Open Access Short Research Article

A Study of Various Constraints in Lentil Production and Marketing in District Lakhimpur (Kheri) of Uttar Pradesh

Ilma Zeb, Sanjay Kumar, Mantasha Athar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 528-532
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130780

Background: Lentil pulse crop on account of their vital role in nutritional security and soil ameliorative properties have been an integral part of sustainable agriculture since ages. The decrease in production and shrinkage in the area of pulse crops in Lakhimpur (Kheri), Uttar Pradesh is a cause of great concern. Keeping in view the importance of lentils, the study was carried out to examine the various constraints faced by the different groups of farmers.

Aims: To study the various Constraints in lentil production and marketing.

Place and Duration of Study: Lakhimpur (kheri) district of Uttar Pradesh, between year 2020 and 2021.

Methodology: A total of 100 respondents were selected randomly from the Mitauli block of Lakhimpur (kheri) district, Uttar Pradesh and a pre-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from the farmers. Respondents were classified into three ccategories based on their size of land holdings.

Results: It is revealed by the Garrett scores that the major production constraint faced by most of the farmers was unfavorable weather condition (score of 66.39) and major marketing constraint faced was small quantity of marketable surplus (score of 61.98).

Conclusion: From the findings of the study, it has been stated that there was a high level of constraints associated with production and marketing of lentils. Highly responded constraints for production were unfavorable weather condition(rank I), non-availability of quality water for irrigation(rank II),inadequate knowledge of recommended packages and practices (rank III).Similarly small quantity of marketable surplus(rank I),availability of reliable market information system (rank II) and price fluctuation(rank III)were the major constraints in case of marketing of lentils. Due to having these constraints, farmers faced a lot of troubles which hampered agricultural activities, increased quantum of credit assistance and led to selling of agricultural crops at low prices.

Open Access Short Research Article

A Study of Various Constraints Regarding Credit Utilization in Jaunpur District of Uttar Pradesh

Mantasha Athar, Sanjay Kumar, Ilma Zeb

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 577-580
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130786

Background: Credit is the crucial input for the economic development of the farmers as it helps in increased production through use of modern inputs. The study was carried out to examine the various constraints faced by the different groups of farmers in the Jaunpur district in regards to credit utilization.

Aims: To study the various constraints regarding credit utilization and credit acquisition by the borrowers

Place and Duration of Study: Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh, between year 2020 and 2021.

Methodology: A total of 120 respondents were selected randomly from the Karanzakala block of Jaunpur district, Uttar Pradesh and a pre-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from the farmers. Respondents were classified into two categories and 60 respondents from borrowers and 60 from non-borrowers were selected for study purpose

Results: It is revealed by the Garrett scores that maximum number of borrowers with 71.61 mean score reported that hectic documentation as main problem faced in acquiring the credit.

Conclusion: From the findings of the study, it has been stated that there was a high level of constraints associated with access to credit. Highly responded constraints for bank credit were hectic documentation (71.61 mean score), repayment period not being sufficient (68.25 mean score) and Insufficient loan amount (60.25 mean score) were the major constraints. Due to having these constraints, farmers faced a lot of troubles to get credit which hindered agricultural activities, increased cost of credit, led to selling of agricultural crops at low prices.

Open Access Short Research Article

Impact on Knowledge of Blackgram Growers in Periyar Vaigai Command Area of Madurai District

K. Ramakrishnan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 616-620
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130790

The World Bank Supported TN IAM (Irrigated Agriculture Modernization) Project is a follow up of IAMWARM presently it was called as (Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water-Bodies Restoration and Management) Project which has made significant development and impacts in the Tamil Nadu state by modernizing irrigation infrastructure, improving water use efficiency, enhancing yield and productivity of agriculture in a climate resilient production systems, diversification towards high-value crops, strengthening the institutional reforms through Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) and Water Users Association (WUA). Madurai District of Tamil Nadu was purposively selected for this study because Tamil Nadu Irrigated Agriculture Modernization Project was conducted under Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.  The foremost objective of the study is to assess the knowledge level of respondents in the study area. According to crop production technology aspects revealed that (79.00%) of the beneficiaries possessed knowledge in using VBN 6 variety for cultivation. The study concluded that majority (80.00%) of the beneficiaries were possessed knowledge on (cultural control) fixation of light traps, crop rotation (77.50%) and sowing carry out in proper season.

Open Access Short Research Article

Natural Resource Management to Support Tourism Using Circular Economics Business Model: Case in Jatirejoyoso Village, Malang Regency, Indonesia

Imam Mukhlis, Isnawati Hidayah, Andik Pratama, Anudiyan Amir Mas’ud, Grisvia Agustin, Linda Seprillina

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 648-657
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130794

Poverty alleviation and rural development has become one of priority for Indonesian government. It requires the contribution from local government to work hand in hand with various stakeholders in order to develop their local area and people based on their potential resources. The research aims to establish sustainable business model for rural development. One of the example is Jatirejoyoso village, Malang Regency that prepare their self to establish a tourism site which focus on agroecological farming system and circular economy concept. Thus, this research is conducted in Jatirejoyoso Village, Malang Regency. The research uses qualitative approach using DBR (Design Based Research). Moreover, this research uses SWOT analysis and BMC (Business Model Canvas) analysis. The data collected by doing FGD (Focus Group Discussion), in-depth interview, documentation and observation. The research’s informants are farmers, official rural government, leader of local community development program, and youth people. The research’s findings concludes that (1) Jatirejoyoso Village has potential to be developed into tourism area by managing their natural resource in agricultural sector and optimizing the farmer’s involvement, (2) The local communities independently initiate  and develop the tourism spot, (3) The local people and authorities start to manage their natural resource, for instance by establishing  refugia park nearby paddy field, (4) The local people has collective action’s awareness in order to sustainably optimize their potential to improve the livelihoods using circular economy approach.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Empirical Analysis of Timber Trade in India

R. Shobika, S. Selvanayaki, N. Deepa, R. Vasanthi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130712

Forests are renewable resources that contribute significantly to economic growth. The economic contribution by forest is through the valuable commodities including wood, paper and non-timber forest products. One among this is timber, it has been the primary material for house construction and furnishings of all kinds over the years. Timber plays a vital role in international trade in India. This study was focused on finding growth pattern in export and import of timber using Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR). Over the period of 2005-2019, the production of timber has been increased at the rate of 0.07%. The import performance was dominant over the export due to over requirements of raw materials. Although export showed positive growth rate at 0.15%, import of timber shot up at 4.09% from 2005-2019. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce adequate due diligence system to meet domestic demand of timber production in India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-personal and Communication Characteristics of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) Beneficiary Farmers in Uttarakhand

Babita Adhikari, S. V. Prasad, P. L. R. J. Praveena, G. Karuna sagar, B. Ravindra Reddy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130715

Water is a critical resource in agriculture & allied sector and it is estimated that globally, on average, agriculture accounts for 70 percent of global freshwater withdrawals. Consequently, the management of water in agriculture (irrigation) becomes important and in this context, programmes on irrigation and water conservation have been playing pivotal role. At present, this task at central level is performed by Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY). So, the research objective was formulated to study the socio-personal and communication characteristics of beneficiary farmers of PMKSY and it was undertaken during 2020-21. Uttarkashi and Dehradun districts were selected purposively and two blocks were selected in each district by simple random sampling. Three villages from each block and twenty farmers from each village were selected by following simple random sampling. Thus, the sample constituted to a total of 240 respondents. The findings revealed that majority (35.84%) of beneficiary farmers belonged for middle age group, more than two-fifth (40.00%) of the beneficiary farmers had education up to intermediate, almost two-fifth (39.17%) of the beneficiary farmers had medium farm, nearly half (49.59%) of the beneficiary farmers had medium farming experience. Moreover, beneficiary farmers (100.00%) had agriculture as their primary occupation, half (50.83%) of the beneficiary farmers had medium extension contact, more than half (56.67%) had medium level of mass media exposure followed, three-fifth (61.25%) beneficiary farmers had high innovativeness, 51.67 per cent PMKSY beneficiary farmers had low level of training exposure, majority (47.50%) had low social participation, 60.83 per cent beneficiary farmers had medium achievement motivation, majority (67.50%) had medium scientific orientation and majority (66.67%) of beneficiary farmers belonged to medium risk preference group. Interventions on focusing on small and marginal farmers, providing more trainings, improving extension contacts and social participation were suggested as the suitable measures for success of micro irrigation under PMKSY.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints in the Diffusion of E-NAM and the Policy Measures

Baljit Kaur, K. K. Kundu, Nitin Sharma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130716

The study's major goal is to look at how prices and market arrivals have changed before and after the installation of e-NAM, as well as the challenges that stakeholders experience in adopting this technology. Based on the facilities gained from the designated APMCs linked with e-NAM through personal interviews, data from randomly selected farmers and dealers, cum commission agents, and committee officials was collected. Several users were interviewed in order to achieve this goal relating to various challenges faced by e-NAM stakeholders while participating in the process of selling and buying through the e-NAM site. Farmers in the selected APMCs faced significant challenges due to the complicated and time-consuming method of trading in the e-NAM system, a lack of knowledge about e-trading (farmers frequently do not understand the meaning displayed in the machine), and frequent visits to the bank for payment realisation.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Economic Analysis on Production of Grapes in Theni District of Tamilnadu

K. Keerthana, A. Rohini, D. Murugananthi, R. Vasanthi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130719

This study was mainly concentrated on grape production. The results of analysis would throw light on the extent of cost and returns of grape cultivation, constraints faced by farmers ranked using Garett’s ranking technique. The cost and return of the grape farm per acre were analyzed and the average total cost was worked out to Rs.73,815.45 per acre and the average gross return was Rs 1,20,290 per acre.The result of the study indicates that grape cultivation is highly profitable and the benefit cost ratio was more than one (1.6). The major constraints faced by the sample farmers in the cultivation of grapes were pest attack followed by weeds, water shortage, credit availability and lack of input availability. The results would help the policy makers in formulating suitable programs and devising strategy for increasing production of grapes in Tamil Nadu.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inter-collaboration Network among Institutional Actors of Agricultural Knowledge Information System (AKIS): A Comparative Study between Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri Districts of West Bengal, India

Golam Torab Ali, Ganesh Das, Prabhat Kumar Pal

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 35-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130723

Agricultural extension institutions play different roles at village level. There is always a need of inter-collaboration network between different institutions. Information exchange among these organizations is important for technology generation, information dissemination and adoption. So, it is imperative to know the inter collaboration network among the institutional actors which requires proper investigation and analysis. A few works were found in India on inter-collaboration network among the institutional actors of Agricultural Knowledge Information System (AKIS). The objective of the study was to find out the inter-collaboration network among institutional actors of AKIS of two different districts of West Bengal and their comparative evaluation. The data were collected from 84 respondents from 19 different institutions employing a random sampling technique. The data were analysed through UCINET 6 and Netdraw software. It was found from the study that Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Comprehensive Area Development Corporation (CADC), Agricultural line department through Assistant Director of Agriculture (ADA), Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) and Farmer Producers’ Organisations (FPO) play a pivotal role in this network. It was found also from the study that Cooch Behar district had stronger inter-collaboration network among its institution’s actors than Jalpaiguri district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges in Designing and Development of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS) as Perceived by Instructors across India

Rohini Anand

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 42-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130724

The study aimed to explore the challenges perceived by the instructors during the designing and development of MOOCs in India. The data was collected through a mailed questionnaire with the help of Google form. A total of 79 respondents were involved across India. Descriptive research design was used for this particular study. The study revealed that content development (2.48) was perceived as a big challenge by the instructors because most of the content was available in video form. Learners’ engagement (2.33) was found as the second most important challenge perceived by the instructors. Other important challenges were time pressure during the development of MOOCs (2.20); moderating discussion forum (2.11) and technical competency (2.06). It can be concluded that among all parameters content development is hectic and the most challenging. One can be more effective in content development when others parameters like technical competency, discussion forum etc. are tackled properly so that more time and energy can be given in content development.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Tomato Growers' Marketing Behaviour in The Dindigul Area of Tamil Nadu, India

