Open Access Short Research Article

Panel Discussion - Scope, Opportunities and Challenges of Agri-Journalism in India

K. B. Ramappa, R. C. Srivastava, Birendra Kumar, Mohit Sharma, A. R. Shravanthi, Tulika Kumari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 104-112
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030670

Information is crucial for taking or arriving at right decisions, it becomes an economic action that can be produced, purchased and sold. Although, agriculture is a backbone of many countries, the investment in agriculture and rural development is still lagging. Communication for agriculture is not seen as a major priority and the role of the media as an effective player in agricultural and rural development. There is hardly any meaningful debate on farmers’ issues with facts and figures. There are hardly any media that covers exclusive news on rural India in general and agriculture in particular, although 70 per cent of the population lived there. The information on agriculture coverage is limited to a particular topic such as market and market prices, advertisement, stock market, etc., in most of the medium. Many a times, this piece of information might be written by an exclusive scientist, interested journalist or as usual by the news reporters, who have the journalist skills but, not able to translate things. There is a lack of skilled manpower to cover all aspects of agriculture such as crop production output, national GDP, overcome farmer problems, farm machinery and implements, farmer lifestyle, ways of doubling of farmer income etc. This panel discussion has come up with a suggestion to start a one year Post Graduate Diploma in Agri-journalism course to train the interested students, working professionals and the budding entrepreneurs to contribute to the industry as well as farming community.

Open Access Minireview Article

Blockchain Technology in Agriculture

V. V. S. S. Anusha, S. R. Padma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 96-103
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030669

The World Economic Forum marked Blockchain technology (BCT) as one of the seven revolutionary technologies of the future. It is a distributed ledger system ensuring transparency, security, immutability, interoperability, and provenance. This article tries to understand the technological aspects, working mechanism and explore different areas where BCT can be applied in agriculture. Data in BCT is stored in a series of blocks contains the hash value (previous and the current), timestamp, and difficulty details, secured cryptographically with a symmetric or asymmetric digital signature to avoid data tampering and fraud. Traceability (supply chain), using Smart contracts (in Agricultural insurance, Crop finance, Land records) achieved by the BCT and the companies (Carrefour, Trace harvest), states (Telangana, Andhra Pradesh), and countries (Kenya, European Union) practicing are discussed. The Farmer producer company- Sahyadri farms keen implementation of blockchain fetched benefits to farmers amid Covid times. Finally, addressing the barriers in practicing the BCT in India- Technology maturity, energy cost, and education. The massive potential of BCT is yet untapped, to reach up to the farmer level, which will flourish in the coming years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Economic Analysis and Profitability of Tomato ((Lycopersicon esculentum) Production in Selected Districts of Punjab State

Gurleen Kaur, Gurlal Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030659

The study was conducted to analyse the comparative economic analysis and profitability of tomato production in selected districts of Punjab state. A primary data was collected in the year 2019-20 by using multistage stratified random sampling technique. Two top ranking districts namely Amritsar and Patiala on the basis of highest area under tomato crop were purposively selected in the Punjab state. A sample of 200 tomato growers were selected, 100 each from both the districts from 21 producing villages selected from Patiala and Amritsar district of Punjab state. The results of the study indicated that the average area under tomato crop was highest in case of Amritsar district i.e. 10.90 acres as compared to 2.98 acres in Patiala district. Majority of the farmers in both the districts were using hybrid varities. 575 variety is basically demanded by the factories or tomato companies and mostly preferred by processing firms. The total variable cost was estimated highest in case of Patiala district (Rs.59262.63/acre) as compared to Amritsar district (Rs.47779.15/acre) due to the difference in their cultivation methods (Bamboo staking vs open field cultivation), varietal difference, nursery preparation methods, seasonal and geographical difference. The returns over variable cost was found higher in case of Patiala district i.e. Rs. 85142.42 than Amritsar district (Rs.61882.74). The study concluded that the tomato cultivation in Patiala district was found more profitable than Amritsar district. It was recommended that the primary agricultural credit cooperative societies and other funding agencies should be persuaded to provide adequate short term credit facilities to cover the higher operational cost. Government should ensure the supply of hybrid seeds to tomato growers at subsidized rates and ensure better minimum support price to tomato growers so that farmers received price at least cost equal to the cost of production.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Economics of Coffee (Coffea arabica) Plantation in Nagaland, India

