the knowledge of soil health management practices including modern technology can be disseminated to a greater extent for the benefit of the farmers including non-holders of soil health cards through formal and informal meetings and training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Palm Sugar Enterprise Units towards E-commerce Platform in Southern Tamilnadu

V. M. Rosina kamali, R. Balaji, N. Kiruthika

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 460-466
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030721

Palm sugar is a rapid growing industry. The palm sugar products available through e-commerce platform helps the enterprises to reach more markets leading to more customers and the consumers can get quality products free of adulterations from the traditional producers.The purpose of the paper is to study the awareness and perception of palm sugar enterprise units towards e-commerce platform. Other palm sugar edible allied product enterprises are also considered in the study. The enterprise unit sample comprises of the private enterprises, societies, traders, exporters and distributors. The result of the study shows that a major of the respondents has awareness and knowledge about e-commerce in the palm sugar enterprise sector. Their perception towards e-commerce platform is that, they agree on the common benefits of e-commerce platform like the quick product reach and promotion, and wider customer base with easy interaction and rapid business growth. But still perceive that traditional means of commerce is more advantageous than the e-commerce platform and the government have not taken enough measures for the adoption of e-commerce practices by the palm sugar enterprise units.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness Level of COVID-19 among the Farm Women and Its Impact on Agricultural Operation in Sikar District of Rajasthan

Subhita Kumawat, Priyanka Kumawat, Mukesh Nitharwal, Balbir Singh Badhala, Hanuman Singh Jatav, Mudasser Ahmad Khan, Kailash Chandra, Shishram Dhaka, . Poonam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 467-473
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030722

In India, agriculture and related industries constitute the most important source of income. Around 120 million small-scale farmers play an important role in the country's food supply system. People's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding any contagious disease, such as COVID-19, all play a role in determining a society's willingness to accept behavioural change strategies aimed at disease prevention. The majority of respondents (35.00 percent) are between the ages of 35 to 45, with 77 of the total respondents belonging to the OBC categories. The majority of respondents' educational levels were indicated as high school (49.17 percent). The findings of this study revealed that there was a high level of awareness, particularly among farm women, about the nature of disease, its symptoms, and the preventive actions that should be followed to prevent disease transmission. COVID-19 is a contagious disease caused by a virus, according to the majority of respondents (79.17%), and respiratory droplets are the virus's primary method of transmission, according to 75.00 percent of respondents. Farmers should bring their own food and water from home to their agricultural field, as well as soap and water, according to all of the respondents (81.67 percent). Besides, 73.34 percent of respondents believe that wearing a mask and maintaining social distance are necessary during agricultural tasks. COVID- 19 has also had an impact on agriculture. Farm women faced many constraints during this period. Out of which it is difficult to get agricultural inputs, animal feed and vaccines, lack of outside traders for product procurement, lack of technical experts to fix the problem in time, ignorance about government programs during the lockdown.

Open Access Review Article

Secondary Agriculture towards Increasing Production and Sustainability

Ayman Azad, Sameera Qayoom, F. A. Bahar, S. S. Mehdi, Shayista Fayaz, Sadaf Iqbal, Nazir Hussain, Nazim Hamid, Ashraf Sultan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 175-189
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030679

There is a pressing need for global agriculture to shift its focus to secondary agriculture in order to produce jobs as the world's population increases. The method of generating agricultural produce is biological in nature, making it a primary agriculture operation; but, when the raw produce is refined, it receives additional benefit, making it a secondary agriculture activity. Any farm related activity that uses the land or labor beyond the Kharif and Rabi seasons would qualify for a ‘Secondary Agriculture’ activity. India's scope for diversified agriculture is vast because of extensive arable land, multiple agro-climatic zones and a rich cafeteria of soils. However, India's reputation as a global agricultural powerhouse is ironically at odds with its farmers' low average wages. The road to higher agricultural Gross Value Added and farmers' income rests in efficient management of the post-production segment, comprising agri-logistics, processing and marketing. Agriculture generates raw materials that meet basic human requirements, and is considered as a primary economic activity. Of course, there are certain alternative agriculture activities like beekeeping, mushroom cultivation, backyard poultry, etc., which fall under the ambit of secondary agriculture. Secondary agriculture helps in using all parts of an agricultural produce, processing to enhance shelf-life, increasing total factor productivity, and generating additional jobs and income for farmers. It, thus, encompasses both food and non-food processing, and represents agro-processing. Income generation activities such as paddy straw fodder blocks, duck farming, honeybee keeping, mushroom cultivation, backyard poultry, among others, that do not compete with the time that is required for various inter-cultivation activities of primary agriculture production, qualify to be defined as a secondary agriculture. These Small-scale activities utilizes rural manpower, skills and locally available inputs efficiently. These enterprises can interact in space and/or time to achieve benefits through a synergistic resource transfer among enterprises, working closely such that waste from one part becomes a supply for another component of the system known as Integrated Farming System (IFS). Not only this but waste management is also one the important issue tackled with the help of secondary agriculture like leftover cane can be processed to produce by products of sugarcane. Thus, secondary agriculture realizes better productivity, profitability and sustainable production systems that would help to solve the fuel, feed and energy crisis, create more employment avenues, ensure regular income and encourage agriculture-oriented industry.