G. Kowsalya, K. Ramakrishnan, K. Prabakaran, A. Janaki Rani

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 48-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130725

The present study was carried out in Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu, India by using random sampling method with 120 respondents and data collected by well structured interview schedule. There are 8 blocks of Dindigul district (Tamil Nadu, India) out of which 4 blocks were selected on the basis of maximum area (1568 ha) and production (18002 MT). Objective of this research is to study the Marketing behaviour of tomato growers. Consumers' marketing behaviour when looking for, buying, selling, using, evaluating, and discarding products and services that they believe will meet their requirements. According to the findings, the majority of respondents (64.16 per cent) had a medium level of overall marketing behaviour, followed by 23.34 per cent of them having high and only 12.5 percent of them having low level of marketing behaviour.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relevance of Customized Agricultural Extension Services for Social Inclusion and Food Security: A Showcase from Ethiopia

Tewodros Tefera, Remko Vonk, Mulugeta Diro, Dawit Alemu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 53-68
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130726

For the last six decades, Ethiopia has been implementing different agricultural extension approaches. These approaches range from area focused comprehensive package programme which selectively targeted high potential areas to modified Training and Visit extension and the recent nationwide participatory extension System.  One thing in common in all these approaches is standardized advisory system characterised by ‘one size fits for all’ approaches which pushes selected package of technologies and extension messages to all classes of smallholder farmers. The study followed a comparative analysis of baseline and post interventions assessment using ‘one-timad extension package’ customised advisory service. One -timad extension package is exclusively designed for land constrained poor farmers on a quarter of a hectare land size with farmers preferred crop varieties, recommended fertilizer rate, practical training and Integrated Pest management. The pilots were implemented in four regional states of Ethiopia to get an insight for further engagement. The finding shows the need for advisory service to be inclusive; technology supply and services tailored to the multiple capacities and demands of different classes of small farmers. Hence, further piloting to new clients and areas is recommended for institutionalization of the approach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trend and Instability Index Analysis in Paddy Crop Area, Productivity and Production across District in Andhra Pradesh, India

Katha Reddy Baswanth Kumar, M. Anji Reddy, K. R. Karunakaran, K. B. Shafeer

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 69-78
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130727

Paddy is the important, food grain, cereal crop, and staple food crop of India. India ranks second in production of paddy after China. This establishes the pressing need for the study of vulnerability and trend of paddy cultivation and productivity in India. Andhra Pradesh being one of the largest producers of paddy, the compound growth rate and instability in area, productivity and production of paddy in Andhra Pradesh was assessed after the remainder of the state of undivided Andhra Pradesh after bifurcation in 2014 with the jurisdiction of four Rayalaseema and nine Coastal Andhra districts. In this study, we have analyzed the trend & carried out instability index analysis in paddy crop area, productivity and production across district of Andhra Pradesh to explicate the trend in extent paddy cultivation and paddy productivity, district wise Cuddy-Della Valle-Instability Index (%) for the paddy cultivating area from 1991-92 to 2018-19, using the data collected from Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Andhra Pradesh. We assessed district wise Cuddy-Della Valle-Instability Index (%) in paddy productivity from 1991-92 to 2018-19 and found that in Andhra Pradesh, the area of paddy cultivation, paddy productivity output has changed in the study area over the time. Between 1991-92 and 2018-19, the overall paddy growth rate of the area showed a decline of 0.5%. And growth rate of paddy productivity was 1.31% while the increase of production was 0.74%, which can be attributed to the negative impacts arising out of changing weather patterns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Non-Tariff Measures (NTM) and Their Significance in Agricultural Trade of India and European Union

M. B. Niranjan, K. M. Shivakumar, M. Prahadeeswaran, A. Rohini

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 79-87
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130728

Aims: The research study aims to study the decadal growth in agricultural trade of top five agricultural commodities between India and the European Union and also the quantification of Non-Tariff Measures (NTM) of select agricultural commodities to give trade policy suggestions to the concerned commodity sectors

Study Design and Methodology: A decadal growth in top five agricultural commodities were studied for 28 European Union Countries (EU-28) and India using Compounded Annual Growth Rate and NTM of three subsections of WTO were quantified using inventory-based approaches; coverage ratio and frequency index.

Results and Conclusion: In terms of quantity exported, positive annual growth rate of 0.24, 0.48 and 0.76 per cent in marine products, coffee and castor oil is noticed. A negative growth of 0.67 and 2.6 per cent in spices and tobacco unmanufactured is witnessed during the study period. Export value recorded the positive annual growth rate of 2.96, per cent in marine products and spices and a negative growth of 1.7,0.16 and 2.8 per cent in coffee, castor oil and tobacco unmanufactured respectively. Export value per unit showed annual positive growth of 2.7,2.2 and 0.94 per cent in marine products, coffee and spices and negative growth of 0.91 and 0.22 per cent in castor oil and tobacco unmanufactured respectively. Both Sanitary and Phyto Sanitary (SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Measures had a greater impact in the agricultural export form India to EU-28 during 2010-11 to 2019-20.

Open Access Original Research Article

Local Production and Commercialisation of Milk from Holstein Cows in the Grassfields of Cameroon: Contribution to Improving Living Conditions in Rural Areas

Moluh Njoya Hamza, Fon Dorothy Engwali, Mfewou Abdoulay, Ould Ahmed Pepita

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 102-113
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130730

The role of livestock farming is no longer to be demonstrated in rural areas. Livestock provide income and facilitate access to food in rural areas. The aim of this article is to analyse the local production and marketing of milk from Holstein cows in the Grassfield (North West and West regions) of Cameroon in order to understand how much Holstein farming contributes to the rural economy. The data was collected using a questionnaire administered to 325 households producing milk from Holstein cows only. These households were selected on the basis of the existence of milk production units in the study area The data were analysed using SPSS version 20 software and Excel. Analyses of the data collected reveal that; the average milk production of cows in Grassfields varies from one lactation stage to another (7.75 liters/ day in the beginning of lactation to 17 liters / day at the end of lactation) with a daily average of 12.83 liters per day. The milk production of Holstein cows in the study areas is higher in Noun division (10 to 20 liters / day) than in Mezam division (5.5 to 14 liters per day). The profit margin generated by large producers is 230,100 CFA francs per month. On the other hand, the small producers have a profit margin of 33,800 CFA francs per month. The chi-square test of independence showed that X² = 5.756 and the probability (sig) = 1.6% which is less than 5%, which implies that the result is significant at 5%. The rotating saving groups contribute to the improvement of incomes. They therefore play a role in financing production. The evaluation of the contribution of rotating saving and credits association in improving the standard of living of households producing Holstein milk has shown that rotating saving association contribute significantly to the financing of the production of milk in production units, the education of children in breeding households. Rotating saving groups facilitate access to household food and healthcare. This economic activity of production and commercialisation of milk from Holstein cows certainly makes it possible to meet the daily needs of households, but it remains an informal activity in view of the production environment. The strong involvement of the public authorities is therefore necessary to make milk production a sector of the economy, although production and marketing activities are currently impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude of Sericulture Beneficiary Farmers towards the Activities of Technical Service Centres (TSCs) in Karnataka State of India

N. Harisha, B. Mukunda Rao, T. Gopi Krishna, K. Uma Devi, S. K. Nafeez Umar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 114-122
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130731

Sericulture in Karnataka is in the process of modernization in many phases through new demand driven extension approach called Technical Service Centres (TSCs) located at the grass-root level (Hobli and Taluka level). These centres mainly involved in the dissemination of the technologies developed by the Research Institutes and also in supply of mulberry cuttings/saplings, monitoring mulberry cultivation, silkworm rearing and providing   information about loan facilities and subsidy schemes. There is a need to study the attitude of sericulture beneficiary farmers towards activities of TSCs. The study was conducted during 2018-20 in the Karnataka state of India. The Karnataka state was contributing 35.00 per cent of silk production in India. An ex-post facto research design was used or the study. An attitude was measured by Likert scale construction. The Ramanagara and Mandya districts were selected because these district having highest number of TSCs in Bangalore and Mysore division respectively. Mandya, Malavalli and K.R Pet taluks from Mandya district on the other hand Ramanagara, Channapatna and Kanakapura taluks from Ramanagara district were purposively selected for the study. Above taluks were selected based on top 3 taluks in TSCs in district. The four TSCs from each taluk leads to twelve from each district, Totally, 24 TSCs were selected for the study. Ten sericulture farmers under each TSC, collectively 240, were selected by using random sampling method. The study revealed that just little more than half (50.42%) of the sericulture farmers had medium favourable attitude towards activities of TSCs followed by high favourable attitude (35.00%) and only 14.58 per cent of the sericulture farmers had low favourable attitude. The probable reason might be majority of the sericulture farmers participated in trainings at Sericulture Training Institute at K.R Pet of Mandya District and Channapatna of Ramanagara district and also they were undergone for study tour to Kolar district. They were supplied subsidized mulberry saplings, bed disinfectants, growth promoters among sericulture farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Adoption Level of Black Gram VBN 8 among Farmers of Pudukkottai District, Tamil Nadu

M. Muthulakshmi, R. Premavathi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 123-127
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130732

Pulses are important in Indian agriculture because of their high protein content (17–25%) compared to grains (6–10%), as well as their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen and to enhance soil fertility. Black gram (Vigna mungo L.), also known as Urd bean, Urid, or mash, is a major pulse crop. The study on adoption of Black gram VBN 8 was conducted in Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu. Out of 13 blocks in the district, three blocks were selected based on the area under black gram VBN 8 cultivation. The data collected were analysed and presented using descriptive statistics. The results of the study revealed that three fifth (60.80%) of the respondents belonged to medium level of adoption category, followed by 20.00 per cent and 19.20 per cent of the respondents in low and high level of adoption categories.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profile of Girl Students Studying in Higher Agricultural Education

Yousra O. Osman, Angad Prasad, M. Deepa Devi, Krishna P. Chaudhary, Narendra K. Soni

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 128-137
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130733

Present study was conducted during the academic session 2020-21in the College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur, India taking 139 girl students randomly studying in B.Sc.(Ag.), M.Sc.(Ag.) and Ph. D. programmes. In this investigation, ''Ex-Post-Facto” research design was used. Socio-personal, communicational-situational, economic and psychological variables were independent variables to study the attitude (dependent variable) of girl students. Different empirical measures and structured schedule were used to know the variables of the study. Scale developed by Heatherton and Polivy [1] for assessment of level of confidence and scale adopted by Ajit [2] and further, used by Hallar (1963) were applied for reckoning the occupational aspirations. Results of the study indicate that majority (77.70%) of the respondents was under 22 years having OGPA between 7.00 to 8.00. Leaving 3.60 per cent of illiterate mothers, all students’ parents were literate. Data also reveals that nearly one third (33.81%) of the students belonged to high family income group whereas, 23.74 per cent belonged to low and 42.45 per cent belonged to medium family income group.  Most of them (74.10%) were from OBC, SC/ST categories and nearly two-third of them (63.31%) had medium to very high participation in extra-curricular activities. Majority (64.75%) was from rural background and 54.68% of the respondents used to visit the library either twice or once in a week. More than one third students (35.25%) under study were found using internet at medium level. More than three-fourth (75.54%) of the students’ parents had agriculture, animal husbandry and service as their occupation whereas majority (63.31%) of them was small and marginal farmers. On further analysis, it was seen that 49.64 per cent of the responding students had high level of confidence whereas, majority (79.86%) had medium to high level of occupational aspiration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness, Knowledge and Adoption of Sugarcane Technologies Popularization through AICRP - A Case in the Theni District of Tamil Nadu, India

R. Velusamy, J. Prabhakaran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 138-145
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130734