Imsuakum Pongener, Sanjoy Das

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030660

The present study was conducted for estimating the economics of coffee plantation in Nagaland. Three districts were selected, and 60 respondents were interviewed from the selected districts. Selection of respondents was carried out with the help of snowball sampling method. Snowball sampling method was used due to limitation of secondary data on coffee farmers and the uneven distribution of coffee farmers. The cost of coffee cultivation was estimated by using different cost concepts used in farm management studies. This study revealed that total establishment cost of coffee was Rs. 22,271/- per acre. The gestation period of arabica coffee found as 4 years for the present study, thereafter the maintenance stage begins with an annual maintenance cost of Rs. 17,762/- per acre. Average yield reported in the study area was 229 kg/acre and making a gross income of Rs. 45,868 /- per acre. The net return worked out as Rs 28,106/- per acre / annum. The productivity of coffee was found as lower than the national average, which maybe as a result of poor availability of labour, the plantations are rainfed and organic by default, therefore absence of fertilizer input may attribute to low productivity. The cost as well as the yield was found lower in the marginal category and increased as the plantation size increases, this may be due to the absence of competitiveness and poor technical knowledge on the management of the plantation among the marginal growers. However having a return to scale value of 1.03 and benefit cost ratio of 1.6, it was cleared that the coffee plantation in Nagaland is profitable and can be undertaken in a commercial scale.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-personal and Economic Profile of Tribal Farmers Practicing Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Ranchi district of Jharkhand

Smriti Singh, Gyanendra Sharma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 19-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030661

The present study has been undertaken during 2019-2020 to appraise the socio-personal and economic profile of tribal farmers of Ranchi district of Jharkhand. Four villages were randomly selected from the two purposively selected blocks namely Tamar and Angara blocks of Ranchi district of Jharkhand state. The data were collected from 45 randomly selected tribal farmers practicing ITKs pertaining to pest and disease management by personal interviewing the respondents through a well tested structured interview schedule, who were considered as tribal key informants. The findings revealed that majority of the key informants were females (60%) belonging to old age group (71.11%) of Oraon community (46.66%). Majority of the respondents had education upto primary level only (31.12%), whereas about 30 per cent of them were either illiterate or could read and write only. Highest proportion of the key informants had marginal size of land holding with long farming experience (57.78%). Altogether one-third of the respondents had membership of only one organisation and 42.22 per cent of them were not associated with any formal organisation. Majority of the respondents had low level of risk-orientation (57.77%) and innovativeness (60%). Interventions on education, training and technology were suggested as the suitable measures for raising their socio-economic status. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Market Integration and Price Leadership among Major Mulberry Cocoon Markets in South India

G. R. Halagundegowda, P. Kumaresan, . Muttanna, Y. Satish

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030662

Market integration is a good proxy for measuring market efficiency and the emerging price signals from the markets can be utilized to benefit both farmers and reelers alike. The present study empirically examines the dynamic interrelationships among the prices of major cocoons markets viz. Ramanagaram (Karnataka), Sidlaghatta (Karnataka), Hindupur (Andra Pradesh) and Dharmapuri (Tamil Nadu) in terms of market integration. The monthly average prices of cross breed mulberry cocoons for a period between April 2002 and March 2021 were considered for the present study. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) (tau) testindicated that all the price series were non-stationary at level, but were stationary after first difference. The Johansen's multivariate cointegration procedure revealed existence of cointegration among the prices of cocoon markets. The Vector Error Correction Models (VECM) revealed a long run price causality running from Ramanagaram and Sidlaghatta markets to all other markets considered under study. The Granger causality test indicated a unidirectional causality running from Ramanagaram and Sidlaghatta markets to all markets and not vice versa. The prices prevailed in Ramanagaram and Sidlaghatta markets controlled and decided the current prices of cross breed cocoons both in long run and short run in all other markets considered for the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lifecycle Assessment of Tomato Production in Open Field and Greenhouse in Dharmapuri District of Tamilnadu

C. Shokila, V. M. Indumathi, N. Venkatesa Palanichamy, K. Hemaprabha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030663

Aim: Tomatoes are commercially cultivated in open- field (OF) and greenhouse (GH) in Dharmapuri district of Tamilnadu. The main aim of this study is to assess the environmental impact of selected categories in open-field and greenhouse tomato cultivation using the lifecycle assessment (LCA) methodology.

Methodology: The primary data was gathered from 30 open field and 30 greenhouse farmers in Dharmapuri district. The system boundary selected for the study is ‘cradle to farm gate’ approach and the functional unit based on mass is one ton of tomato production. The Openlca software was used for the impact assessment in which the CML- IA baseline method was used to calculate the impact categories.

Findings: The results indicated that the environmental impact of greenhouse is lower than the open-field due to high yield and less energy inputs. Field emissions of ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide due to the incorporation of large amount of manure and the usage of fertilizers were the main contributor of the impact categories.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measuring the Technical and Scale Efficiency of Smallholder Maize (Zea mays) Farmers in Cameroon: The Case of the Centre Region

Eloundou Etoundi Christian, Fon Dorothy Engwali, Minkoua Nzie Jules René

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 44-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030664

Urbanisation has led to the development of new markets, including that for cereals for human consumption, where maize cultivation has taken on an important role among smallholder producers in some countries, such as Cameroon. However, the cultivation of maize in the centre region of Cameroon raises several questions, including the efficiency of these farmers. This article presents the level and determinants of technical performance of smallholder maize farmers. The research method was based on field surveys. The study was carried out between September 2019 and December 2020 in the Centre Region of Cameroon. The research methods used included field work, field surveys through semi-structured interviews on 1060 (545 women and 515 men) maize farm managers who were selected in a reasoned method based on the file of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Cameroon. Data from the study was analysed using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and the Tobit model allowed us to identify the determinants of the performance of these maize farms. The results show that the efficiency scores of the production and income outputs are 0.7773 and 0.6707, respectively, and provide evidence for the inefficiency of smallholder maize farmers in the Centre Region. Gender, cropping system, maize variety and number of treatments have a significant and positive influence on the productive efficiency of the farms while the only determinant that influences the income efficiency of the farmers is the maize variety used. Ultimately, smallholder maize farmers are not performing well in terms of both production and income. Value chain actors need to act on three main pillars around family farms: socio-economic characteristics (the place of women and education policy), the production system (access to quality seeds, and production techniques) and institutional factors (access to extension, financing and membership to a producer organization).

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Purchase Behaviour: A Move towards Environmental Sustainability- An Application of Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM)

J. Jeevitha, S. Hemalatha, S. Moghana Lavanya, V. Anandhi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 57-66
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030665

Green purchase behaviour refers to the purchase of environmental friendly products. It is considered to be one of the most important measures to attain environmental sustainability. Present study aims towards identifying factors influencing green purchase behaviour and to establish a relationship between the factors. Using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM), a hierarchical structure has been extracted illustrating the contextual relationship between the factors. Environmental knowledge occupied the lowest form of the hierarchy which is found to be the basis for green purchase behaviour. MICMAC analysis has been applied to group the factors according to their driving power and dependency. Environmental knowledge, environmental concern, eco-labelling, product quality, and brand image have a strong driving power towards green purchasing behaviour. Green purchase intention and green purchase behaviour are highly dependent on other factors. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Perception of the Feasibility of Mithun (Bos frontalis) Farming and its Constraints in Nagaland, India

Kamni P. Biam, D. Bardhan, L. Sunitibala Devi, K. Khate, Abhijit Mitra

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 67-74
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030666

The present study was conducted on a sample of 126 mithun farmers randomly drawn from three districts of Nagaland to assess the perception of the farmers regarding the feasibility of mithun farming and its constraints that can contribute to a better understanding of the mithun production systems and its declining population in Nagaland. The farmer’s perception of the feasibility of mithun farming and its constraints was measured using a 3 and 5 point continuum Likert scale, respectively, drawing various inferences based on the respondents’ responses. A low mean perception score (MPS) of 1.06, reveals that the majority (99.21%) of the respondents are in disagreement with the statement that mithun farming is not profitable. Mithun farming according to them is very profitable which needs the right hand-holding support from financial institutions for the exploitation of its marketable potential. Due to the lack of institutional efforts in promoting mithun rearing as bankable and insured schemes, 99.21 percent of farmers held a strong perception (MPS=2.98) that mithun farming, in the long run, may not be feasible and may result in discontinuity of mithun farming in some villages. Also, the high cost of inputs for fencing (Mean value=3.91) and constant predator attack on the animal particularly the young calves (Mean value= 3.88) renders mithun farming difficult with the existing system of rearing. The findings indicate that though mithun farming is profitable, there is a strong need to promote a scientific and alternative semi-intensive method of mithun rearing and encourage the diversified use of mithun for meat, milk, hide, and draught potential to stop the slaughter of mithun for table purpose only. Therefore, considering the socio-cultural linkages of the tribes with the mithun proper strategies and policies are essential for its conservation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges to Overcome by the Members of the NARMUL Dairy Cooperative