The study was conducted to know the knowledge and adoption level of demonstrated sugarcane technologies among the AICRP sugarcane farmers in Madurai, Sivagangai, and Theni districts of Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted in Sivagangai, Madurai, and Theni districts with 120 AICRP and 120 Non AICRP sugarcane farmers. Among the 120 AICRP sugarcane farmers, the knowledge level and adoption of demonstrated technologies were assessed. The study concluded that Cent per cent of AICRIP sugarcane farmers adopted the component of Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative namely transplanting young seedlings, maintaining the wider space and drip irrigation. None of the AICRIP sugarcane farmers adopted the pit method of sugarcane cultivation in the subsequent years after the demonstration conducted through AICRIP. Half of the AICRIP farmers increased the sugarcane area in the next year due to the additional yield from the demonstration of sugarcane technologies. An overall 56.66% of farmers expressed that the pit method of sugarcane cultivation technology is very difficult to understand and it leads to non-adoption of technology after the demonstration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Key Communicators in Disseminating Agricultural Information in Nilayur Village of Thiruparankundram Block in Madurai District

P. Rajapandi, C. Karthikeyan, M. Nirmala Devi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 146-149
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130735

The present study was taken up to identify the role of key communicators in the dissemination of agricultural information. The study area was Nilayur village of Thiruparankundram block located in Madurai district. A total of 60 respondents were sampled randomly for the study. Sociometric technique was used to identify the role of key communicator. The responses were noted and the identified six key communicators were classified as low, medium and high using the sociogram scores and cumulative percentage. Among the six key communicators, only one key communicator was identified as high levelcommunicator with a cumulative percentage of 100 per cent. Thus, the key communicator should be identified and they can be a handholding support for the extension personnel for dissemination of the technology to reach large farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Empirical Study on Forecasting Production and Price of Tea in India

M. Priyadharshini, D. Murugananthi, A. Rohini, R. Vasanthi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 150-160
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130736

Tea is a very indispensable beverage for Indian population as we rank the world’s largest consumer of black tea. Indian tea industry had been facing many downfalls for the past few years in terms of low price, excess supply, losing flavour and all this as a whole had affected the performance of the tea industry in India. With India being the second largest producer of tea globally, the production of tea in India can be subdivided into North India and South India. The current study focuses on the comparative analysis between North India, South India and India in terms of their trends in area, production, yield, export quantity, export price, auction price and auction quantity of tea. Compounded Annual growth rate (CAGR) was the tool used to find the trends of various variables. This study also focuses on the forecasting the production and auction prices of tea in India till 2023using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. The results of the present study areindicating that all the variables like area, production, yield, export quantity, export price, auction price and auction quantity of tea had shown a positive trend annually, except for that of North India’s export quantity. Production and auction prices were forecasted till 2023 using different ARIMA models amongst which ARIMA (1,1,0) proved to be the best fit model for study period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions of Fisheries Professionals with Reference to Change in Minimum Qualification for Agricultural Research Services

Suchismita Prusty, Arpita Sharma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 161-167
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130737

A study is done with the objective of assessing perceptions of fisheries professionals with reference to revised notification of minimum qualification being Ph.D. for Agricultural Research Service (ARS). Information has been collected from 50 Masters and 50 Doctorate fisheries professionals/students of ICAR-CIFE, Mumbai, using an online Google form and adopting quantitative and qualitative methods. Non parametric Mann Whitney U test is used to check if there is any difference between perception of Masters and Doctorate students. Study reveals that before the notification becoming a ‘Scientist’ was the first career choice of fisheries professionals, followed by ‘Assistant Professor’ and ‘Officer in State Department of Fisheries’. However, after the notification, the first choice has changed to becoming ‘Assistant Professor’ followed by ‘Officer in State Department of Fisheries’ and then ‘Scientist’. Students also perceive advantages and disadvantages of this revised notification. Acceptance of the notification is relatively lower among Masters Students, with a statistically significant difference between the two student groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hybrid Statistical Models for Forecasting Yield of Mango and Banana in Tamil Nadu, India

P. Sujatha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 168-174
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130738

Horticulture sector plays a prominent role in economic growth of India. India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world next to China. Among the horticultural crops, fruit crops are cultivated in majority of the area in India. Fruit crops play a significant role in the economic development, nutritional security, employment generation, and total growth of country. India is major producer of mango and banana, among fruit crops. The objective of this research paper is to predicate the yield of mango and banana in Tamil Nadu using different models such as linear and nonlinear, parametric, and non-parametric statistical models. In this research, a hybrid model had been proposed, which consists of linear and nonlinear models. In this hybrid model, combination of the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Regression model were used. The present study was conducted in Tamil Nadu. Since, area and production of Mango and Banana are higher in Tamil Nadu. Based on results obtained production and yield of Mango and Banana were predicted for next four years.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Investigation into the Impact of COVID-19 on the Performance of a Non-profit Microfinance Institution

B. Zaneta Prarthana, K. R. Ashok, K. Mahendran, Srivara Buddhi Bhuvaneswari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 175-181
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130739

This article deals with the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the performance of a non-profit microfinance institution operating in the Nilgiris and Perambalur districts of Tamil Nadu in India. The primary focus of the paper is on the microfinance institute’s financial performance in terms of outreach and portfolio quality before and after the coronavirus outbreak. The most worrisome factors that were encountered in due course of the study include a decline in loan portfolio and clientele, and an increasing trend in portfolio at risk (PAR) percentage due to a surge in client overdues, outstanding loan amount and rise in number of delinquent clients. These negative impacts on performance were further investigated by establishing a connection to the clients’ repayment ability. A survey was conducted among the women clients of the microfinance institution by enlisting 120 respondents, 60 from each district to identify the various constraints faced by them in loan repayment as a result of the government-imposed lockdown that affected their livelihood and curbed their source of income. Therefore, an attempt has been made to bring out the ground level realities that played an important role in disrupting the normal functioning of the microfinance institution during the pandemic outbreak. This will prove useful in setting guidelines for future crises of like nature to enable microfinance institutions to keep functioning efficiently without any drastic changes to their performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Economic Profitability of Rice Cultivation in Haryana

K. Abdulaziz, K. K. Kundu, D. P. Malik

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 182-190
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130740

An investigation on the growth and economic profitability of rice production was conducted in Karnal district of Haryana, India in 2019-20. A sample of 30 farmers from Karnal district were interviewed to collect relevant information related to various expenses incurred in the cultivation of rice and output attained as well as constraints encountered in production of rice. Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) results revealed an increasing trend in area, production and yield of rice in Haryana. Large instability suggests that there was more variability in area, production and yield in Haryana than in India during the period under study. Highest cost per output was incurred in variety Basmati CSR-30 (Rs. 30.50 kg-1) cultivation. Similarly, highest net profit was realized in the cultivation of Basmati CSR-30 (Rs. 8.08 kg-1). Lack of remunerative prices was the main constraint in rice cultivation. Thus, cultivation of rice could be made more profitable by upward review of per unit price of rice and looking into other avenues to incentivize the rice farmers. Similarly, research should be reoriented to reduce the production cost and improving yield which have direct effect on profitability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Content Analysis of Farmers’ KVK WhatsApp Group of Villupuram District in Tamil Nadu

S. P. Mahesh Narayanan, M. Senthilkumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 191-195
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130741

The penetration and use of smart mobile phones with internet connectivity paved way to the increased use of social media tools and among them, WhatsApp is widely used by farmers for personal and group use. The efforts made by public institutions, development departments in reaching farmers and general public through WhatsApp has led to a creation of number of farmers WhatsApp groups for sharing of agricultural knowledge and information. The present study was carried out to analyse the content shared through KVK WhatsApp group. Viluppuram KVK WhatsApp group was purposively selected and the content shared was analyzed by non-participant observation method for 30 days. Data analyzed using frequency and percentage analysis. It was found that majority (83.97%) of the content shared by the farmers were related to agricultural activities. Farmers preferred to use text communication (37.18%) over other mode of messages. Farmers were actively engaged during morning hours in WhatsApp group due to their free time rather than later hours. Farmers opined that WhatsApp positively impacted them in obtaining timely information as well as personalized information.

Open Access Original Research Article

Input Demand and Output Supply Elasticities of Coarse Cereals in India: A Translog Profit and Sure Approach

Radha R. Ashrit

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 196-209
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130742

Aims: The aim was to estimate the output supply and input demand elasticities of maize, jowar and bajra production, using the restricted normalised translog profit function, for the major producing states of India (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan). 

Study Design: A stratified multi-stage random sampling design was adopted for carrying out the sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: The study pertains to cross sectional plot level data for the period 2013-14 and 2017-18. The study is based on secondary data, collected from Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. 

Methodology: For the present studied crops (maize, jowar and bajra), those states were selected which covered maximum area, i.e, 85% of the total area under the cultivation. Socio-economic data of farmers such as age, sex, level of education, occupation, size of landholding were collected. The translog profit function approach was used as the econometric technique to estimate output supply, and input demand functions. Labour, fertiliser and seeds are taken as variable inputs. Statistical software STATA version 16 was used for the analysis.

Results: The results suggest that the changes in market prices of inputs and output significantly affect the farmers’ profits, crop produce supply and the use of resources in the cultivation of these crops. The supply elasticities of maize, jowar and bajra with respect to its own prices are positive and statistically significant indicating that increase in support prices can boost the supply of these nutri-grains and farmers profits. Labour demand for these crops in the country is elastic and significant to its own price.

Conclusion: During both the periods, 2013-14 (typical monsoon year) and 2017-18 (drought year), the elasticities derived are statistically robust as almost all of them carried compatible signs and in line with the theory. Promoting these crops can contribute to labour absorption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Sensitivity Level among Rural Masses

Krishna Duhan, Nigam Rani, Poonam Malik, . Komal

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 210-214
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130743

Women play a fundamental role in the economy of any society. They work as a farmer, on wages basis, as business person, administrator, and entrepreneurs. Women in rural areas face constraints in engaging in all activities viz. cultural, social, economical, health and nutrition etc. Because of gender-based discrimination and social norms, most of their work remains unseen, unrecognized and undervalued. Therefore, this study was conducted on 600 rural (300 male 300 female) people to assess the educational status and sensitivity level. Data was collected with the help of self structured questionnaire by survey method. Results of the study shows that illiterate females (42.90%) were almost double of male (24.40%) that shows high degree of gender disparity in educational level and male members were more sensitized on different aspects (Household responsibility 4.407*, Economical 3.815*, Health and Nutrition 3.243*, Political 2.548*, Media and Technologies 2.126*)  as compare to female regarding equality.  So, there was a need to promoting gender equality and women’s economic empowerment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of COVID-19 on Food and Non-Food Consumption Behaviour of People in the Western Zone of Tamil Nadu

B. Vetri Selvi, C. Sekar, S. Senthilnathan, G. Vanitha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 215-229
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130744

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the global pandemic COVID-19 on household income, expenditure, and consumption behaviour of farmers in the western zone of Tamil Nadu during the year 2020. The Annur block in the Coimbatore district was purposively chosen for this study since majority of the farmers cultivating horticultural crops were affected significantly due to COVID-19 situation. A total of 210 farmers were selected using a proportionate sampling technique by covering the vegetable (Tomato, Brinjal, and Bhendi) and flower crops (Jasmine, Mullai, and Rose). The study helped in analyzing the changes noticed in the livelihoods of the farmers as a consequence of the emergence of this global pandemic situation. The findings of the study indicated that the average annual income of farmers has been lowered about 17 per cent due to COVID-19 along with subsequent effects on household consumption expenditure and savings being reduced about 16 per cent and 35 per cent, respectively. Further, the expenses on food items had increased about 8 per cent, while non-food group expenses had plummeted about 46 per cent. On the other hand, medical expenses significantly enhanced to an extent of about 38 per cent among the sampled households.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers Perception towards Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana in Salem District

S. Amutha Kumari, R. Jansi Rani, R. Premavathi, S. Sridevy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 230-234
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130745