S. Satish, Ranjit Kumar, Ajay Kumar Koshta

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 75-82
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030667

Dairy cooperatives have played an important role in improving the economy of small milk producers’ households in different regions of India. Telangana is one amongst them, which is predominantly an agricultural state with an excellent potential for milk production. The study was conducted to analyze the constraints faced by dairy farmers of Yadadri- Bhongir district of Telangana. The study data was collected during March-April 2021 from 90 milk producers of NARMUL co-operative in Yadadri-Bhuvangiri district of the state. Low procurement price of milk, Lack of disease control programs, No Bonus, Lack of milk testing & animal screening facilities, Irregular visits of Veterinary staff were considered as the most serious constraints where as, Unavailability of first aid services and lack of sufficient supply of vaccines to the animals, Non availability of loan facilities, Lack of artificial insemination (A.I.) facilities in/around the village, Inadequate supply of feed and mineral mixture were considered as the least serious constraints.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Executive Extension Needs of Rural Women in the Field of Rationalizing Food Consumption Using Broach's

Jasim Mohammed Saleh, Adel Ibrahim Alhamoly

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 83-95
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030668

Empowering rural women and girls is not only a fundamental need for agricultural development but also one of the most prominent components of social and economic progress and sustainable development in general. Search data gathered through the questionnaire, the interview with 120 properly addressed, after compiling the data are encoded and discharged and scheduling to fit the statistical analysis methods used, and used some appropriate statistical methods as a percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, as well as using frequency tables to display data, use the SPSS program. The variable was measured for the indicative requirements using equation Borich's needs assessment guidelines. The parent survey results that most rural women aged boys with active level by 59.2%, and education level between a medium and illiteracy, for the exposure to mass media level was low by 76.7%. The most of the sources of information were from Mother of husband by 80%. In conclusion the need to utilize the remaining food through several smaller units to take advantage of it to make a new meal, so they must diversify its sources of information and guidance for the purpose of upgrading rural women to benefit from food waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Information Communicatyion Technology (ICT) Knowledge Levels of the Moth Bean Growers in Churu District of Rajasthan, India

Nemi Chand Meena, J. P. Lakhera, R. K. Verma, Sunil Kumar Meena

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 113-120
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030671

Now a days new technologies introducing in agriculture and it reduce the role of man power. Globally, in this informative era, information, communication and technology (ICT) play vital roles in creating awareness about new innovations in every field of life, especially in agriculture. ICTs can make agriculture more innovative, attractive and productive occupation through providing latest useful information. In this study, ICTs is operationalized as the use of communication tools like, WhatsApp group, SMS, Telephone helpline to reach farmers. It saves money, time and efforts and reduces dependency on so many factors in the chain of extension. In this present study, majority of respondents were had medium level of knowledge regarding ICT.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Conservation Agriculture Practice and Socio-Economic Factors on Yam Production (Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea rotundata) in Kalagoé (Lobaye, Central African Republic)

G. I. Touckia, L. Aba-Toumnou, O. D. Yongo, M. Ganima Yara, K. Kokou

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 121-131
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030672

Few studies have been carried out on Yam (Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea rotundata) in relation with the conservation agriculture in CAR. Yam is cultivated in limited quantities despite its role in improving food security.  In order to increase  Yam   production  in the smallholder farms in CAR, the potential effect   of  crop management practices  like    nutrient application,  mulching and minimum  tillage  on  Yam  crop  yield  and  household  financial  returns,  needs  to  be  understood. A  questionnaire  was  prepared  and  used  as  a  tool  for the  collection  of  information  from 100 producers  of Yam without distinction of ages and sexes. In order to determinate the agronomical performance of Yam, two plots were explored. The first plot with 625m² (12.5m ×50m), known as the improved plot, is a plot on which all conservation agriculture practices were applied. The second plot, known as the traditional plot, is one on which traditional farming techniques were applied. The results of the survey show that 32% of the farmers are in favor for CA practice nevertheless 68% are not favor, which shows that a large proportion of farmers in Kalangoé are not aware of the benefits of this technique. The most widely cultivated variety is D. rotundata, because of its taste qualities.  Some producers also grow both varieties at the same time. Some producers (28%) clear their plots by cutting down all the trees to leave the field bare, while a large number (72%) practice partial cutting by removing the shrubs to keep the large trees in order to protect the forest. A large number of producers (62%) also burn their plots for various reasons, including freeing up space and making it easier to move around the field because the plant debris from clearing prevents them from working properly. A small proportion of producers (26%) practice ploughing against 74% who do not practice this technique. The conservation agriculture practice applied to Yam gave interesting agronomic performances (growth and production parameters) than the farmers practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of Banana Cultivation: A Comparative Study on Adopters and Non-Adopters of Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme

S. Ajmal, T. Paul Lazarus, Aswathy Vijayan, Brigit Joseph, R. V. Manju

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 132-140
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030673

An economic analysis of banana cultivation was done to compare the adopters and non-adopters of WBCIS. Firstly, a comparison of farm business analysis was done using cost concepts. At Cost C, insured farmers had incurred more cost (₹ 3,86,021 ha-1) than uninsured farmers (₹3,50,910.06 ha-1). The net returns at Cost C for insured farmers were ₹3,56,261 ha-1 and for uninsured farmers, it was 3,24,197 ha-1. Insured farmers had incurred more cost C and more net return at Cost C than uninsured farmers. The BC ratio obtained for insured farmers (2.01) at Cost C were more than that of uninsured farmers (1.92). It was found that the insured farmers were having more economic benefits than uninsured farmers from banana cultivation. The results of Cobb-Douglas production function revealed that R2 value for insured and uninsured farmers was 0.87 and 0.79 respectively, which indicated a good fit. The analysis of allocative efficiency, for insured and uninsured farmers, revealed that quantity of hired labour, family labour and quantity of manures, fertilizers and soil ameliorants were underutilized. Furthermore, quantity of plant protection materials was overutilized by both categories of farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Determinants of Rice Production Yield in Benin

Parape Oto Issa Abdou-Raouf, Assouni Janvier, Abdoulaye Moussadikou

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 141-146
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030674

This study aims to analyze the determinants of rice production yield in Benin. Data were collected in the central part of Benin, which includes the districts of Bantè, Dassa, Glazoué and Savalou. A total of 300 randomly selected rice producers were surveyed. The results indicate that the contract farming participation, membership in an innovation platform, and the location of the producer are the main determinants of rice yield. The design of policies to improve producer yield should focus primarily on these factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Self-Esteem among Working Women

Kavita Kumari, Bimla Dhanda

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 147-152
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030675

Women are significantly involved in the development of any nation by managing personal responsibilities as well as professional life. They are playing an important role in economic and social development of any society and their participation gives them satisfaction at their home up to a greater extent. Self-esteem is defined by how much value people place on themselves being the evaluative component of self-knowledge, high self-esteem refers to a highly favorable global evaluation of the self. So, the study was conducted in Hisar district of Haryana state on 400 rural and urban working women to assess their self-esteem. It was found that a very high majority of respondents (95.5%) of urban area were having low level of leisure time exercise and 47.5 percent respondents were having high level of self –esteem. Occupation of respondents was observed statistically significant only in low level of self-esteem (F=2.84, p<0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

An Economic Analysis of Paddy Cultivation in Cuddalore District

E. Ragunath, R. Rajesh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 153-160
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030676