The aim of the study is to ascertain the perception of farmers towards Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY).The research design adopted for this study is an ex-post facto. The present investigation was carried out in Konganapuram and Kadayampatti  block of Salem district of Tamil Nadu. The duration of the study is from 2020-2021. As per the list provided by Joint Director of Agriculture and other officials  farmers were selected from each village, who have registered under P.M.F.B.Y. Respondents were selected from each village through proportionate sampling method and the sample size was 117. Based on judges’ opinion and review of literature, the well-structured interview schedule was prepared and used to collect data from the respondents. The collected data were coded, quantified, classified, tabulated and analyzed with the help of frequency and percentage to get the inference. The statement like all farmers can pay the amount of premium under crop insurance ranked as I (MS - 2.52) followed by the damage caused by fire and electricity must be included in Insurance (MS - 2.44), It is mandatory for all farmers to get crop insurance (MS - 2.42) were ranked as 2 and 3 respectively. As crop insurance protects the farmers from the uncertainty of risk in farming like natural calamities (floods, droughts, cyclones, and earth quakes, etc.). That crop insurance is mandatory for every type of farmer; Government should take the initiative to give subsidies for small scale farmers and large-scale farmers as a basis of proportion to their income levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Opinion and Expectations of Beneficiaries towards Training Programmes of KVKs: Gender Analysis

. Sulekha, Kamlesh Kumar Yadav, Dileep Gupta, Prem Nath, Arun Kumar Rajbhar, Sudershan Mehta

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 235-243
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130746

Study was conducted to know the opinion and expectations of beneficiaries towards training programmes of KVKs in Haryana. Agro climatically Haryana is divided into two zones i.e., western and eastern zone. Based on the year of establishment, four KVKs two each funded by ICAR from western and eastern zone of Haryana, functioning for the last five years and where maximum number of rural women participated in their training programmes were selected. These KVKs were Bhiwani and Fatehabad from western zone, Rohtak and Jhajjar from eastern zone. The opinion of male and female beneficiaries were studied through five specific aspects of training viz., training programme, course content, time and duration, physical facilities, evaluation and supporting activities. For analyzing the expectations of the beneficiaries, a schedule was developed. Results revealed that out of both the zones, majority of male and female beneficiaries had high opinion level about all the four specific training aspects viz; training programme (26.0% male and 20.5% female), course content (24.0% male and 21.5% female), time and duration (22.5% male, 20.0% female) and physical facilities (26.0% male and 26.5% female). In case of evaluation and supporting activities where they had medium (27.5% male and 19.5% female) level of opinion regarding training programmes. Overall level of opinion of respondents towards training programmes was medium (26.0% male and 20.5% female) followed by high (24.5% male and16.5% female) and low (7.0% male and 5.5% female). Whereas, level of expectation of beneficiaries for training programmes was high (33.0% male and 21.5% female) followed by medium (20.5% male and 15.0% female) and low (4.5% male and 5.5% female).

Open Access Original Research Article

An Economic Analysis on Production of Hill Banana in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, India

B. Chandru, A. Rohini, M. Chandrakumar, V. Anandhi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 244-249
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130747

This study was primarily concentrated on hill banana cultivation. The purpose of this study is to find the economics of hill banana cultivation and the problems faced by the hill banana farmers during the production of hill bananas in the Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu. Economics of the hill banana cultivation was done by finding the cost and returns associated with the hill banana cultivation and constraints faced by the hill banana farmers with Garrett's ranking technique. Many previous research on the production of various agricultural commodities was focused on a specific area and/or a specific commodity. There was a little study on banana production and limitations in some regions in Tamil Nadu. As a result, the focus of this research will be on hill banana production in the Dindigul district. Purposive and convenience sampling technique was used in this study. Primary data were collected by the personal interview with a well-structured interview schedule. The cost and returns of hill bananas were calculated per hectare. The average cost of production of hill bananas was estimated to be ₹2.04 lakh/ha. The average gross return was ₹5.04 lakh/ha and the average net return was estimated to be ₹2.99 lakh/ha. The result of the study shows that hill banana cultivation was highly profitable and the benefit-cost ratio (BC Ratio) was more than unity (2.46). The major constraints faced by hill banana farmers in the cultivation of hill bananas were pest attack (insects) followed by disease attack, lack of labor availability, animal attack, and drought. The findings will assist policymakers in developing appropriate programs and adjusting strategies for improving hill banana production in Tamil Nadu.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extent of Utilization of Various Government Tribal Development Schemes by Primitive Tribes Living in Biodiversity Zone of Nilgiri District in Tamil Nadu

Foumy N. Rafeeq, R. Rajasekaran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 250-258
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130748

Biodiversity hotspots have set up to protect at least 10 per cent of world's ecological regions in order to conserve biodiversity and safeguard many facilities provided by natural ecosystems. Biosphere Reserves are representative areas of natural and cultural landscapes that span a large area of agricultural, marine, or coastal ecosystems, or a combination of them, as well as representative bio-geographic domains or kingdoms. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve has richness and diversity, to protect it, the district has been declared as “Organic district” on July 2019. It is also the home to a wide range of human cultural diversity and especially the primitive and vulnerable tribes live in these areas. They are the designated tribal settlers identified by the government and these have their own religious believes, culture and traditions which is extremely different from others customs. They are called as "Adivasi" or "Aboriginals". So as to improve their life style and lead a better life like others, central government along with state government had bought several development schemes and plans under Ministry of tribal affairs. The Tribal Development Plan (TDP) was developed to proactively solve tribal issues and provide culturally compatible solutions, specifically considering indigenous people. The main objective of this study is the adoption level of government tribal development schemes and plans among the primitive tribes living in the biodiversity zone of Nilgiri biosphere. Thus the vulnerable and primitive tribal societies of like Toda, Kota, Kurumba, Paniya, Kattu naickan and Irular of Nilgiri district have been chosen for the investigation with the sample size of 120, in which 20 from each tribes have been chosen. Pre-tested and well-structured interview schedule have been made and thereby undergone survey. Thus it provided an overall picture about the level of adoption about various government tribal development schemes for their betterment and upliftment in among Nilgiri tribes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Major Weather Parameters in the Production of Black Pepper in Kerala

Nayana S. Nair, M. Thilagavathi, M. Prahadeeswaran, M. R. Duraisamy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 259-267
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130749

Aim: The present study intends to analyse the influence of weather parameters on the production of black pepper in six major pepper producing districts of Kerala, the Indian state which contributes a considerable share to national spice exports.

Methodology: This research is based on secondary data which is limited to six major black pepper producing districts of Kerala which were chosen based on their contribution to total production of the state 2020. More than 50% of the production was from Idukki district followed by Wayanad (8%), and around 3 to 3.5% from Kannur, Kasargod, Kottayam and Kollam districts respectively. Annual precipitation, Relative humidity, Maximum and Minimum temperatures were the parameters taken into consideration along with production data of over 15 years (2005-2019) which was then subjected to regression analysis using panel data.

Results: According to the results, significant reduction in production by 2.52% and 1.88% was recorded for unit increase maximum (P= 0.047) and minimum temperature (P=0.03) respectively. Likewise, unit rise in relative humidity and rainfall was responsible for decrease

In production by 1.1%, and 0.07% respectively though they were reported to be insignificant.

Conclusion: From the present study, it could be concluded that maximum and minimum temperatures were found to be significant in affecting the production of black pepper. However the negative regression coefficients obtained for other factors like rainfall and relative humidity implied its negative effect on production. In order to combat these variations, there is therefore, the need to create awareness to farmers in India on the need to adopt best farming practices in order to improve yield of this important crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Changes in Decision Making Behaviour of Turmeric Farm Women during COVID-19 Pandemic Situation

A. Monika, M. Nirmala Devi, . Kalaivani, Patil Santosh Ganapathi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 268-277
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130751

Women farmers are engaged in both production and processing of turmeric. Majority of the women have been involved in decision-making process. During COVID–19 pandemic situation women were more affected than men by means of economical aspects. During COVID-19 pandemic situation, farm women’s decision making process has been changed hence the study “Analysis of Changes in Decision Making Behaviour of Turmeric Farm Women during COVID-19 Pandemic Situation” has been taken up. The study was conducted in Kodumudi block of Erode district. Based on proportionate random sampling method, six villages were selected with the sample of 120 farm women. From the result it was observed that before COVID-19, majority of the farm women had not been involved in decision making process like crop production, fertilizer application, pest management, disease management, Nematode management, harvesting and post harvest activities while during COVID-19 farm women took decision either with the family members or with the help of their spouse in turmeric farming. To overcome this situation there must be more number of training programmes conducted to the farm women in turmeric farming techniques which inturn help them to take right decision by their own.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Profile Characteristics and Factors Determining the Membership of Farmers in Tamil Nadu Banana Producer Company (TNBPC) a Study in Trichy district of Tamil Nadu

S. Srinithi, P. Balasubramaniam, N. Venkatesa Palanichamy, M. Nirmala Devi, V. Mohanraj

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 278-285
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130752

The majority of Indian farmers face issues such as decreased agricultural production, lower resource use efficiency, and lower farm revenue. Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) which are based on the concepts of economies of scale and collective action, have arisen as a golden ray of hope for alleviating these challenges. In light of these facts, the present study was carried out to examine socio-personal, socio-economic, socio-psychological characteristics and the factors determining their membership with the sample respondents of 132. The sample was selected through proportionate random sampling from five villages of Thottiyam block in Trichy district of Tamil Nadu. The findings revealed that majority of the farmers were middle aged with most of the members having been educated and medium level of annual income. Farming was the primary occupation for majority of the members with big farm size and medium level of annual income, farmer groups experience, training, institutional support and extension agency contact. There also exists medium level of market perception, group interaction, group leadership, self -confidence, attitude towards group activity, participation in group activities, achievement motivation and group cohesiveness. The findings also revealed that getting better price for their produce was the major economic factor determining their membership followed by participatory decision making as the major social factor, to make use of government schemes as major organizational factor and providing market linkages as the major marketing factor determining their membership. FPO operations must be promoted and supported in order to instill competition among farmers and raise their share and profit in agricultural enterprises.

Open Access Original Research Article

Advancement in Knowledge and Adoption of Grape Growing Farmers in Theni District of Tamilnadu

S. Adityan, T. Dhamodharan, R. Rajasekaran, R. Pangayar Selvi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 286-294
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130753

Grape (Vitis grape L.) could be a temperate fruit crop and conjointly cultivated beneath tropical and climatic zone regions within the world. This study on improved grape knowledge and adoption of recommended grape practices among farmers was conducted in the Theni district of Tamil Nadu by employing a combination of purposive and proportionate random sampling methods with 120 grape growers. The data were collected with the help of a well-structured and pretested interview schedule during July to August 2020-21. The district contributes significantly to the state's area of production in grapes. The area of cultivation of grapes to the state is substantial (79.80%). In the study it was concluded that cent percent of the grape growers had correct knowledge about soil type, planting, gap-filling, recut, supporting, weeding, irrigation type, training, pruning time, bud dormancy breaking chemical, micronutrient mixtures, fertigation, shoot thinning, subcane development, training the shoots, tipping, cluster and berry thinning, mealybug control, and downy mildew control. About 60.83 per cent of the grape growers belonged to medium level of knowledge about recommended practices of grape cultivation. The results showed overall adoption of the grape growers wasmedium level of adoption (71.67%). This study explores the keen view of the advancement in knowledge and adoption followed by grape cultivators in Theni District.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consequences of Agricultural Labour Scarcity on Cropping Pattern Dynamics in Tamil Nadu, India

R. Gayathri, K. R. Karunakaran, A. Vidhyavathi, Ga. Dheebakaran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 295-309
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130754