In this paper an attempt was made to analyze economics of paddy cultivation in Cuddalore district. Based on area under paddy, three blocks namely Kurinjipadi, Kumaratchi and Vridhachalam were selected. The total sample size was 120 paddy growers. The study revealed that area and production of paddy crop was declining during the period 1998-2008 while the productivity was growing positively during the same period. During 2009-2019, compound growth rate of area, production and productivity of paddy was depicting an increasing trend due to the role-played by high yielding varieties which created greater affinity towards paddy crop. The cost of production of paddy per hectare was estimated to be Rs. 56,617. The average gross income was found to be Rs. 92,077 per hectare and net income was observed to be Rs. 29,712 per hectare. Excessive usage of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers could be reduced to decrease the production cost and increase the efficiency of inputs. Adoption of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method was suggested to increase the productivity of paddy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Farmers Decision to Join Joint Forest Management Programme in Jammu Division of Jammu and Kashmir

Tariq Iqbal, P. S. Slathia, Rajinder Peshin, Sandeep Sehgal, Manish Kumar Sharma, Kiran Kour

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 161-166
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030677

The present study was conducted in purposively selected “East Forest Circle” of Jammu division of J&K. Multistage sampling plan was followed for the selection of respondents. Six forest ranges from East circle having maximum number of Joint Management Programme (JFM)Cs were selected purposively. Twenty four committees, four from each selected ranges of East circle and eight members from each selected JFMC were selected through random sampling technique. The respondents were divided into two groups 1).Treatment group: Eight members from each selected JFMC were selected randomly for the study making the sample size to 192 respondents. 2). Control group: Two villages from each range (12 villages in total) were selected through random sampling technique. From each selected village nine non- JFMC members were randomly selected. Thus, a total sample of 108 non-JFMC members were selected from these villages. Binary regression model was applied to analyze the factors affecting farmer’s decision to join JFM programme. The result of the study showed that family size, area under trees, extension contact and social participation significantly affecting farmer’s decision to join JFM programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Scientific Technological Interventions on Rapeseed and Mustard: Recent Advances and Future Prospects

Priyanka Sharma, Monish Roy, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Bidhan Roy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 167-174
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030678

In order to increase production, popularization of improved technology as well as for uplifting the socio-economic conditions of the small and marginal farmers of Sonitpur district which typically lies in North Bank Plain Agro-climatic Zone of Assam, a Crop demonstration was conducted among 100 numbers of agricultural beneficiaries in 5 clusters namely Chaiduar, Bihaguri, Balipara, Dhekiajuli and Gabhoru in the year 2020-2021 for the popularization of technology as well as cultivars. Selection of the beneficiaries and Villages were done based on their cropping sequence by the resource person working under the project entitled "Augmenting Rapeseed-Mustard Production of Assam farmers for Sustainable Livelihood Security" linked with Assam Agribusiness and Rural Transformation Project (APART) scheme. During the period of the cropping season, the selected farmers for adoption had shown keen interest in attending farmer’s technical training programme conducted at the cluster level for adopting scientific production techniques and methods gradually, which was considered as a very important technique to be followed by the marginal farmers of Assam to obtain good crop population and ultimately higher yield. Adopting scientific agricultural techniques had helped farmers to reduce the labour cost thus benefitted the farmers by reducing the cost of cultivation. Due to its suitable soil and agro-climatic conditions as well as through their dedication and continuous efforts towards farming, they could be able to achieve higher yield and income within a short period of time as well as could motivate the other small and marginal farmers of nearby villages for further uplifting their economic status thereby preserving their ancestral occupation for future generations.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on Educational Aspiration and Parental Encouragement among Rural and Urban High School Children

Reenu Pindar, C. K. Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 190-195
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030680

Adolescence is the time of transition from childhood dependence to early adulthood freedom and responsibility. Educational aspiration is explained as a psychological construct, which reflects a cognitive type of motivation of the individual. Educational aspiration reflects educational goals an individual set for himself/herself. Parental encouragement is the inspiration or extra-boosting given by the parents to the children for their active involvement in academic life. The present study was conducted in rural and urban areas of Hisar and Fatehabad district of Haryana state. The sample of study included 120 respondents from Hisar and 120 from Fatehabad district, thus total sample comprised of 240 respondents. Educational Aspiration Scale by Sharma and Gupta (2015) was used to assess educational aspiration and Parental Encouragement Scale by Sharma (1997) was used to assess parental encouragement of students.

The results of study revealed that majority of respondents belonged to moderate category of educational aspirations and majority of respondents perceived moderate level of parental encouragement. There were significant differences in educational aspirations and parental encouragement of children from rural and urban area. In urban area, respondents had significantly greater educational aspiration and parental encouragement as compared to respondents from rural area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Labour Absorption in Crop Production for Principal Crops in Semi-Arid and Flood Prone Eastern Plain Region of Rajasthan

Arjun Singh Rajput, Vikalp Sharma, M. K. Jangid, Latika Sharma, D. C. Pant

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 196-207
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030681

The present investigation was undertaken with a view to study the labour absorption (both family and hired labour) in principal crops in Semi-Arid and Flood Prone Eastern Plain Region of Rajasthan. The primary data were collected from 200 households of 10 villages during the year 2018-2019. To study the labour absorption in crop production for principal crops the model suggested by Singh, 1996 was used. In semi-arid and flood prone eastern region (Region-III), the average labour absorption in crop production was 48.72 man-days per hectare in selected principal crops i.e., pearl millet, green gram, wheat, rapeseed & mustard and chickpea. The participation of family and hired labour was 31.11 man-days per hectare and 17.61 man-days per hectare in region-III. The wage rate for machine labour was maximum on marginal farms (Rs. 849.86 per hour) while minimum on large farms (Rs. 596.71 per hour).

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Family Background on Learning Outcome of Agricultural Undergraduates in Indian Conditions

T. R. Sridevi Krishnaveni, R. Arunachalam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 208-216
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030682

Family as an entity teaches many concepts like social, economic, technical, moral concepts to the children for a better living. Thus the contribution of a family in an educational environment is undeniable. Thus this paper attempts to cull out various aspects of family background that influence the learning situation of the agricultural undergraduate students in the Indian conditions. Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore of TNAU were taken as the study center. B. Sc. (Agriculture) degree program was purposefully selected. 114 students studying final year were considered for the study by employing saturated sampling technique. Majority of the respondents’ families were found to be economically sound with stable occupation under any one sector. Being hostellers, the parents did not have adequate scope to engage in educational activities and interact with the institution. But they always find ways to back the students in all possible ways in other means.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Independent Variables and Training Needs of Farmers about Recommended Turmeric Cultivation Practices

M. Ganapathy Ramu, M. Vetriselvan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 217-223
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030683

Erode district is well known for turmeric production and turmeric market in entire country. This study was conducted in Erode district of Tamil Nadu. Erode district consists of nine taluks. Among nine taluks, Erode taluk was selected. Erode taluk has two blocks and among the two blocks, Kodumudi has more area under turmeric cultivation. Therefore, Kodumudi block was selected purposively. Kodumudi block comprises of twenty-four revenue villages. Among the twenty-four villages, five villages were selected for the study purpose. From each selected village, total sample of 120 turmeric growers were selected through proportionate simple random sampling technique. Thirteen independent variables were selected and analyzed to identify its relationship with dependent variable (training needs).  From the above study it may be concluded that that educational status, farming experience, extension agency contact, trainings undergone, innovativeness, and scientific orientation were found to have positive and significant relationship with the training needs of turmeric growers about recommended turmeric cultivation practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

A study on Socio-Economic Changes of Agricultural Migrants

R. Kavitha, R. Velusamy, J. Puspha, K. Prabakaran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 224-230
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030684

Aims: The study aims to find out the Socio-Economic changes occurred in the livelihoods of agricultural migrants in Tiruppur district of Tamil Nadu.

Study Design: Ex-post facto research design.

Place and Duration of Study: Tiruppur district were purposively selected for this study since it is stands third place in Tamil Nadu receiving the migrants. This study was conducted during May 2021.

Methodology: Migrants with agricultural background was selected as respondents for this study. Total sample size of 120 respondents were selected by using snow ball sampling method. To measure socio-economic changes of migrants, socio-economic indicators were identified based on the literature review, discussion with advisory committee members and senior social scientists. The socio-economic indicators identified for measuring socio-economic changes are socio-psychological factors, education, health maintenance and nutrition, housing, occupation, cultural factors, economic changes, social participation and material possession. The primary data was collected with the help of a well-structured and pre-tested interview schedule. Percentage analysis and cumulative frequency method were used to analyse the data.