Cropping Pattern is a complicated process that is influenced by a variety of socioeconomic, agro-climatic, and ecological factors. Even though India has the second-largest manpower in the world, all sectors of the economy have been affected by the scarcity of labour, the impact being felt more in the agricultural sector. The acute scarcity of agricultural labourers in the India has resulted in crop establishment delays, poor crop growth, no or late weeding, inappropriate fertilizer use, insufficient irrigation water, and other factors that have pushed Indian farmers to switching from farming to non-farm occupations. The present study was undertaken to analyze the dynamics of cropping patterns in the state, Tamil Nadu. Tiruchirappalli and Pudukkottai districts were selected purposively to represent the high and low crop diversity cropping system respectively. The study was based on both primary and secondary data for the period of 10 years from 2010-11 to 2019-20 to analyze the decadal change. Tabular Analysis, Compound Growth Rate and Markov chain analysis were used to analyze the data. The study results revealed that there are marginal changes in cropping pattern, increases towards the commercial crops such as sugarcane, tapioca, cotton and banana. The total fallow land share has increased continuously leaving a lesser area for cropping. The reported dynamics change the agricultural productivity and increased mechanization, which might be due to growth in the labour scarcity. The results showed that farmers were shifting from high labour intensive crops such as paddy, sugarcane, cotton to low labor-intensive crops such as groundnut, black gram over the years. Due to the higher requirement of laborers for cultivating crops, crop retention probability was lesser which means the crops have become less and less stable. It is therefore recommended that the district, state, and country's agricultural extension systems must be geared up to curbing the shifting farmers away from traditional farming practices and educate them on the use of available labor-saving equipment and technology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trend in Area, Production and Yield of Coffee in India

S. Aruna Prabha, S. D. Sivakumar, D. Murugananthi, A. John Joel

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 310-320
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130755

Coffee, a predominant plantation crop is a highly traded commodity and mostly consumed as a hot beverage. India stands seventh among the world coffee producing countries. Consumption is higher in south India. India grows Arabica and Robusta coffee. Consumption of coffee in India increased at 2 percent per annum till 2020 and after that there was 5 per cent growth rate (ShrutiArun, 2020). The present study was proposed with the objective of studying the trend in area, production, yield of Arabica and Robusta coffee in India and Tamil Nadu and predicting the same. Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) Analysis was used to find the trend in area, production and yield of coffee. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was used for forecasting the area and production of Arabica and Robusta in India till 2025. Area, production, yield of Arabica and Robusta coffee in India showed a positive trend. A negative trend was observed in productivity of Arabica coffee in India. Whereas in Tamil Nadu, area of Arabica and Robusta coffee showed positive trend, a negative trend was seen in production and productivity of Arabica and Robusta. ARIMA (1, 1, 1) for Arabica and ARIMA (1, 1, 0) found to provide best fit for predicting the area and production of Robusta coffee in India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Selling Scenario of Person Leaving Agriculture in Nayagarh District of Odisha

Anupam Dakua, Kalyan Ghadei

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 321-326
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130756

Aim: Land being the most important consideration in the social status in the rural areas, selling of them is considered as bad signs in India. Many times, it is observed that farmers were compelled to sell their lands due to manyreasons. Depeasantisation is one of them. In the current paper the land selling scenario of the Depeasantised persons is analysed.

Study Design and Place of Study: An Ex-post-Facto study has been conducted in Nayagarh District of Odisha, which is one of the peri-urban districts of the Capital city of Odisha.

Methodology: A total of 280 number of Depeasantised persons were selected randomly from 5 blocks out of 8 blocks of the district for the study. A structured interview schedule was prepared for collecting the data from the respondents. With proper statistical tools the data was analysed and interpreted for the result. The proportion of respondents sold land, category of farmers who sold land, the reason of land selling, and the persons to whom the land sold was found out during the investigation.

Result: Almost half of the depeasantised persons have sold their lands, all of then have sold a portion of their lands only. More than 85 percent of the respondents belonged to the marginal farer category who had sold their lands. Debt repayment was the primary factor for selling of land in the study area. Most of the depeasantised persons more than 60 percent had sold their lands to landlords and other moneyed persons.

Conclusion: To safeguard the interest of the farmers and to prevent the land selling of the small and marginal farmers government should have more focused approach to solve this issue.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Marketing Channels of Black Pepper in Kolli Hills of Namakkal District in Tamil Nadu

C. Indhumathi, R. Senthilkumar, C. Muralidharan, R. Pangayar Selvi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 327-334
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130757

Aim: The present study was conducted with the aim to analyze the marketing cost, margin, price spread and marketing efficiency of farmers in different marketing channels of Black pepper in Kolli Hills of Namakkal district.

Methodology: About 80 farmers were interviewed for this study. Data related to marketing performance of black pepper was collected using the well-structured pre tested interview schedule and the results were tabulated.

Results: Among the different marketing channels, total marketing cost was low in channel III (Rs.39/Qtl) as compared to channel II (Rs.92/Qtl) and channel I (Rs.74/Qtl). This shows that marketing cost was low if the channel does not have any market intermediaries. The best channel for both producer and consumer were found to be channel III in which producers receives the maximum share of consumers rupee (89.46 per cent) and consumers purchase the produce at the low price of Rs. 370/Qtl.

Conclusion: This study reveals that, among the other marketing channels, channel III has the highest marketing efficiency of 9.48 per cent and 8.48 per cent. Middleman exploitation was the major problem which reduce the net income of the farmers in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Impact of Rythu Bandhu Scheme in Warangal District of Telangana

C. D. Amitha, C. Karthikeyan, M. Nirmala Devi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 335-340
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130758

Rythu Bandhu Scheme (RBS) also Farmers investment Support Scheme is a welfare program to support farmer investment for two crops a year where the cash is paid directly by the Government of Telangana. A sample of 60 beneficiaries were selected from Warangal district of Telangana state. In order to find out the impact of RBS on beneficiaries - inputs purchasing power, continuity in farming, rural indebtedness, productivity, farm income(in Rs.) and cropping intensity were studied before and after implementation of RBS i.e., in 2016-17 and 2020-21 for beneficiaries.  Based on the results in respective year, “Z” test was applied to find out the difference after the implementation of scheme. From the analysis, it was found that significant difference was observed among respondents with respect to inputs purchasing power (6.74*), continuity in farming (2.93*), rural indebtedness (4.02*), productivity (3.72*), farm income (4.53*). RBS is increasing the beneficiaries capacity to purchase inputs with timely performing agricultural activities, their likeliness to continue farming and better coping with debt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints as Perceived and Suggestions as Expressed by Sheep Rearing Farmers in Raichur District of Karnataka, India

. Channappa, K. K. Shashidhar, S. B. Goudappa, Basavaraj Hulagur, J. N. Sreedhara

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 341-346
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130759

The study was conducted in purposively selected Raichur district of Karnataka.  Highest number of sheep population criteria were used in selection of taluks and villages. A total of 120 respondents were selected from 06 selected villages of 2 taluks namely Lingasuguru and Raichur The quantitative and qualitative data were used to collected the information  through interview schedule, The present study is highlighted different constraints and suggestion perceived by sheep rearing farmers during management practices simple statistical tools frequency and percentage are used in the study. In socio economic constraints the result found  that majority (71.67%) poor knowledge and Ignorance on management practices followed literacy rate (62.05 %), It was found that a high majority (92.50%) unaware insurance services, poor credit facilities (87.50%), shrinkage of grazing land (76.67%) and cost of medicine (61.67%). Suggestion expressed by  69.17 per cent suggested on vaccination followed by keeping quality of buck (65.00%), increase number of veterinary hospital and staff (60.00%) and increase the community grazing land (37.50%), more than three-fourth of sheep farmers suggested discourage the middle man in market, strengthening the existing the animal market (72.50%) and develop new marketing channel (63.33%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Analysis of Joint Liability Groups (JLGs) in India - With Special Reference to Tamil Nadu

S. Myvizhi, M. Anjugam, M. Prahadeeswaran, Patil Santosh Ganapati

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 347-356
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130760

Joint Liability Groups (JLGs) has been a noteworthy developmental mechanism in microfinance group-lending model advancing towards uplifting materialistic collateral-less and unbanked poor society in the direction of self-sustainability through easing access to formal financial services with a proposal for self-employment which remained to be pursued as their dream for so long. The present study seeks to document expansionary trend in JLGs and to identify major benefits, constraints and suggestions of JLG member-beneficiaries with purview of supporting further development towards promoting and financing more JLGs in India.

Aim: The present study attempts to document the trend in growth of JLGs supported by National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) in India and to identify major benefits, constraints and suggestions in functioning of JLGs through Bank-Business Corporate (BC) linkage model among its member-beneficiaries which would serve researchers and policy makers to arrive at appropriate measures to expedite advancement in expansion and magnification of trend of JLGs in India.

Design of Study: The study employed secondary data from annual publication of NABARD “Status of Micro Finance in India” for 2011-12 to 2019-20 for JLG trend analysis. Following purposive sampling, 3 blocks of Namakkal district were studied during August 2021, purposively selecting Bank-Business Corporate (BC) linkage model and randomly selecting well-experienced 30 member-beneficiary groups.

Methodology: The study adopted Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) for JLG trend analysis and Garrett’s ranking procedure to prioritize major benefits, constraints and suggestions of JLG members.


  • Overall growth rate of India stands at 44.86% in terms of number of JLGs promoted and 60.73% in terms of quantum of JLG loan disbursed. Northern region excels growing at the rate of 62.53% in the former category while Western region exhibits expeditious rate of growth (75.19%) in the latter.
  • Tamil Nadu leads the lane in terms of cumulative quantum of credit disbursed ranking second to Bihar in terms of cumulative number of JLGs promoted in India. Orissa manifests rapid growth among leading five states in both categories cumulatively.

With women empowerment socially and economically, easy access to formal credit and better repayment as major benefits of JLG participation, hiking initial loan amount, aiding in identification of microenterprise, training and capacity building in related fields, introducing technological innovation on demand-side and linkage to product marketing and brand promotion on supply side were suggested areas of concern towards encouraging massive promotion of JLGs..

Open Access Original Research Article

Academic Procrastination among College Students of Jorhat- An Explorative Study

Rashmi Rekha Gohain, Sampreety Gogoi, Jina moni Saikia

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 365-375
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130762

Academic procrastination is a behavior that is very common among students. It involves knowing that an individual needs to finish the academic task before the assigned time but for one or another reason respondents fail to accomplish the task within the expected time frame. It is the practice of doing more pleasurable or less urgent tasks instead of more urgent ones. Individuals often promise themselves not to delay things until the last minute but it happens again. Such procrastination behaviors affect the student’s actual performances in the learning process and lead to feelings of guilt, inadequacy, depression, and self-doubt. The present study is exploratory research carried out to assess the area and gender difference in academic procrastination among College students in the year 2020. A sample of 199 undergraduate students was selected by using Solvin’s formula (N/1+Ne²), where ‘N’ is the total population and ‘e’ is the margin of error. A standard tool named “Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students (PASS)” was used to assess the academic procrastination of the students. The findings revealed that in areas of procrastination majority 61.3 percent of the respondents had an average level of academic procrastination, as most of the respondents (63.81%) sometimes procrastinate in school activities in general also 65.32 percent of respondents sometimes face a problem when they procrastinate in school activities in general. Findings also depict that 49.74 percent definitely want to decrease the tendency to procrastinate in keeping up with weekly reading assignments. It was also revealed from the findings that there was no gender difference in academic procrastination among College students. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraisal of Soil Health Card Scheme on Change in Cultivation Practices of Sali Rice in Darrang District, Assam

Lohita Rabha, Utpal Barman

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 376-381
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130763

The study was conducted during 2017-18 to examine the changes observed in cultivation practices of Sali rice after receiving Soil Health Card (SHC) and for identifying the problems faced by respondents in utilising the SHC recommendations in Darrang district, Assam. A sample of 150 respondents was selected randomly by proportional allocation to size. The result showed that 74.66 per cent of the respondent did not apply the fertilizers as per SHC recommendation. For examining average change in terms of fertilizer application pattern, area and productivity of Sali rice intended for before and after getting SHC, no significant changes have been observed using student’s t-test at 5% level of significance. Increased in area under Sali rice was not significantly higher than before SHC was distributed. The distribution of SHC didn’t bring any changes in cultivation practices of sali rice during 2017-18 at Darrang district.Thus; the study has suggested providing extension support to farmers. Credit linkage through Kisan Credit Card will be helpful in increasing the production of rice and then market linkage may be established. For getting the better result it is necessary to link all the schemes with each other instead of implementing each scheme independently.

Open Access Original Research Article

Livelihood Status of Neem Seed Pickers and Constraints in Seed Collection and Procurement in Tamil Nadu

L. K. Baburaj, J. Venkata Pirabu, D. Suresh Kumar, A. Vidhyavathi, R. Pushpavalli

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 382-392
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130764

Aims: Neem Seeds have considerable economic significance due to a variety of commercial usages. Realising the significance of neem, the present study aimed to understand the rural households’ participation in neem seed collection and issues in collection and sales.

Study Design: Simple random sampling method was followed. 

Place and Duration of the Study: The present study was conducted in Tamil Nadu state covering seven districts namely Coimbatore, Dindigul, Dharmapuri, Madurai, Sivagangai, Thoothukudi and Vellore. A total of 450 households who involved in neem seed collection was selected and studied. The data collected was pertaining to the year 2019-20.

Methodology: Simple mean, percentage analysis, standard deviation and Garrett Ranking techniques were employed.

Results: Ninety seven percent of the neem seed collectors are above 30 years.  Majority of the neem seed collectors are illiterate mostly belong to the category of more than 50 years and 30 to 50 years. Agriculture based households members generally involved in neem seed collection. Majority of the neem seed collectors (61 per cent) collect neem seeds in local village itself. Around 26 per cent of the respondents visit nearby villages to collect neem seeds. To collect neem seeds, the rural households travel 4.65 km daily, with a minimum of 2.0 km and maximum of 7.0 km in a day. The constraints in seed collection are time consuming, travel long to collect seeds, less remunerative, less productive etc. The major constraints in selling include poor price offered by the traders, lack of awareness on price in other markets, lack of awareness about quality.

Conclusion: Programmes like price support, market intervention in the form of price dissemination, market and transport infrastructure will help the rural people to fetch better price for their collected neem seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Adoption of Commercial Vegetable Growers in District Budgam, J&K

Badar Iqbal, Mushtaq Ahmad, Roman Nissar, Raies A. Bhat, . Badrudurez, Noor Ul Islam, Zahida Rashid, G. Gani

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 393-398
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130765

The study was conducted on 250 vegetable growers selected from ten villages of Budgam district of Jammu and Kashmir. The basic objective of the study was to ascertain the knowledge possessed and adoption level of growers as well as the economic status of vegetable growers. The result revealed that 50.80 per cent of the respondents had medium level of knowledge, 48.40 per cent of respondents belonged to medium adoption category and majority of 60.80 per cent of the vegetable growers belong to the middle economic status group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis and Study of the Socio Economic and Nutritional Status of Farmers Selected Under DST- SARTHI Project of District Hoshiarpur, Punjab

R. K. Dubey, Rajveer Kaur, Ravi Deepika, T. S. Dhillon

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 399-407
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130766

The present study was carried out in the department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana under DST- SARTHI project, New Delhi to analyse the socio economic and nutritional status of beneficiaries selected under the project. Moreover, nutritional status of farmers recorded to also assess the association between FVS, DDS and socioeconomic status at household level. The Data on vegetable production, selling, buying and socio-economic status were collected using questionnaire developed by PAU Ludhiana. A total 100 beneficiaries from three landholding categories viz small (<5 acre), medium (5-10 acre) and large (>10 acres) in Hoshiarpur were selected. The data have been collected to check the difference in the nutrition intake of beneficiaries during the interventional period and before the intervention. Correlation of both years (before and during intervention) calculated as 0.892243. It is concluded that the previous year diet was not healthier integration of both quality and quantity in the scores but both scores (DDS& FVS) increased during intervention period through DST Project.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Analysis of Kamrupa Compared to Local Chicken Production in Assam under Backyard System of Rearing

Ashim Kr. Saikia, G. Gogoi, M. Neog

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 408-413
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130767

Aims: The programme was undertaken to study the economic analysis of Kamrupa and local chicken in Dhemaji district of Assam under backyard system of rearing.

Study Design: The data on various expenses and returns thus collected were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis as per the methods described by [1].   

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Sissiborgaon, Dhemaji and Jonai development blocks of Dhemaji district during the period January, 2018 to July, 2019 by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhemaji.

Methodology: For the purpose thirty numbers of farmwomen from three different development blocks, thus a total of ninety numbers of farmwomen, of Dhemaji district were selected on the basis of their early experience in keeping local poultry along with Kamrupa chicken at backyard system. Items of cost included fixed cost e.g. land and building, equipments and variable costs e.g. cost of day-old chick, cost of feed, vaccine, medicine, labour, depreciation in poultry shed and miscellaneous cost. Return items included eggs, cocks and spent hens.

Results: The cost of labour accounted for 72.44 percent of the total cost of production of Kamrupa chicken followed by feed cost (9.79%), chick cost (7.21%) and depreciation of poultry house (6.44%) up to 18 months of age. The total cost of production up to 72 weeks of age was found to be higher in Kamrupa (Rs. 3,882.48) than its local counterpart (Rs. 3,512.48). The maximum amount of income was contributed by selling of eggs (46.60%) followed by sale of cocks (26.76%) and sale of spent hens (26.64) in case of local chicken. The benefit-cost (B:C) ratio in Kamrupa and local chicken were recorded as 2.64 and 2.14, respectively, in the present study.

Conclusion: From the study, it can be concluded that the small scale Kamrupa rearing is a profitable venture for farmwomen in the state of Assam.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Pattern of Floral Waste Generated and Disposal in Hyderabad City of Telangana State

S. Sri Soundarya, P. Radhika, D. Srinivasa Reddy, K. Supriya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 414-420
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130768

Flowers are an integral part of Indian culture and tons of flowers often gets accumulated at religious sites like temples, mosques, churches and gurudwaras due to a number of religious practices and it is also generated in places like wedding ceremonies, flower markets, residential areas, etc. But sadly, most of these flowers often thrown in water bodies and garbage, creating an environmental hazard. Hence, the present study was taken to analyse the floral waste generation pattern and their disposal in the city. A total sample of 62 floral waste generators consisting of 30 temples, 12 function halls and 20 flower shops was selected for the study. Data was analysed and tabulated. The study analysed that the bigger temples contribute to higher floral waste generation, and the festival seasons around the year also generates more floral waste. The function halls don’t generate a constant quantity of floral waste and the usage of flowers highly depends on the budget and theme of the ceremony. The flower markets generate more floral waste if the sales are less in the market. The flowers such as Chrysanthemum, Marigold Jasmine and Rose are generated as major category of floral waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Disposal Pattern of Vegetables in District Varanasi

Pavan Kumar Singh, Bhartendu Yadav, Harendra Pratap Singh Choudri, Ajeet Kumar, G. P. Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 421-425
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130769

To analyze the disposal pattern of vegetables in district Varanasi, a purposive cum random sampling technique was used for the selection of district, blocks, villages and the respondents. From the study it is concluded that total disposal of cauliflower was 38.85 quintals, of tomato was 140.22 quintals, brinjal was 38.85 quintals and pea was 11.84 quintals. Maximum disposal of all the selected vegetables was found maximum through the channel III in case of both marginal and small farms. It shows the efficient involvement of the intermediaries in the marketing procedure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Political, Legislative and Institutional Frameworks for the Governance of Water Resources’ Ecosystem Services in Benin

Salomon Balogoun, Latifou Idrissou

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 426-444
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130770

Ecosystem services play an important role for the balance of biodiversity and for social well-being. The management of ecosystem services around water resources is governed by several political documents and laws, and involves several actors. Current reforms calling for co-management raise questions about the sustainability of ecosystem service management models around water resources. This article discusses the contours of the legal framework and the institutional mechanism for water resources and their ecosystem services management in Benin. Therefore, the majority of the policy documents set up in the framework of natural resources management were consulted during data collection. Content analysis method was used to analyse these documents.Results show that the governance of water resources and their ecosystem services in Benin is guided by several national political texts inspired by international institutions set up. In Benin, water resources management is based on the declination at national level of the various international and regional agreements ratified by the country. Water resources governance is placed under the responsibility of several political, administrative and civil society actors, in a well-defined role-play system.It is based on vision and strategy documents, action programs, budget programs and the National Water Policies, including the Law 044-2010 of November 24, 2010 on water management. However, the processes for implementing these texts do not guarantee the sustainable management of the resources. Indeed, the implementation texts of most of the laws are often not developed, and where they are, they are not widely popularised. There is also a mismatch between adopted legal rules and ancestral cultures and customs. Finally, we noted in the laws and policies,the existence of contradictions, ambiguities and overlapping of responsibilities of the actors in the governance of these resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints in Adoption of Livestock Development Interventions among Livestock Farmers in Davanagere District

G. Sudharani, K. C. Veeranna, G. T. Gopala, C. B. Madhavaprasad, V. Nagabhushana, Shivakumar K. Radder

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 445-450
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130771

Livestock sector plays a crucial role in socio-economic development of farmers in rural areas, which in turn improves the national economy.  For better productivity the rural farmers need different types of information and knowledge related to different scientific managemental practices and different interventions for different problems. In this regard, the study was undertaken to assess the constraints in adoption of livestock development interventions among livestock farmers in Davanagere district. An ex-post facto research design was employed for the study. The study was conducted in ten villages of two taluks of Davanagere district and total of 100 beneficiaries were randomly selected which included 36 beneficiaries in establishment of fodder nursery, 30 beneficiaries in establishment of rural hatchery unit. Whereas, all the 100 respondents were involved in prevention and control of Sub clinical mastitis (SCM). The data was collected from the respondents through interview schedule. The collected data was coded, tabulated and analysed using suitable statistical tools. The study revealed that, majority of beneficiaries reported increased annual income and employment generation. Non-availability of fertilizers, non-availability of improved desi chicks at nearest place and high cost of veterinary medicine were the major constraints in establishment of fodder nursery, establishment of rural hatchery unit and prevention and control of SCM respectively. Thus, Sujala III project had a great scope for improving productivity; profitability and facilitated an accelerated and sustainable transformation of animal husbandry activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of Banana Production in Solapur District of Maharashtra, India

B. H. Rede, A. N. Ratnaparkhe, G. D. Rede

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 451-458
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130772

The study analyses the resource-use efficiency of banana cultivation in relation with per ha return and cost based on the information of 90 sample farmers of Solapur district, Maharashtra in 2018-19. Findings show that production level was 563.11q/ha on an aggregate level. The estimated cost of cultivation was Rs.324671.04/ha. The per hectare inputs utilized for banana at overall level were 118.58 human days, 22.67  tonnes manures, 399.60 kg N, 126.11 kg P, 720.29 kg K. Average gross income was Rs.627708.57. The gross income received in size group small, medium and large was Rs. 609142.70, Rs. 614926.70 and Rs.659056.30, respectively. The benefit-cost ratio was 1.93 at the overall level indicating highly prosperous crop. This ratio is the highest (2.06) for large size farms. Thus, the crop was found to be economically viable. The results of Cobb-Douglas production function howed that seed, manures, potassium fertilizer and irrigation had positive and significant influence on the yield of banana. The magnitude of coefficient of multiple determination (R2) was 0.92. Value of the ratio of MVP/Px was found greater than unity in case of seed, manures and irrigation indicated the underutilization of these resources. Quantity of per hectare produce marketed was maximum (99.09 per cent) for large size group and minimum in (98.88 per cent) for small size group i.e. there is no significant differences as marketing system was similar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Value and Supply Chain Analysis of Palmyra (Borassus flabellifer) and its Products

P. Kapileshan, R. Senthil Kumar, C. Muralidharan, R. Pangayar Selvi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 459-467
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130773

The main focus of this study is the cultivation and marketing of palmyra and its value-added products in the Thoothukudi district of southern Tamil Nadu. The supply chain of palmyra products is represented in a block diagram that explains the complete marketing channel through which products move from farm to the ultimate consumer. The accumulative added value per tree gives the benefits of palmyra growing and its value addition. According to the findings, the highest profit was shared by farmer cum processors (31.33%) followed by wholesalers (21.58%) for palm sugar, and for palm, jaggery wholesalers had the maximum profit (28.86%) followed by the marketing cooperatives (28.47%). Base on the accumulated added value the payback period of the palmyra tree is the 12th year and the lifetime added value per tree can reach up to Rs. 36000 during the peak period from 41 to 60 years of its age. Growing palmyra has the feasibility of giving more income and strengthening the marketing channel by reducing the intermediaries can give additional income to the farmers in the consumer price.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Analysis of Pearl Millet Cultivation in Rainfed Ecosystem of Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India