Results: In this context, the Socio-Economic changes of agricultural migrants were analysed and discussed with nine sub-headings. The results reveals that majority of the migrants (84.16%) expenditure on education were increased, All the respondents (100%) were able to take balanced diet, Vast majority of the respondents (91.66%) expenditure towards the improvement of the house were changed, Cent per cent of the respondent’s occupation were changed, Most of the respondents (90.00%) expenditure on celebration of festivals were increased, There was a vast change in the income of the majority of the respondents (89.16%), Cent per cent of respondents possess mobile phone and television, The outside contact was increased for most of the migrants (93.33%).Overall more than half (54.70%) of the respondents had medium level of overall socio economic changes.

Conclusion: The majority of the respondents were inter-district rural migrants and the cost of living is high in the urban areas. It might be the reasons for medium level of socio-economic changes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Trade Performance of Blackgram (Vigna mungo) and Greengram (Vigna radiata) in India and Myanmar

Nyein Aye Khine, K. K. Kundu, D. P. Malik, Monika Devi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 231-243
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030687

Black gram and green gram are important legume crops in India and Myanmar. The largest producer of black gram and green gram is India but it does not meet domestic consumption. The study was conducted with time series data from the year 1970 to 2019 in order to work out the growth patterns in area, production, productivity, export and import of black gram and green gram. CAGR and instability was calculated in order to better understand fluctuations of black gram and green gram year by year. Area and production increased in both countries from the year 1970-71 to 2018-19. However, the yield of black gram and green gram was stagnant in India which was over 500 kg/ha in 2018-19 whereas the yield in Myanmar was more than 1000 kg/ha during the same period. The yield gap between India and Myanmar was about 800 kg/ha. With a growing population and often unfavorable seasonal conditions, the country's production regularly fell short of consumption needs requiring it to import large quantities of pulses. Cropping patterns like rice-pulses, intercropping with other crops and HYV can improve productivity and expand pulse areas in India. India is the largest importer of black gram and has greater bargaining power to dominate the black gram market in Myanmar. Trade agreement is needed to overcome the risks of price fluctuation between the two countries.

Open Access Review Article

Secondary Agriculture towards Increasing Production and Sustainability

Ayman Azad, Sameera Qayoom, F. A. Bahar, S. S. Mehdi, Shayista Fayaz, Sadaf Iqbal, Nazir Hussain, Nazim Hamid, Ashraf Sultan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 175-189
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1030679

There is a pressing need for global agriculture to shift its focus to secondary agriculture in order to produce jobs as the world's population increases. The method of generating agricultural produce is biological in nature, making it a primary agriculture operation; but, when the raw produce is refined, it receives additional benefit, making it a secondary agriculture activity. Any farm related activity that uses the land or labor beyond the Kharif and Rabi seasons would qualify for a ‘Secondary Agriculture’ activity. India's scope for diversified agriculture is vast because of extensive arable land, multiple agro-climatic zones and a rich cafeteria of soils. However, India's reputation as a global agricultural powerhouse is ironically at odds with its farmers' low average wages. The road to higher agricultural Gross Value Added and farmers' income rests in efficient management of the post-production segment, comprising agri-logistics, processing and marketing. Agriculture generates raw materials that meet basic human requirements, and is considered as a primary economic activity. Of course, there are certain alternative agriculture activities like beekeeping, mushroom cultivation, backyard poultry, etc., which fall under the ambit of secondary agriculture. Secondary agriculture helps in using all parts of an agricultural produce, processing to enhance shelf-life, increasing total factor productivity, and generating additional jobs and income for farmers. It, thus, encompasses both food and non-food processing, and represents agro-processing. Income generation activities such as paddy straw fodder blocks, duck farming, honeybee keeping, mushroom cultivation, backyard poultry, among others, that do not compete with the time that is required for various inter-cultivation activities of primary agriculture production, qualify to be defined as a secondary agriculture. These Small-scale activities utilizes rural manpower, skills and locally available inputs efficiently. These enterprises can interact in space and/or time to achieve benefits through a synergistic resource transfer among enterprises, working closely such that waste from one part becomes a supply for another component of the system known as Integrated Farming System (IFS). Not only this but waste management is also one the important issue tackled with the help of secondary agriculture like leftover cane can be processed to produce by products of sugarcane. Thus, secondary agriculture realizes better productivity, profitability and sustainable production systems that would help to solve the fuel, feed and energy crisis, create more employment avenues, ensure regular income and encourage agriculture-oriented industry.