R. Sreedhar, R. Senthil Kumar, C. Muralidharan, R. Gangai Selvi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 468-473
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130774

The Pearl millet is the staple and nutritive diet of farm households in developing and underdeveloped countries. It is grown as dual-purpose; grain and forage in drylands, marginal lands, and unirrigated lands of the Indian subcontinent. This study analysed the cost and returns, profitability, and resource productivity of the pearl millet growing farmers in a rainfed ecosystem of Thoothukudi District. Primary data were collected in selected blocks namely Vilathikulam and Pudur, based on the maximum area under pearl millet cultivation. The sampling design used in the study was Purposive random sampling. Totally 61 farmers were personally interviewed using a well-structured questionnaire. The Cost-C was Rs. 41115.65 per hectare. The proportionate expenditure of Hired Human Labour was 19.05 per cent to total costs. The net income was Rs. 4974.2 per hectare. The BCR was higher in small followed by medium and large farms. The partial regression coefficient of hired labour and fertilizers was 0.103, and 0.793 respectively, which were positive and highly significant. It indicated that gross return was increased by 0.793 per cent by increasing one per cent of expenses on fertilizers. The summation of all partial coefficients was 0.656 which indicated a decreasing return to scale. When the production function's returns to scale decrease, the average cost of production rises. Input prices have a significant impact on the economic profitability of farmers' crop cultivation. Rainfed pearl millet cultivation is unprofitable at market values in the Thoothukudi district. The current scenario requires the revising of minimum support prices and regulation in input market, particularly for crops grown in rainfed ecosystems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Scientific Management Practices Followed by Sheep Rearing Farmers in Raichur District of Karnataka, India

. Channappa, K. K. Shashidhar, S. B Goudappa, Basavaraj Hulagur, J. N. Sreedhara

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 474-483
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130775

Livestock is one of the most remunerative enterprises among the farming community the present study was undertaken to know the scientific sheep management practices by sheep owners in Raichur and Lingasugur taluks of Raichur district. For this purpose, 6 villages from each taluks were selected on the basis of highest sheep population. Ten respondents drawn from each selected village with 120 sample size. The data was collected through structured schedule and the data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical methods. The findings of the study indicated that a large majority of the sheep owners (85.00%) administer the drugs for de worming in lamb management, followed by providing of fresh and clean water (83.33%) and proper bedding material (80.00%) in winter season. With regards feeding management of the sheep, a large majority of the respondents (85.00%) allowed their sheep for grazing in community land Nearly one fifth of the respondents provided green fodder throughout the year as their land comes under the canal irrigation provision, in addition to bore well facilities. Further, 100% of the respondents had proper floor space for the sheep size with cleaning padlock regularly in housing management practices. It is worth to note that 83.00 per cent of them monitor heat detection in sheep and provided treatment to the animals which were suffering from reproductive disorder (87.50%).This is mainly due to the availability of veterinary services in the locality. With regards health management practices, cent percent of the respondents check up the health of the sheep regularly and administer vaccination as scheduled (4/annum) and disinfection of the padlock in order to prevent the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Quality of Service Extended by Select Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centres in Union Territory of Puducherry

S. Balasoundari, K. Mahendran, S. Moghana Lavanya, Patil Santosh Ganapati

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 484-491
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130776

The establishment of Agri clinics and Agribusiness Centers is a Government of India Scheme implemented through NABARD and MANAGE, Hyderabad for promotion of rural entrepreneurship through effective training and handholding of the graduate youth.  Agri-Clinics are intended to provide expert advice and services to farmers on various aspects to improve crop/animal yield and increase farmers’ revenue. This study was conducted to assess the quality of services provided by the Agri clinics and agribusiness centers in the union territory of Puducherry. 90 farmers were personally interviewed using the service quality instrument - SERVQUAL to explore their expectation and perception of service quality provided by the Agri -clinics and agribusiness centers. The results indicated that the level of quality of the services provided by the Agri clinics is not to the expected level of the sample farmers i.e., all perception ratings were lower than their expectation scores. In all five dimensions of service quality, a gap was observed between farmers’ perceptions and expectations: Tangible: -0.93, Reliability: -0.89, Responsiveness: -0.78, Assurance: - 0.58, Empathy: -0.61. The results indicated that much more service improvement activities are needed for improving the service quality. The Agri-clinics need to modernize facilities and equipment to reduce the gap between farmers' perceptions and expectations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Impacts of Violent Conflicts in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

E. Ogezi, E. S. Salau, A. A. Girei, N. Yusuf

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 492-511
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130777

The study analysed the impacts of violent conflicts on the economies of rural communities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from the respondents using a structured interview schedule, while focus group discussions (FGD) sessions were employed to assess effects of conflicts on communities. Data were analysed using simple descriptive statistics, alternative resource cost estimation (ARCE) and content analysis while the Likert scale was used to measure the perception of respondents towards the causes of conflicts. There were six (6) major categories of conflicts identified in the area. These categories were communal conflicts, ethnic conflicts, resource conflicts (most often land conflicts), politically motivated conflicts, conflicts due to traditional chieftaincy, and the conflicts between state forces and militia groups. Expansion of agro-pastoralism (4.6) and Extensive sedentism (4.5) were very serious factors that were perceived to lead to conflicts. A total of ₦2,289,859,549 worth 30.28% of the State’s 2018 IGR (Internal Generated Revenue) were lost in these conflicts. It was recommended that laws regarding people with diverse backgrounds and socioeconomic needs and population growth in relation to limited resources should be developed with great care and attention paid to all the parties involved in the process. Participatory approaches to problem identification, conflict management and resolutions need to be established in the communities with regular interactions between and among locals periodically and frequently.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Consumer Decisions in Consuming Coffee in Surabaya, Sidoarjo and Gresik

. Mubarokah, Sri Tjondro Winarno

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 512-517
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130778

The purpose of this study is to analyse the factors that influence consumers decisions in consuming coffee in Surabaya, Sidoarjo and Gresik. Selected location of the research was chosen purposively, considering that Surabaya, Sidoarjo and Gresik are nearby regions. The sampling technique used in this study is accidental sampling, with the number of respondents as many as 90, with Surabaya as many as 30 respondents, Sidoarjowith30 respondents and Gresik with 30 respondents. The data that has been obtained is then analysed using WarpPLS version 6.0. The results showed that the personal factor variables (age, occupation,income, lifestyle, education), social environmental factors (reference group, family), psychological factors (motivation, perception, attitude), and cultural factors (values, habits, popular culture) can influence consumers decision to buy coffee drinks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica) in Different Agricultural Residues with Different Casing Materials

N. V. Gowtham Deekshithulu, Y. Naga Lakshmi, V. V. Tejaswini

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 518-527
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130779

Present study entitled was carried out in field irrigation lab, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Aditya Engineering College, Surampalem. In the present experiment locally available agricultural substrate paddy straw, sugarcane bagasse and cocopeat were tested with black soil and farm yard manner as casing materials. For parameters such as days required for spawn run, pinhead formation, harvest days, total yield and biological efficiency were determined. Significant results were obtained for all the experimental parameters and also for the stem length and cap diameter. Best substrate found was the paddy straw in the recent experiment with days required for spawn run (14 days), pin head formation (11.2 days), days for first harvest(50 days), stem length (8.07 cm), capdiameter (8.67 cm), first harvest (489.45 gm), second harvest (453.68 gm), total yield (925.24 gm), biological efficiency (94.31%). The next best in the order was coco peat followed by sugarcane bagasse. Hence this study confirms the suitability of paddy straw for cultivation to mushroom growers and farmyard manure with 15 cm casing thickness as substrate for its cultivation for achieving higher yield. The benefit cost ratio was estimated as 1.57.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Climate Change on Milk Production and Perceptions of Farmers in the West Bengal

Subhankar Biswas, Ajay Verma, R. Sendhil, AK Dixit, Ajmer Singh, K Ponnusamy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 533-540
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130781

The cause and effect relationship of climatic variables on milk production of indigenous cattle and buffalo had been carried in West Bengal state during 2019-2020. Regression analysis indicated the indigenous cow milk production was directly responsive to annual minimum temperature, while crossbred cow milk production was indirectly responsive to annual maximum temperature and relative humidity. The buffalo milk production was inversely related to annual maximum temperature and relative humidity. More than half of surveyed farmers had a medium level of experience in farming. Majority of farmers were perceived climate variability in general like increase in temperature during the summer season, late onset of monsoon and early withdrawal of monsoon season. For crop farming, crop diversification was the most preferred adaptation strategy among the farmers followed by changing crop variety. For dairy farming, provide proper shed and shelter was most preferred adaptation strategy followed by provide additional fresh drinking water in summer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profile of Beneficiary Farmers of Jalyukt Shivar Campaign

Pranali N. Thakare, V. S. Tekale

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 541-556
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130782

In Maharashtra state, nearly 82 per cent area of the state falls in rainfed sector and 52 per cent area is drought prone. To mitigate drought in Maharashtra, state government specially launched Jalyukt Shivar Campaign in December, 2014. In Vidarbha, drought is the major challenge hence the research objective was formulated to study profile of beneficiary farmers of Jalyukt Shivar Campaign in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state. An ex-post facto research design of social research was used for present investigation. The study was conducted in Nagpur and Yavatmal district in month of October and November, 2020, with 320 beneficiary farmers of Jalyukt Shivar Campaign. The findings revealed that, more than half of the respondents (54.69%) were belonged to middle age i.e. between 36 to 50 years. Majority of the respondents (70.00%) were engaged in agriculture as their main occupation for earning. Slightly more than two fifth of the respondents (40.63%) had annual income in the range of Rs. 2,36,001/- to 4,02,000/-. Nearly two fifth of the respondents (39.06%) from study area belonged to small land holding 1.01 to 2.00 ha. Majority of the respondents (70.63%) were belonged to medium category of social participation. Majority of the respondents (72.19%) were belonged to medium level of extension participation. Over three fifth of the respondents (62.50%) were using medium sources of information. Majority of the respondents (66.88%) belonged to medium innovativeness. Majority of the respondents (66.88%) belonged to medium risk preference and medium economic motivation (65.63%).  It is suggested that, efforts should be made by government to involve young farmers in agricultural development programmes like Jalyukt Shivar Campaign as well as in performing farming as main occupation. For success of this campaign, extension agencies must increase participation of farmers in local social institutions, extension activities and contact with information sources outside beneficiaries social systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Adoption of Indigenous Technical Knowledge Practices among Tribal Farmers in Kolli Hills

V. Keerthana, A. Divakaran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 557-563
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130783

Objectives: To make a quantitative study of Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) practices pertinent to crops grown in Kolli hills tribes in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu, India.

Methods: The attempt was made to study the adoption level of the interpreted ITKs among Kolli hills tribes. The Kolli hill was picked purposively for its uniqueness in continuing their traditions age old practices in farming practices by the tribes. The present study has been carried out in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu state. The Namakkal district was administratively divided into seven taluks and fifteen blocks. Among these seven taluks and fifteen blocks, higher populations of tribes were seen at Kolli hills. For the selection of the respondents based on the proportionate random sampling technique and the data were collected from each respondent through personal interview method. The study was carried during 2019 with 150 respondents in highly populated villages of Kolli hills. The Adoption index was used to analyse the adoption level of the ITK’s by the tribes.

Findings: More than half of the respondents (55.56 per cent) had a medium level of knowledge followed by high (25.10 per cent) and low (19.34 per cent) levels of knowledge on indigenous cultivation practices.

Conclusion: Indigenous technical knowledge has a substantial heritage in agrarian civilization. The findings highlight the effectiveness of indigenous technical knowledge above its modern equivalent. Thus, extension workers should identify and incorporate them in the technology transfer action in order to ensure long-term or sustainable agricultural development.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Personal Factors and Social Environment on Consumers of Organic Vegetables in Surabaya City

Sri Tjondro Winarno, Dinariningrum Rahma Winarno

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 564-568
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130784

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of personal and social environment on consumers of organic vegetables in the city of Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. This research was conducted in 4 (four) urban villages in the city of Surabaya including Jemur Wonosari, Kedungdoro, Mojo, Pagesangan. In this study (consumer behavior) the data obtained were processed using Warp PLS software version 6.0. Based on the results of the analysis of the data obtained, the results obtained that personal factors and social environment have a significant influence on consumer behavior of organic vegetables in the city of Surabaya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Participation of Farmer in Contract Farming in Narsingdi District of Bangladesh

A. Taslim, M. R. Karim, M. S. Rahman

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 569-576
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130785

Aims: Contract farming (CF) has been used extensively to integrate agricultural value chain both in the developed and developing countries. Participation in CF is associated with increased farm productivity and farmer income. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze socio-economic factors affecting farmer’s participation in contract farming.

Study Design: The selected 15 socio-economic factors were used to determine the impact on farmer’s participation in contract farming. Besides, the socio-demographic profile of the farmers in the study area was discussed.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted upon contract and non-contract farmers of Shibpur upazila under Narsingdi district of Bangladesh. The duration of the study was from July, 2019 to December, 2020.

Methodology: The study used nationally-representative data of smallholder vegetable farmers in Shibpur upazila of Narsingdi district. The data were collected from 75 contract farmer and 125 non-contract farmer of Shibpur upazila. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze fifteen factors that potentially affected farmers’ decision to participate in CF and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the socio-demographic profile of the farmer.

Results: The study found that farmers education, wife’s occupation, family size, labor, fertilizer use, training, savings and income were the significant factors in the model and farmers occupation, other family member's occupation, income source, land type, size of land, experience and storage place were non-significant predictors using P<0.01 and P<0.05 threshold.

Conclusion: Farmer’s education, female head's occupation, family size, land type, size of land holdings, labor use, type of fertilizers being used, training or technical knowledge and average monthly income of the respondents had a positive influence on farmer’s decision.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Perception on Climate Change: A Study in Tarai Region of Uttarakhand

. Neha, Mohammad Aslam Ansari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 581-591
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130787

Climate change has emerged as a potent threat disrupting the development process and is hurting several sectors of Indian economy, especially the agriculture sector. Knowledge about these disruptive factors can enable the farmers to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on agriculture. Therefore, the understanding of location-specific farmers’ perceptions and their adaptive behaviors can provide a better insight to design appropriate policy measures and guidelines to address these challenges effectively. The present study was aimed at determining farmers’ perceptions about climate change on agriculture. The study sample comprised 180 farmers selected using simple random sampling. The findings indicate that all the farmers (100%) were aware of climate change. All of them reported “increase in temperature” and “erratic rainfall” and “shortening of winter season” as the major indicators of climate change as experienced by them. Besides, 85.55 percent famers reported that “peak time of winter” has changed in Uttarakhand, a hilly state. Such perceptions about climate change can be seen as a precursor mediating the adoption of recommended practices and adaptation measures. Thus, the results of the study will enlighten the policy makers and agriculture scientists in preparing a roadmap for policy formulation regarding adaptation measures (short run initiatives) as well as undertaking mitigation measures (long run initiatives) of climate change besides helping the agriculture extension agencies to design and plan locale-specific adaptation strategies and agriculture development programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profile Analysis of Tribal Farmers of Vidarbha Region

A. A. Gandhale, V. S. Tekale

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 592-602
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130788

In Maharashtra 10.33 million population belonged to tribal’s. Tribal people constitute the most deprived and neglected section of the population of the state, hence the research objective was formulated to study the profile of tribal farmers of Vidarbha region. An exploratory research design of social science was used for the present investigation. Study was conducted in Gadchiroli and Yavatmal districts in the year 2020, with 280 respondents. The findings suggested that, relatively high per cent (44.28%) of the respondents were belonged to middle age (36 to 50 years) group category, more than one fourth (29.30%) of the respondents were educated up to primary school level, nearly half (48.92%) of the respondents concentrated in medium size of family with 5 to 6 members in the family, majority (54.64%) of the respondent tribal farmers were belonged to nuclear type of family, relatively high per cent of the respondents (46.43%) involved in agriculture, majority of the respondent tribal farmers (72.14%) had annual earning up to Rs. 80,000/-, more than half (51.78%) of the respondents had small size of land holding (1.01 to 2.00 ha.), majority (52.85%) of the respondents had medium (24 to 43 years) farming experience, majority (71.43%) of the respondents had medium level of social participation, majority (73.92%)  of the respondents were using medium level of sources of information, majority (54.64%) of the respondent tribal farmers belonged to medium innovativeness category, majority (63.92%) of the respondents had medium cosmopolitness in nature, majority (75.71%) of the respondent tribal farmers had medium level of change orientation, whereas 56.07 per cent had medium level of fatalism, more than three fourth of the respondents (78.21%) had derived medium level of benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude of Panchayat Leaders towards Panchayati Raj Institutions as Influenced by their Socio Personal Characteristics

P. Shrivastava, Anupama Verma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 621-632
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130791

Attitude is “a mental and neural state of readiness, organised through experience, and exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related”. While attitudes are basically learned over the years, some inherited characteristics do affect such attitudes. Our personal experiences with people and situations develop our attitude towards such persons and situations. During the implementation of the panchayati raj system Chhattisgarh has faced several opportunities and difficulties. The institutionalising panchayati raj. What, then, are the circumstances under which panchayat can improve the work effectiveness of their members through influences on individual choices about the level of effort and about strategy? The interview schedule was used as a tool for collecting the raw information from the panchayat leaders. In all 263 respondents from 9 janpads were interviewed personally to obtain the requisite data. It was found that majority of the janpad and jila panchayat leaders (58.73%) had moderately favourable attitude towards panchayati raj institutions. Majority of the janpad and jila panchayat leaders were middle-aged, belonged to other backward classes, most of them were educated up to higher secondary, they belonged to large size families with more than five members each and most of them had membership in one or more social organizations signifying high social participation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Faced by Vegetable Growers in Amaravati Division of Maharashtra

K. Sindhura, V. S. Tekale, Pranali N. Thakre

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 633-637
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130792

Vegetable cultivation involves intensive cultural operations since sowing to marketing, providing regular employment opportunities to unemployed youth and farm family. Vegetable production is now commercialized, but still traditional farming is done in far flung areas. Besides, they are not as well served by the extension system as the farmers growing food grains. Moreover, most of the vegetable growers in this region are small and marginal farmers, and they have their peculiar concerns and problems which need to be studied urgently and earnest. The present study was carried out in Akola and Amravati districts of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state during the year 2019 with a sample size of 120 respondents to define the constraints faced by vegetable growers in Amravati division of Maharashtra. The major constraints faced by the vegetable growers were price fluctuation, electricity, fertigation, exploitation by middle men and lack of market knowledge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Information Seeking Behavior of Urban Farmers to Design an Integrated Extension Model

Anju Abraham, R. Arunachalam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 638-647
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130793

Even though the urbanisation is considered as a development indicator, the tremendous migration from rural areas to urban areas leads to serious environmental, health and economic issues. Due to the space and time constraints, the urban entity used to depend on rural community for their food products.  But in the same time, highly priced demand for land and the lesser profit from farming results in withdrawal of rural farmers from farming. And these above mentioned factors contributed to a gap in supply and demand for food. This gap leads to the non-availability of nutritious food and thereby, made difficult for urban dwellers  to access it due the high price. And the result was seen as a double burden in the form of malnutrition and obesity among urban dwellers. The concept of Urban Farming can bring back the traditional homestead farming culture and more than that, a nutritionally secured and environmentally sustainable society. As most of the urban dwellers are new to this setup, they need information and assistance for bring it in a successful way. Hence, there is a necessity for understanding their information needs, and the sources currently they are depending. The present study focuses on the information seeking behaviour and its utilisation constraints experienced by the farmers in an urban community. The study was carried out in the period from December 2020 to March 2021 in Ernakulam and Calicut districts which ranks first and third in degree of urbanisation in Kerala respectively. From the findings of the study it is understood that, their information needs varies from the selection of nutritious food crop to marketing of surplus quantity produced. The constraints analysis could give suggestions for improvement and it can narrow down the gap between farmers - extension system. Based on this, an integrated urban farming extension model has been designed for the effective information dissemination to the farmers. This can save time of farmers and efforts of extension agents, and it will motivate them towards potential adoption of more technologies.

Open Access Review Article

Digital Transformation on Food Retail Industries-A Review

S. Manjula, P. Balaji, N. Deepa, A. Vidhyavathi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 88-101
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130729

Digital Transformation is defined as the use of technology to radically improve performance or reach of enterprises (Westerman et al., 2018) The existing literature on digitalization in the food industry is limited. Meanwhile, the literature suggests that digitalization is an issue that is unavoidable at some point in all industries and that companies must adapt in order to maintain their competitive position. The purpose of this research is to look into the digital technologies that are commonly used in the food industry in order to identify the challenges and opportunities that exist in digital transformation. In this study more than twenty five articles collected and reviewed. Recent published articles were collected from high impact journals which consist of the review related to digital transformation in food industry. When this study was completed, it was discovered that the food industry is lagging behind other sectors in terms of digitalization. The industry is confronted with enormous challenges and one of the most important challenges, as well as resistance to digitalization in the food industry, is its profitability. Digital transformation has increased traceability throughout the food industry and has also reduced labour costs and production time.

Open Access Review Article

Working Equids: Their Conditions, Invisible Earning and Challenges- A Review

Ajmer Singh, Yash Pal, Rajender Kumar, Sanjay Kumar, Kanika Rani, Jitender Prasad

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 357-364
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130761

Working equids play vital role in pastoral economy nationally as well as globally and their role is very significant in providing livelihood to households of their owners through direct and indirect financial contribution. This review aims to analyze their conditions, constrains and their invisible income. Working equids contribute for both direct and indirect income to large number of households and provide draught energy to a large human population nationally and internationally. They are important components of livestock and  as per the livestock census done by Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairy and Fishery, Government of India, equine contribution in livestock population was  0.39% in 1997 , 0.32% in 2003, 0.22% in 2007, 0.22% in 2012 and it came down to 0.10% in 2019. Though being comparatively less number in total livestock population, their roles are important in particular section of landless and marginalized human population engaged in rearing of these animals. Working equids are facing negligence, poor health and malnutrition.  Excessive use of automobile, their declining contribution in agricultural GDP and some social issues are major constrains for declining trends in their population.

Open Access Review Article

Innovativity in Legislative, Political and Organizational Frameworks of Sustainable Land Management in Benin

Faridah Dosso, Latifou Idrissou, Ismail Moumouni Moussa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 603-615
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130789

Agricultural lands are increasingly degraded due to various human actions (overgrazing, intensive use of chemical inputs) and the consequences of climate change. In Benin, 62% of agricultural land were degraded in 2017. In this regard, Sustainable Land Management measures are highlighted by various public decisions. This study analyzed the political, legislative, and organizational frameworks of Sustainable Land Management in Benin. It was carried out through content analysis of laws, decrees, and Sustainable Land Management policy documents to highlight the place of innovativity in institutional and organizational framework in Sustainable Land Management in Benin. Results reveal that the various frameworks analyzed are oriented towards developing practice-based innovations through the implementation of Sustainable Land Management measures, support to actors in the implementation of Sustainable Land Management innovations and the monitoring and evaluation of Sustainable Land Management strategies. The capacity to innovate is also promoted through the strengthening of the technical, institutional, material, and financial capacities of the actors. On the other hand, the propensity to innovate component of Innovativity is hardly addressed in Sustainable Land Management public policies in Benin. It is therefore necessary to direct agricultural policies towards an institutionalization of the strengthening of the propensity to innovate of agricultural producers for a long-term appropriation of Sustainable Land Management measures in Benin.